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benhabib essay Janet Abu-Lughod, Sociology, New School University. Jeffrey Ayres, Political Science, St. Michael's College; and Sidney Tarrow, Sociology, Cornell University. Seyla Benhabib, Political Science, Yale University. Didier Bigo, Institut d'Etudes Politiques, Paris. Paper. Kay Deaux, Psychology, City University of New York. John A. And Studies. Hall, Sociology, McGill University. Data Section Of Research Paper. Dick Howard, Philosophy, SUNY at Stonybrook.
Kanishka Jayasuriya, Political Science, City University of Hong Kong. Peter Alexander Meyers, Sociology, Universite de Lille. Kathryn Sikkink, Political Science, University of Minnesota. Aristide Zolberg, Political Science, New School University. And Studies To William Ridgeway. Seyla Benhabib, Eugene Meyer Professor of Political Science and Philosophy, Yale University. Data Section Of Research. It has become clear since September 11 that we are faced with a new form of struggle that threatens to dissolve the boundaries of the political in liberal democracies. The terror network of Osama bin Laden, and its various branches in Egypt, Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Algeria and among Islamist groups in western Europe, is wider, more entrenched and sophisticated than it was believed to psychological analysis of young goodman be. The attacks unleashed by these groups, (and their potential sympathizers in the USA and Europe among Neo-Nazis and white Supremacists), especially the use of the section, biological weapon anthrax to contaminate the civilian population via the mail, indicate a new political and essays prosser, military phenomenon which challenges the framework of state-centric politics. See also the essay by John Hall on section paper the Return of the State.
Historians always warn us that the unprecedented will turn out to have some forerunners somewhere and that what seems new today will appear old when considered against the background of some longer time span. Nevertheless to think the new in about gabriel prosser vesey, politics is the vocation of the data section of research paper, intellectual. This is post graduate, a task at which luminaries like Susan Sontag, Fred Jameson, Slavoj Zizeck, who have seized this opportunity to recycle well-worn out 1960’s cliches about western imperialism and hegemony, have failed us by interpreting these events along the data, tired paradigm of an anti-imperialist struggle by the wretched of the earth. 1 Neglecting the internal dynamics and struggles within the Islamic world, and the history of regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Kashmir, these analyses assure us that we can continue to grasp the world through our usual categories, and that by blaming the policies and actions of essays and studies presented to william ridgeway western governments, one can purge oneself of the enmity and hatred which is directed toward one as a member of such western societies. These analyses help us neither to grasp the unprecedented nature of the events unfolding since September 11, 2001 nor to appreciate the internal dynamics within the Arab Muslim world which have given rise to them. The result is a sublime combination of of research high tech wizardry and moral and political atavism, which some have named jihad-on-line. But this unholy politics threatens to christmas undo the moral and political distinctions that ought to of research govern our lives, distinctions as between enemy, friend and essays to william ridgeway, bystander; guilt, complicity, and section of research, responsibility; conflict, combat and psychological goodman brown, war. We have to live by them even if others do not. One of the data section, most commonly heard contentions in the aftermath of September 11 was that even if the terrorist attacks upon the World Trade Center and Washington equaled war in the civilian and property damages they inflicted, the deliberateness and precision with which they were executed, and the brazenness with which they violated customary moral, legal, and international norms, the US Congress could not actually declare war, not because the enemy was as yet unknown, but because a state can declare war only against another state. The idea that a democratic nation-state would declare war upon a global network of loosely organized sympathizers of a religious cum civilizational cause, strained all categories of international law with which the world has lived since 1945, and in which nation-states are the principal recognized actors. For this reason, the current military action in Afghanistan has not been preceded by a declaration of war, rather the Congress has authorized the President to do whatever is essay about, necessary to fight the global terror network and to bring the perpetrators to justice, but Congress has declared war neither upon paper the Taliban (whom most nations do not recognize as a legitimate regime) nor upon essay christmas the Afghani people.
It is as if the territory, the terrain of Afghanistan, is our enemy, in that this terrain offers a sanctuary and an operational base for one of the great fugitives of our time – Osama bin Laden. Ironically, the people of Afghanistan have themselves fallen captive or prisoner to one who operates on their territory, and to whom the Taliban had granted refuge. Afghanistan is a decaying or failed nation-state, and this very condition of decay permits us to understand all the more vividly the principles of national sovereignty which have governed international relations since the Second World War. The end of the bipolar world of the Cold War brought with it not just multiplurality but a global society in which non-state actors have emerged as players possessing means of violence but who are not subject to usual constraints of section paper international law and psychological of young goodman essay, treaties. All treaties which have hitherto governed the data section, non-use and proliferation of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons have been rendered irrelevant: those who will deploy them have never been their signatories. Furthermore, not being recognized as legitimate political entities, these groups have no responsibility and accountability toward the populations in whose midst they act and about prosser and denmark, which harbor them. Suppose Osama bin Laden and his group possess scud missiles with nuclear warheads, which they may have obtained either from Iraq or from the Russian Mafia or other weapons smugglers. Suppose they start losing ground in the current war.
What would prevent them from firing these missiles against population centers in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India or Israel if this would serve some purpose? Since they are accountable to section no one, the collateral damage which they may cause even to their own allies and sympathizers is of no concern to them. Whereas terrorist groups like the Basque ETA and the IRA still have to be governed by some sense of proportion in the damage they inflict and the violence they engage in, in essay about, order not to lose all sympathy for their cause in world public opinion, these new terror networks are not motivated by foreseeable political goals analogous to the independence of the Basque land from Spain and France, the removal of the Irish Catholic population and unity with UK Protestants, and the like. Nor are these groups fighting for hearts and minds in the West by seeking the conversion of the population to Islam and to Islamic ways of data section of research paper life. Jihad, which can also mean the struggle of the soul with itself to lead the essays and studies, virtuous life as dictated by the Koran, 5 when it was practiced by Islamic armies in the centuries after the death of Mohammad (632 AD), aimed at paper the conquest of the land of the tree, ‘infidels’ in order to force their conversion to data of research Islam. People of all races, colors, ethnicities and tongues could convert to Islam and become good Muslims.
It is this option of conversion which has made Islam into the biggest Abrahamanic religion of the world, and essay tree, ironically, it is the very absence of this conversion mission that is striking in the new jihad. The new jihad is not only apocalyptic; it is nihilistic. Paper. Osama bin Laden’s statement that his men love death as much as the Americans love life is an expression of superb nihilism. The eroticization of psychological analysis death, as evidenced on the one hand by the frequently heard vulgarisms about huris, the data, dark-eyed virgins who are to meet the warriors in the afterlife, but on the other hand and more importantly, by the destruction of one’s own body in an act of supreme violence which dismembers and pulverizes it, is remarkable. Human beings have died throughout the centuries for causes they believed in, to save their loved ones, to protect their country or their principles, to save the faith, to exercise solidarity and the like.
But the emergence of suicide bombings among Islamist groups on a mass scale is astonishing. As many Koranic scholars have pointed out, there is no theological justification for this: it is one thing to die in war and yet another to make the destruction of one’s body along with those of others the supreme weapon. In order to quell such waves of suicide bombings, the Israeli authorities resorted to essays an atavistic practice: they made it publicly known that they would bury the remains of suicide bombers in shrouds of pigs’ skin (an animal that is considered haram - taboo – by Jews and Moslems alike) in order to prevent their ascent into heaven in accordance with Islamic faith. Section Of Research. It is of course hard to know whether men of the sophistication and worldliness of Muhammad Atta and others who have lived in the capitals of Europe and the West and who have attended universities as well as bars, movie houses as well as brothels, believe in the afterlife. I personally doubt it. Not only is it clear that the very strict version of Islam – Wahabism – which Osama bin Laden follows, is not shared by all even within his own group, but the Egyptian Brotherhood which was the original organization for many Islamist philosophies in the nineteen-fifties had its own version of things, as do members of the Algerian terror network. These networks of young militants who trot the psychological analysis of young goodman essay, globe from Bosnia to Afghanistan, from Paris to Indonesia and back to Baghdad, Hamburg or New York, are like Islamic soldiers of fortune, not in search of riches, but in search of an data section of research paper elusive and decisive encounter with death. In this regard they bear more resemblance to about tree chiliastic sects among all world religions than to the Moslem armies of the Umayyad, the data of research, Abassids or the teen essays, Ottomans. While using friendly Moslem governments and their hospitality for their own purposes, these groups pose a clear threat to data section of research paper any established form of authority – which may have been one reason why the Saudis renounced Osama bin Laden’s citizenship and rendered him an international fugitive.
Although the attacks have so far been directed against the US, and although the USA is justified under international law in invoking the right of self-defense to justify the current war, 6 the US and its NATO Allies have resorted to the clause of collective security and article 5 of literature is the the answer NATO which guarantees the security of each member of the alliance. I support this course of action, and I would further endorse the call by the United Nations President Kofi Annan to declare terrorism a crime against humanity, and to data of research try the terrorists, if and when they are captured, before an international tribunal. Furthermore, the UN General Assembly should condemn the Taliban regime of committing crimes against humanity not only for harboring Osama bin Laden and his men, but for the way the Taliban have trampled upon the human rights of their own women. There is no reason why the human rights of women to work, to be educated, to walk on the street, to dress as they wish, etc. should be considered any less sacred and any less in post programs, need of defense than the section, rights of ethnic minorities. In response to the events of September 11 and to future threats, multilateral responses that enjoy cross cultural legitimacy and that reflect some of the new norms of international law – like crimes against humanity or genocide, as defined under the statute of Rome of the essay about christmas tree, international criminal court – should be invoked. Of course, (and this cannot be said clearly enough by the citizens of western democracies), a radical revision of US and Nato policy vis a vis the Arab world and south central Asia is needed. The US and its Allies have to stop propping up military dictatorships and of research paper, religious conservatives in these areas in essays presented, order simply to secure oil supplies. Democratic movements within the burgeoning civil societies of countries like Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, and the new Iran must be supported. A general UN conference must be convened to deal with the rights of data section of research nations, ethnicities, and other minorities without states in this region, like the Kurds in essay christmas, Turkey, Iraq and Iran; the Shi’ites in Iraq and the Baha’is as well as the Azeris in section of research paper, Iran. Efforts analogous to the Marshall Plan in post-war Europe or the Soros Foundation in Eastern Europe must be developed and furthered for entire regions. But even if all these things are assumed, I believe that a more daunting cultural struggle and civilizational malaise is unfolding before our eyes.
Click here for the Columbia Encyclopedia entry on the Marshall Plan, and teen ink college, here for the Soros Foundation. As many have noted (including former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto), the events of September 11 at first seemed to offer a belated confirmation of Samuel Huntington’s famous thesis of the clash of section civilizations. Psychological Of Young Goodman Brown Essay. Huntington wrote: It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of section of research paper conflict in essay, this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the data section of research paper, most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. 7 Proceeding from a holistic understanding of cultures and civilizations – terms which he at times conflated and others distinguished – Huntington was unable to differentiate one civilization from another, with the consequence that, apart from the west and the rest, he could not specify how many civilizations there were and how they were to literature ap essay be differentiated. 8 Edward Said pointed out section that Huntington made civilizations and identities into shut-down, sealed-off entities that have been purged of the myriad currents and counter-currents that animate human history, and over centuries have made it possible for that history not only to contain wars of religion and imperial conquest but also to be one of exchange, cross-fertilization, and sharing. 9. It is precisely this history of cross-fertilization – exchange as well as confrontation – between Islamic culture and the West that we must pay increasing attention to. One of the principal thinkers of the Islamist 10 movement, Sayyid Qutb, an Egyptian who studied philosophy in France and literature minus the answer, briefly visited the United States, developed a civilizational critique of the West for its corruption, coldness, heartlessness and individualism. His critique resonates with themes from the works of data section of research Nietzsche as well as Heidegger, from Adorno and Horkheimer as well as contemporary communitarians.
11 Describing the current condition of the west as one of jahiliyya, a lack of essays presented knowledge and a condition of ignorance, the section of research, Islamists advocate a return to Koranic law – the shari’a – and Muslim precepts to combat the corruption of the ink college, western way of life. To combat the condition of jahiliyya, it is necessary to rebel and establish a counter-community ( jama’a) and spread it through jihad. 12 Very often, the Islamists’ struggle against jahiliyya took the form of a struggle against established authorities in their own countries and their ‘corrupt,’ westernizing policies. The revival of Islamist movements is best understood in the light of the failure of most of these societies to succeed in combining a prosperous economy, with political democracy, and a Moslem identity. 13 Islamism emerges as a plausible civilizational project, not just against the West, but against the failure of westernizing elites who have only managed to import a truncated modernity into their own societies. Some of these modernizing elites had considered themselves socialists of sorts. The Ba’ath regime in Syria and Iraq, and even the kind of pan-Arabism envisaged by Nasser in the early nineteen-sixties, advocated strong redistributionist economic measures, built up huge public sectors (in state-owned utilities, for section example), and practiced what could be called statist modernization from above. The demise of the Soviet Union has left these states with no patrons.
Need we remind ourselves that the mobilization of the Islamist mujahideen in essays gabriel prosser and denmark vesey, Afghanistan began against the Soviet invasion of the data section of research paper, country in 1973 – an invasion the post graduate programs, Soviets engaged in to support their own backers, the leftist fedayyeen ? I want to end with Max Weber’s question: which directions do religious rejections of the world take and why? 14 There is a fundamental conflict between secular, capitalist modernity, driven by profit, self-interest, individualism, and the ethical world views of the world’s religions. The religious world views preach various forms of abstinence, renunciation of data section of research paper riches, the pursuit of virtue in the path of God, the exercise of solidarity among members of the psychological goodman brown, faith, and the disciplining of everyday life to do the of research, work of the Lord. What is it, Weber asked, that enables some religious interpretations of the world to make their peace with the new world of modernity? For Weber the Protestant ethic exhibited its elective affinity to essays presented ridgeway capitalism by transforming the abstinent and methodical pursuit of data section paper one’s vocation in the service of God into the methodical, predictable, disciplined pursuit of work and and studies presented to william, profit in this world. This process took several centuries and not all early modern Christians accepted its logic: millenarian movements which rejected the capitalist control of everyday life for section the sake of of young disciplined labor and profit accompanied the rise of western modernity.
The Protestant – and more narrowly Calvinist – transformation of section paper religious salvation into an earthly vocation of hard work in the service of an psychological goodman essay unpredictable God, is one among the many paths that the religious accommodation with the world can take. It is also possible to section of research paper split the religious and mundane spheres in such a way that one altogether withdraws from engagement with the essay about christmas tree, world; the data of research, religious abnegation of the world remains an and studies ridgeway option. A third option – besides engagement or withdrawal – is to compartmentalize by separating the data of research paper, spheres of life which come under the ethical dictates of religion from those like the public spheres of the economy which do not. Throughout the Islamic world, such a strict separation of religious observance (in the domain of family life and everyday practices of prayer, cleanliness, food and teen ink college essays, sexuality) from the sphere of the data of research, economy in the bazaar (the marketplace) was practiced. This separation of the home from the market was made possible by the practice of and denmark Islamic tolerance toward the other Abrahamanic religions, like Judaism and Christianity.
The Ottomans adopted this separate spheres model, and permitted the wide array of ethnic groups and section, peoples whom they dominated to govern themselves in their own communal affairs according to their own religious and customary traditions (the so-called millet system.) Global modernization is destroying the fragile balance between these separate spheres; this may explain in turn the obsessive preoccupation with controlling female sexuality which all Islamist groups exhibit. In a global world, it is not only images that travel; individuals all over the Islamic world are part of a large diaspora of migration to the West. Sizeable Muslim communities exist in every large European and North American capital. These migrant communities attempt to ink college essays practice the separate life spheres model in section paper, their new homes. But the about, children of section of research paper Moslem migrants are caught between worlds, be it through educational institutions or the influence of mass culture, if not the parents, between the authoritarian and patriarchal family structures from analysis of young essay, which they emerge and the new world of freedom into data section of research which they enter. There is a continuous renegotiation of clashing moral codes and value orientations in the minds of this younger generation, and particularly of women.
If we want to understand why so many educated, relatively well-off Muslim males from Hamburg and Paris would participate in the actions of September 11, we have to understand the the answer, psychology of Muslim immigrants in their encounters with secular liberal democracies of the section of research, west. Analysis Of Young Goodman Brown Essay. Given the data section of research, failure of their own home-grown versions of modernity like Nasserism and the Ba’ath movement, given the essays presented ridgeway, profound assault on their identity as Muslims which the global entertainment industry brings, and given the profound discrimination and contempt which they experience in their host societies as new immigrants who are perceived to paper have backward morals and ways of life, many young Muslims today turn to Islamism and tree, fundamentalism. Commenting on data section of research paper l’affaire de foulard, (the veil affair) in France, in which some female students took to wearing traditional veils less as a sign of submission to religious patriarchy than as an emblem of difference and defiance of homogenizing French republican traditions, the French sociologists Gaspard and ap essay, Khosrokhavar capture these set of data section of research complex symbolic negotiations as follows: [The veil] mirrors in the eyes of the post, parents and the grandparents the illusions of of research paper continuity whereas it is presented ridgeway, a factor of discontinuity; it makes possible the data section, transition to otherness (modernity), under the pretext of identity (tradition); it creates the sentiment of identity with the society of graduate origin whereas its meaning is inscribed within the dynamic of data section of research relations with the receiving society…it is the vehicle of the passage to modernity within a promiscuity which confounds traditional distinctions, of an access to the public sphere which was forbidden to traditional women as a space of action and the constitution of individual autonomy… 16. We can intervene in this process of complex cultural negotiations as dialogue partners in a global civilization only insofar as we make an effort to understand the struggles of about gabriel vesey others whose idioms and terms may be unfamiliar to us but which, by the same token, are also not so different from similar struggles at other times in our own cultures; through acts of strong hermeneutical generosity, we can still extend our moral imagination to view the world through the others’ eyes. Data Section Of Research. 17 While I believe that at literature question minus the answer this stage of the conflict the use of force against the Osama bin Laden network is inevitable and justified, the real political task ahead is to engage in a dialogue with the hearts and section of research paper, minds of millions of Moslems around this globe – beyond vengeance and without apocalyptic expectations. Democracies cannot fight holy wars. Reason, compassion, respect for the dignity of human life, the search for justice and the desire for reconciliation are the democratic virtues which are now pitted against acts of apocalyptic hatred and vengeance. 1 See Susan Sontag, The New Yorker; Fred Jameson, The London Review and Slavoj Zizek, The Desert of the Real. Is this the End of Fantasy?
In These Times , October 29, 2001. Social Science Research Council | One Pierrepont Plaza, 15th Floor | Brooklyn, NY 11201 USA | 212-377-2700/2727 fax.
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If so, please list the start and end date for gabriel prosser and denmark vesey each absence./ppnbsp;/ppWhat dates can you interview for this position that are at section paper, least 7 days after the ink college, due date (see due date above)?/ppnbsp;/ppDo you have a Skype ID? If so, please provide it.
If not, please get one ASAP, it is data section of research, free. A Skype interview will be required as part of the hiring process./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to start the essays prosser, job within 10 days./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to pass a background investigation (BGI)./p/divh3Company Description/h3divLogic House Ltd., was incorporated in data section paper, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1990. It is a small business which provides a comprehensive range of management and technical services for the development of ink college essays, information systems. Section Of Research! Logic House has experienced continuous growth, due in large measure to about tree our history of successful service engagements. Operating from Pennsylvania and California, Logic House has earned a reputation for providing quality professional services in a timely and of research paper cost effective manner./div Logic House Ltd Albany NY. Java Websphere Admin Coldfusion Specailist 04912 N. Logic House Ltd. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpClose date: October 3, 2017/ppStart date: 10/30/2017/ppEnd date: 10/29/2019/ppDuration: 24 months/ppHours per week: 40/ppTask order #HBITS-05-04912/ppThis is a full-time position./ppHours are: 8 AM ndash; 5 PM EST/ppJob location is Albany, NY/ppnbsp;/ppstrongJob Description:/strong./ppStaff will perform IBM WebSphere Administration and Other Middleware System Administration tasks on Red Hat, Windows and essay about AIX operating systems.brbrbull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Work with various agencies WebSphere middleware to of research paper consolidate, on-board, configure and maintain the WAS ND 8.5 environment on Linux, AIX and Windowsbr /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Provide assistance in post programs, migrating and section of research configuring Java applications from Windows environment to WAS ND Linux/AIX environmentbr /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Responsibilities include providing web server support for the agencyrsquo;s developers running mission critical java application.
This responsibility includes troubleshooting java errors, java code, web server errors and database connection issues.br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Candidate will be tasked with applying software enhancements, security patches and bug fixes to the WAS and post graduate other supported middleware environment on a schedule basis.br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Work with the development staff and other teams on of research, a regular basis to determine best approach for new application development (ex. Psychological Goodman! Database connections, Security, External vs. Internal)br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Candidate will proactively monitor server and web server logs in data of research paper, order to essays gabriel vesey meet service level agreements for application uptime.nbsp;br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Candidate will be tasks with maintaining the WebSphere and other middleware with regular configuration Backuprsquo;s.br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Candidate will be responsible for running UNIX commands in order to paper perform UNIX OS and Middleware tasks.nbsp;nbsp;br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Address and about resolve technical issues in a timely manner. If necessary work with vendor support to resolve web server and operating system issues.br /bull;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Candidate will be tasked with documenting procedures into data paper, Wiki articles and teen ink college training staff members as needed.brbrnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppSpecialist/pp- Experience in the usage and support of data section of research paper, a collection of development platforms, technical architectures, or business applications and products that run on those platforms, beyond that of essays prosser, a Programmer- The Authorized User may seek Specialists in the following areas (list is not exhaustive):bull; Backup and data section paper Recoverybull; Securitybr /Expertbr /84+ Months: Candidate is able to provide leadership of large teams and/or extensive industry experience and is considered at the top of his/her field#x200B;/ppnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppstrongRequired Qualifications/strong:/polliMinimum of teen, 84 months of experience as an IBM WebSphere Administrator conducting high availability builds, upgrades, WAR file migrations and data of research paper performance turning on AIX or Linux./liliMinimum of 84 months of experience doing installs, upgrades, application/code migrations and performance tuning on IBM and/or Non-IBM web servers. For example: Apache, ColdFusion, JBoss etc.,/liliMinimum of literature is the question the answer ap essay, 72 months working closely with Java developers to data section troubleshooting critical Java applications which includes reviewing application error logs, hung threads and making recommend code changes in order to presented to william fix critical issues./liliMinimum of 60 months of basic experience with Unix operating systems.nbsp; (Disk, CPU, monitoring, file systems)./liliMinimum of 60 months of experience withnbsp; the following web server and application security concepts: ACLs, LDAP, SSL, Load Balancing, Firewalls, Database Connection Pooling/liliMinimum of 36 months of recent experience programming in of research, one of the following languages: PHP, Perl, Java and HTML/liliMinimum of 36 months using scripting languages (ksh, perl, wsadmin, Python) to ap essay automate operating system and web server tasks.nbsp;/liliMinimum of 18 months of data of research paper, experience in Enterprise Content Manager ndash; FileNet (Content Navigator, Case Manager) on WebSphere ND/liliMinimum of 18 months of experience in about, SSO/SAML or TAI setup in data section of research paper, WebSphere ND/li/olpstrongspan class=long-word. /span/strong/ppnbsp;/ppDo you anticipate any absences during the engagement period? If so, please list the start and analysis of young goodman end date for data section of research paper each absence./ppnbsp;/ppWhat dates can you interview for literature question minus ap essay this position that are at least 7 days after the due date (see due date above)?/ppnbsp;/ppDo you have a Skype ID? If so, please provide it. If not, please get one ASAP, it is data of research, free. A Skype interview will be required as part of the hiring process./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to start the job within 10 days./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to pass a background investigation (BGI)./p/divh3Company Description/h3divLogic House Ltd., was incorporated in teen ink college essays, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1990.
It is data of research, a small business which provides a comprehensive range of management and technical services for the development of essays to william ridgeway, information systems. Logic House has experienced continuous growth, due in large measure to our history of section, successful service engagements. Post! Operating from Pennsylvania and California, Logic House has earned a reputation for providing quality professional services in a timely and cost effective manner./div Logic House Ltd Albany NY. Key Business Solutions, Inc. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 strongJava WebSphere Developer/strongbr / strongAlbany, NY /strongbr / strongDuration: 24 Months /strongbr / br / strongJob Description:/strongbr / This position will design and implement software solutions and assure current and new technologies are effectively integrated to section fulfill the business needs.
This individual will be expected to provide expertise and hands-on participation in the following activities: ul li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Understand and implement Integrated Justice Portal standards related to application technologies, including UI standards, development methodology, and coding and psychological analysis of young goodman essay style guides./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Act as the primary technical liaison with technical infrastructure teams to resolve problems and implement solutions to technical issues impacting application performance./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Work with the section of research, Infrastructure team to essay about execute activities such as performance test planning and data paper execution failure failover planning and execution, endurance testing and about tree deployment planning and data section testing./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Provide the graduate, analysis, design development, and data paper code review enterprise applications using JAVA/JEE, JSF, XML, XSLT and the IBM Portal/WebSphere Application development software./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Perform oversight of development activities which may include data analysis, data access, data structures, data manipulation, preparing logical database models, testing and implementation./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Prepare, and/or review technical documentation such as designs, schemas, etc., as appropriate./li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Provide technical leadership to team of of young goodman brown essay, developers./li /ul strongCandidates should have at data of research, least 84 months experience and a majority of the following should apply:/strongbr / strongEach candidate should fill out the months of experience they have for each item in the table:/strong table border=0 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 style=width:666px; width=666 tbody tr td style=width:115px;height:22px;strong1./strong/td td style=width:347px;height:22px;Minimum 84 months experience developing highly available and scalable multitier applications using Object Oriented or Service Oriented Architecture involving data structures, algorithms, software design, and JEE Design Patterns./td td style=width:102px;height:22px;strong#OF MONTHS/strong/td td style=width:102px;height:22px;strong20/strong/td /tr tr td style=width:115px;height:23px;strong2./strong/td td style=width:347px;height:23px;Minimum 64 months hands-on experience developing and deploying applications in about, IBM WebSphere Portal 6.1+ and section paper WebSphere Application Server 6.1+./td td style=width:102px;height:23px;strong#OF MONTHS/strong/td td style=width:102px;height:23px;strong20/strong/td /tr tr td style=width:115px;height:22px;strong3./strong/td td style=width:347px;height:22px;Minimum 48 months developing, implementing and literature minus integrating systems related to criminal justice processing (including but not limited to: disposition processing, fingerprint identification processing, criminal history updating, Sex Offender management, tracking of data section paper, Wanted/Missing persons, or initiatives related to Offender Supervision)./td td style=width:102px;height:22px;strong#OF MONTHS/strong/td td style=width:102px;height:22px;strong20/strong/td /tr tr td style=width:115px;height:20px;strong4./strong/td td style=width:347px;height:20px;Minimum 84 months developing applications that are implemented with JAVA Development Kit (JDK 1.5 or higher)./td td style=width:102px;height:20px;strong#OF MONTHS/strong/td td style=width:102px;height:20px;strong10/strong/td /tr tr td style=width:115px;height:24px;strong5./strong/td td style=width:347px;height:24px;Minimum 72 months performing hands on development of applications developed using JMS, EJB, MQ 6.0 or higher, JSF, JAXB, JAXWS, JPA (or Hibernate)./td td style=width:102px;height:24px;strong#OF MONTHS/strong/td td style=width:102px;height:24px;strong10/strong/td /tr /tbody /table br / divbKiran Kumar/b/div divba href=mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org/a/b/div divbKey Business Solutions, Inc./b/div divb|| Office: 916 646 2080 Ext 224 || Fax: 916 646 2081 || Email:/ba href=mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org/ab|| Website:/ba href=http://www.key-soft.com/ target=_blank title=http://www.key-soft.com/www.key-soft.com/ab||Yahoo: kirankeysoft Gtalk:a href=mailto:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org/a/b/div divbNote:/bThis email is not intended to psychological analysis be a solicitation. Please accept our apologies and reply in the subject heading with REMOVE to be removed from our Mailing list./div Key Business Solutions, Inc. Albany NY. Java Websphere Developer 04877 NY. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Data Paper! Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter? Build one now!
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Writing Informative Data Section For Your Research Paper
Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of data of research, internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and essays and denmark vesey assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree.
OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of data of research, Science and Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over teen, $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of section, children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of question the answer ap essay, books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the data paper, library catalog by essays, using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in data, English, June 2011. Skilled at psychological analysis of young, grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of paper, Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by teen ink college essays, professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume.
She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an ideal resume based on data section her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and graduate pay attention to section of research paper the small details to help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in question minus ap essay, mind that the resume sample on data of research paper this page is for post, an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of data paper, your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in a tight and essays gabriel prosser and denmark vesey concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong.
In the first sentence, the data of research, candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to gabriel prosser and denmark vesey fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and data volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of programs, real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate.
Volunteering is easier than ever now — just use a website like this to data get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to essays prosser go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and section of research initiative to discover opportunities and essays and studies presented to william ridgeway take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to section of research have. In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at of young goodman brown essay, that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and section of research assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in all job roles at a library. If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and about prosser vesey job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the section of research, candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the resume, the candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the hiring manager’s attention.
Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the teen ink college, job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of data section, job duties that you’ve performed previously. Ink College Essays? You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is of research paper, reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. We’ve included most of them on essays this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and you should do the same. “Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of section of research paper, quantification, but many forget to include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact.
…recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and ink college essays volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in your cap, and data of research paper you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by christmas, the American Association for section of research paper, the Advancement of Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities.
Both book and monetary donations are an is the the answer ap essay important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on data section of research paper any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the christmas, ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and of research paper Excel were the and denmark, most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for data paper, helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of essays about gabriel and denmark vesey, Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on data section paper including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to essays and studies to william prove that you really do possess those soft skills.
Another way to diversify you from the paper, rest of the pack is to essay about christmas tree include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to paper hold an interview in post programs, whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the above are great ways to make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if you’re a good candidate to interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. Paper? She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for literature is the question minus, evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in data section, project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and essays gabriel prosser training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into section paper speak to about tree your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on your resume (as evidenced by data, the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from teen ink college essays your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for data of research paper, grants to put on programs in teen ink college essays, your library.
As you saw earlier, the paper, candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to essay christmas include that information as well. 3. Section Paper? What about Professional Organizations and programs Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to section of research librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to literature an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of luck on your job search. Didn’t get the data paper, specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ink college ask.
Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of presented, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and data section of research Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.
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Writing Informative Data Section For Your Research Paper
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into data section of research one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of graduate your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of of research your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of essays presented ridgeway All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on section of research your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the goodman essay, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to of research what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of essay christmas tree your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for data someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to of young brown save space and data section of research paper, focus on making the rest of and denmark vesey your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the section, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is post graduate still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the data, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.
The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is graduate programs this—you want the data section of research paper, information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to essays to william ridgeway force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on of research more than one page of your resume, then go for it. Gabriel Prosser. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for section paper cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out essays, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the data, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into literature question minus the answer what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in data paper, order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and literature is the question, design? Keep it simple.
Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Paper. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on and studies presented readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out of research, from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.
If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Is The Question Ap Essay. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to of research put in the time, creativity, and teen essays, design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on data section your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the about christmas tree, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Data. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for and studies to william ridgeway prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of paper time on each individual resume. About Tree. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?
There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is data section arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.
And remember to teen allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the data paper, bill. Analysis. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on data paper your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. Post Graduate Programs. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in paper, a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out graduate programs, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Data Paper. You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to essays and studies presented to william the average person. Data Of Research. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to is the the answer ap essay your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out data of research, these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to to william sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an data section “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across.
Think about programs how you can demonstrate these attributes in data of research paper, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on teen ink college your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Paper. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points.
Not only is essays gabriel prosser and denmark this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in section, applicant tracking systems. Literature Is The Question Minus. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and data, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to teen ink college you getting the data section of research, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to ink college the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about section of research paper whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from essays about, college with high honors, absolutely make note of data of research paper it. While you don’t need to essays presented to william ridgeway list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Section. Don’t be afraid to is the minus the answer include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.
Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in section paper, them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to post graduate programs add a section that lists out all the data, relevant skills you have for essay christmas tree a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and section paper, any industry-related certifications. Post Graduate. Just make sure to section of research paper skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Literature Question. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of data of research paper those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to essays presented the job.
Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Data Section Of Research Paper. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at literature question minus a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.
Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by section of research, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and analysis goodman essay, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.
Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at data section of research paper a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from post, your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the section of research paper, usual start and end dates for each position. Tree. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the section of research, number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Essay. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to of research paper new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and literature question minus the answer, accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to data include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in teen ink college, gaps on your resume.
For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the paper, growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of about your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is data section of research interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Essays Ridgeway. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on data section of research paper spell check and ink college, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for data of research paper you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Ink College. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the data section of research, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of essay about HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and section paper, Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the question minus, hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to data paper pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Is The The Answer. Photo courtesy of data of research paper Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on graduate programs the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for of research paper help making your content better—or you just want to minus go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
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The Trail Of Tears American Indian Genocide. One of the most tragic events in the history of the data of research, United States, commonly known as Indian removal took place in analysis goodman essay the spring of 1838, when the Cherokee Nation commenced its tragic journey. In the perception of White settlers and their political representatives, removal of paper, Native Indians was a prerequisite for a territorial expansion and literature is the minus the answer taking advantage of enormous mining and forestry resources. 'Those men and women who supported Indian removal often did so as a result of either outright racism or a desire to see local tribes assimilated into mainstream culture, as well as a misguided sense of patriotism and ambition for America. There is no sense or honor in data paper pretending that the and studies presented to william, actions of the paper, U.S. government were not cruel or suggesting that some Americans' hunger for expansion justified an assault on the country's first residents. '(Marsico, 2010, pp. 6,7) In this section I will discuss Native Indian tribes, commonly known as 'civilized tribes'. The Civilized Tribes is a group of five tribes: the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Tree? These groups were located in the south-eastern region of the United States. Data Of Research? The reason that they became known as 'civilized tribes' by essays about and denmark, white settlers was that they adopted some of the European and data paper American customs, such as Anglo-American farming, educational and post graduate programs slave-holding practices. As a result of this, a term Civilized Tribes was coined by the whites. The tribe consisted of section paper, seven clans and a village was governed by two distinct political entities; the red and the white government, 'which respectively maintained power in times of vesey, war and times of peace.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 11) Tribal affairs were discussed by clan representatives in so called council houses, which were seven-sided structures.
The Cherokee villages were politically organized in a loose confederacy. The village was governed by two chiefs. The White Chief, also called the Most Beloved Man, supported the villagers on issues related to farming, law-making, and data section disputes among individuals, families, or clans. He also took part in religious rituals, accompanied by the Cherokee shamans. The Red Chief had advisory role on warfare issues. The Cherokee territory was in the southern part of the Appalachian chain. Their villages were situated in the Great Smoky Mountains (present-day western North Carolina) and the Blue Ridge (present-day western Virginia and West Virginia), and in the Great Valley (present-day eastern Tennessee). Waldman argues that 'They also lived in the Appalachian high country of present-day South Carolina and Georgia, and essay about tree as far south as present-day northern Alabama.
Cherokee people also probably lived in territory now part of data of research, Kentucky.' (WALDMAN, 2006, p. 51) The rivers and question minus the answer ap essay streams were not only contributing to the richness of soil but also to the fishing. Cherokee were skilled fishermen who used spears, traps, and hooks. They also used to poison an area of a river and bring the unconscious fish to the surface. The Cherokee hunting skills were also impressive. They used bows and arrows for paper hunting deer and bear. 'To get close to the deer, they wore entire deerskins, including antlers, and used deer calls to lure the animals to them. The Cherokee hunted smaller game, such as raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, and literature question ap essay turkeys, with blowguns made from the hollowed-out stems of cane plants. Data Section? Through these long tubes, the hunters blew small wood-and-feather darts with deadly accuracy from as far away as 60 feet.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) The pray was used for clothing, as well. The wild plants had also significant role in teen essays their nutrition, as well as berries, cherries, grapes, walnuts and chestnuts.
The Cherokee were also known as craftsmen. Data Section Of Research Paper? They made plaited basketwork and stamped pottery. 'They also carved, out of wood and essay christmas gourds, Booger masks, representing evil spirits.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) On special occasions their leaders used to wear headdresses made of feather. Ceremonies were held inside council houses. Cherokee families lived in two houses, which is typical of data section, people of the Southeast. There were a summer house and winter home. The summer houses had rectangular shape with peaked roofs and walls made out of literature minus ap essay, clay. Early encounters of the European explorers with the Cherokee can be traced back to mid-sixteenth century. In 1540, Hernando de Soto, the Spanish explorer, who travelled throughout much of the Southeast, was the first European to come into contact with the Cherokee. Then, the English traders from the east appeared after England permanently populated Virginia, more precisely the Jamestown colony of 1607 and then the Carolina colonies. De Soto was in his pursuit of gold. The Cherokee villages were situated along rivers that enabled them cultivation of various crops, such as corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, and tobacco, which afterwards resulted in exchange between settlers and Cherokees.
The Europeans introduced Cherokees with trade. Section Paper? They traded, in the answer exchange for food iron, liquor, rifles, and gunpowder. Apart from trade and innovations, contacts with the Europeans brought the Cherokee tribes exposure to diseases such as smallpox and influenza, as well. This had a negative effect on the Cherokee population 'from approximately 30,000 prior to the initial European contact to about 16,000 by the onset of the eighteenth century.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 15) Although the exchange between Cherokees and Americans was fruitful, the European colonists felt a great greed for Cherokees land. The French and Indian wars lasted from paper 1689 to 1763. The Cherokee took side with the about tree, British against section paper the French. Goodman Essay? Occasionally, they would fight side by side with tribes that were traditionally regarded as their enemies, such as the data section of research paper, Iroquois.
The turning point took place in 1760, during the Cherokee War. The Cherokee revolted against their British allies in a dispute over wild horses in essay what is now West Virginia. 'A group of Cherokee on their journey home from the Ohio River, where they had helped the British take Fort Duquesne, captured some wild horses. Some Virginia frontiersmen claimed the horses as their own and attacked the Cherokee, killing 12. Then they sold the of research paper, horses and collected bounties on the Cherokee scalps, which they claimed they had taken from post graduate Indians allied with the French.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 53) As a result of this the Cherokee bands, led by Chief Oconostota, began raids on non-Indian settlements. The war ended after two years. The British troops burned their villages and crops. Data Section Paper? The peace agreement was reached and enormous portion of their lands that was closest to British settlements was taken away. Despite of the teen ink college, Cherokee War, the Cherokee took side with the section of research paper, British against the rebels in the American Revolution of 1775'83. Most of their support consisted of sporadic attacks on outlying American settlements. 'In retaliation, North Carolina militiamen invaded Cherokee lands and again destroyed villages and programs demanded land cessions.' (Waldman, 2006, p. Data Of Research? 53) They allied with the Americans, fighting with them under Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813. Cherokee chief Junaluska deserves all the credit for saving Jackson's life from a tomahawk-swinging Creek warrior at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. In 1820, a republican form of government, having close resemblance of and studies, that of the United States, was established.
In the culture of the Cherokees work of Sequoyah, also known as George Gist, represents a turning point. In 1809, he commenced with a work on a written version of the Cherokee language and this advancement reflected on a written constitution and publication of books, and newspapers. His twelve years of work produced a written system reducing the Cherokee language to 85 characters each representing a different sound. Years later, in 1827, the tribe wrote a constitution. 'The constitution established a centralized government, a supreme court and jury system, and a national police force.' (Bowes, 2009, p. Data Section? 22) The first Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, was published in their language in 1828. The Chickasaw ancestors lived in present-day northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, western Kentucky, and eastern Arkansas. The Chickasaw shared language and culture with the Choctaw who lived in post southern Mississippi. Both tribes had strong ties with the Creek living in the eastern part of Alabama and Georgia. Data Section Of Research? The Chickasaw were in possession of a fertile floodplain, which was created by soil deposition when the Mississippi River overflows its banks. The moisture of programs, soil enabled the floodplain to become suitable for farming. The area was rich with wildlife.
The Mississippi and of research paper its tributaries provided the Chickasaw with fish. Their villages were built to keep them safe from floods. They planted corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. The Chickasaw practiced so called 'the law of hospitality.' This term was first introduced by an English trader, James Adair, who spent nearly 40 years living together with the Chickasaw. In the 1700s, he wrote: 'The Spanish had early contacts with the Chickasaw.
Hernando de Soto led his expedition into their territory in 1541. True to the 'law of about gabriel prosser and denmark, hospitality,' the Chickasaw let the outsiders live among them. Data Of Research? But de Soto tried to christmas tree force the tribal chiefs into providing 200 bearers to carry his supplies.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 61) The Chickasaw first contacts with the English were in 1670, the year when the English colony of Carolina was founded. Paper? Those contacts enhanced trade of ridgeway, various goods between two nations. However, trade was extended beyond goods.
Indian captives were sold to the English. Data Section Of Research Paper? They ended up as slaves working on sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands. By the 1690s, the Chickasaws became fully equipped with English guns. Those guns were used against their southern neighbors, the Choctaws. It is estimated that around 2,000 Choctaws were seized as captives and another 2,000 were killed. The Choctaws were an easy target for the Chickasaw attacks, since at that time; they were not armed with guns. This initiated a series of conflicts between Chickasaw and Choctaw. In the psychological analysis brown, French and Indian wars, the data of research paper, Chickasaw took side with the British. The Chickasaw regularly attacked French travelers on the Mississippi between New Orleans and Canada. The Chickasaw were ordered to expel British traders by the French, who armed their allies, the Choctaw. Psychological Goodman? In return, the Chickasaw carried out raids against both, the French and Choctaw.
As of 1699, presence of France on the Gulf of Mexico coast was established. The Choctaws from that stage on came into possession of guns and that is how the Chickasaw captive raids ended. They were powerful to the extent that they even halted traffic on the Mississippi for some time. The French conflict with the Chickasaw was at its peak in 1736, 1741, and 1752. Data Section Of Research? It was not until 1763 in ink college essays the last of the French and Indian wars that the Chickasaw were defeated. It is believed that the Choctaw originated from Nanih Waiya, the Mother Mound, area near present-day Noxapater, Mississippi. Section Of Research? It is thought that the Choctaw were descendants of the early Mound Builders of the Southeast. The Choctaw were one of the brown, largest tribes living in section of research paper southern and central Mississippi, with some bands in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana as well. The Choctaw's language and culture are closely tied to the Chickasaw and the Creek. In contrast to other southeast Indians, the post graduate programs, Choctaw had a more democratic system of governance, similar to the one of northeast Indians. Choctaw traders invented a simple trade language that was used in combination with sign language for communication with other tribes.
It is called the Mobilian Trade Language or Chickasaw Trade Language since the Mobile and Chickasaw used it. Villagers built winter and summer houses. 'To keep the winter houses warm families built fires, and to keep them moist they poured water over heated rocks.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 69) Turkey feathers were used to data paper make threads to weave blankets. Of Young Goodman Brown? The Choctaw mainly depended on their fertile lands along the Mississippi River. Basic crops were corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. Hunting and fishing had less relevance to their frequent plantings and harvestings. The Choctaw were skilled craftsmen. They used to data section paper carve dugout canoes for fishing, and trading trips.
In the culture of teen, The Choctaw and Chickasaw there was a practice of head deformation for aesthetic purposes. A hinged piece of wood was put to the foreheads of male infants to apply pressure over data section of research, a period of post graduate, time. Choctaw men let their hair grow long. The males of most other Southeast tribes had quite different custom, they shaved their heads. The Chickasaw name for them was Pansh Falaia, meaning 'long hairs.' When it comes to leisure time activities The Choctaw are known for playing lacrosse, also known as Indian stickball.
The game is played in a way that players 'toss a leather ball between posts with sticks. Touching the ball with the hands and data of research paper using the graduate programs, sticks to fight were forbidden, but just about everything else was fair play.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) Often, players would sustain injuries, even deaths, during lacrosse games. Dancing and data section of research paper singing took place prior to the matches between two village teams. Villagers gambled many of their possessions because of teen essays, placing bets on their teams. Song competitions were held, too. Villagers used to write songs, keeping their songs secret until performance time. A 'song thief' was name for those who spied on songs of another tribe. The Choctaw had a ritual of so called 'cry-time'.
This tradition involved placing the deceased on a scaffold. Data Section Of Research? On that occasion family members went into retreat and mourned. The Choctaw tribal members practiced fasting. Once the corpse dried out in post programs the open air, tribe members 'officially appointed as bonepickers, scraped the flesh away with their extra-long fingernails. Then the bones would be buried.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) English traders named the Native American tribe Creek, since most of their villages were built on woodland rivers and creeks. The Creek were a complex tribe, consisting of many different bands and villages with many names. The majority of data of research, their villages were situated along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers. Their ancestors inhabited majority of presented, territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama and small parts of northern Florida, eastern Louisiana, and southern Tennessee. Data Section Paper? Since they were one of the most widespread tribes, they represent the typical Southeast Indian culture. The Creek, like Choctaw and essay Chickasaw, were descendants of the Mound Builders who lived in the Southeast.
The Creek had two branches, the Upper Creek, situated in Alabama, and the Lower Creek, mostly in Georgia. The most significant band of Creek that is used for referring to other groups as well is data section of research paper, Muskogee. Muskogean language family was named after term Muskogee. Among Muskogean-speaking tribes belong the Alabama, Coushatta, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, too. In history, the Creek Confederacy referred to the Alabama and Coushatta, the essays, Muskogee and other Creek bands.
The Creek share many cultural traits with other Southeast Indian tribes. The Creek villages were situated by the rivers and streams. Each village had a chief called a 'micco', who carried out duties similar to those of a modern-day mayor. Of Research Paper? In making decisions he relied on a council of analysis brown, elders and the Beloved Men. So called town crier was in charge of announcing the paper, decision to the other villagers. Each village consisted of 'red towns' and 'white towns.' 'In the presented, 'red towns' lived the warriors who launched raids for purposes of honor and revenge; ceremonies such as war dances were held there. In the paper, 'white towns' lived the peacemakers who kept track of alliances and essay tree gave sanctuary to refugees; ceremonies such as the signing of section of research, treaties were held there.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 84) Villages had a town square with earthen banks for spectators to literature is the question ap essay sit. The ceremonies and games were held there. Their villages had a central circular house with clay walls and a roof about 25 feet high, the ceremonial lodge, and section of research a shelter for the old and the homeless. The houses were organized in clusters.
The villagers had a winter house, a summer house, a granary, and a warehouse. Each clan was named after an animal. Clan membership was determined by the mother. It was forbidden to marry someone within the same clan. The Creek like many other tribes were skilled farmers and hunters. One of the most important ceremonies in their culture was the Green Corn Ceremony also called the Busk, from the Creek word boskita, meaning 'to fast' was a ritual of renewal. Essays Gabriel? It was held four to eight days at the end of the summer, the time when the last corn crop ripened. The shamans, elders and warriors all fasted. The purpose of the ceremony was a new start and forgiveness of all mistakes, except murder.
During this feast villagers would eat corn and take part in lighting of the data paper, Sacred Fire. On this occasion villagers also consumed the Black Drink, which is a tea made from different types of herbs and tobacco. Its consumption induced vomiting and it was believed that it purifies the body. The records indicate that as of essays and studies ridgeway, 1715 they were called 'Creeks' by the English newcomers from South Carolina. Their population at that time numbered about 10,000 in data section the Deep South. Essay? The establishment of South Carolina in 1670, the Creeks begun doing business with their new neighbors.
The new form of business was capturing and selling Florida Indians. However, those profits nearly vanished by 1715 and the trade of deerskins became the main source of profit. Until 1730s skins were deported from the port of Charleston, South Carolina, for English market. In exchange for deerskin, the Creek obtained kettle, guns, and rum. The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word cimarr??n, meaning 'wild' or 'runaway.' Their ancestors lived in the north of Georgia and Alabama states, migrated southward during the 1700s. Supposedly, they were Creek Indians, who sought refuge from slavery from northern colonies that were at that time under British control. Upon their arrival to Florida, they were no longer called Seminoles, but Creeks. The majority of Lower Creeks from Georgia settled in Florida that was under Spanish control, at that time. By the early 1700s f the native tribes that existed in Florida, prior to data of research the arrival of the Seminole, had been reduced as a result of the Spanish warfare or diseases.
Around 100,000 native Americans occupied Florida in the 1500s, and only 50 survived. In 1767 the teen ink college essays, Upper Creeks from Alabama arrived and established their settlements in the Tampa area. Shortly after that, in 1771, the first time name Seminole was used with regard to data section an actual tribe. In 1778 followed the post programs, settlements of the Lower Creeks and a small number of paper, Appalachians. Owning black slaves was a practice that many tribes adopted in their attempt to assimilate their culture to the culture of the white settlers. However, the Seminoles never did and Africans slaves who escaped the Carolinas and Georgia built settlements along with the Seminoles in Florida, became known as the Black Seminoles.
Both, the Seminoles and Africans were united by their fear of slavery. 2. BACKGROUND CONTEXT. 2.1. The Creek War. In the colonial period, the Creek allied with the British in the French and Indian War of 1754'63. Creek warriors attacked the teen ink college essays, Choctaw, allies of the section paper, French. They fought against literature question the answer the Cherokee, too. Bands of Creek also took side with British troops against the rebels in the American Revolution of 1775'83. As a consequence of that, huge portions of their lands in Alabama and Georgia were ceded by data section of research paper, the United States in 1790. Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee, counted on the British support in recovering possessions lost to settlers. He travelled to the south intending to warn native cultures of essay about, growing threats posed by the whites.
This led to formation of data paper, a group, within the Creek, so called the Red Sticks. 'The increasing divisions in Creek society led to is the the answer bloodshed in 1812 when the traditionalists retaliated against the National Council's attempt to punish Creeks involved in attacks against settlers. A Creek civil war erupted, with Red Sticks (as the traditionalists were called) launching attacks on the towns of Creeks friendly to white settlers.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. 218) In return, the United States got involved into the war, despite the fact that U.S. was already at war with Great Britain. Of Research Paper? The Southern states roused to take revenge for the Fort Mims Massacre. The army of essay christmas, 5,000 militiamen, aided by Cherokees, and Creeks, under command of General Andrew Jackson destroyed completely two Indian villages: Tallasahatchee and Talladega. The Red Sticks were first defeated at Fort Mims, in 1813, and then in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in data of research paper March 1814. And Studies Presented To William Ridgeway? The same year Treaty of Fort Jackson forced Creek chiefs to give away 23 million acres of land that was in possession of both the militant Red Sticks and the peaceful White Sticks. Some of Red Sticks managed to paper escape and settle in Florida. Along with Seminole they managed to remain undefeated, until the First Seminole War (1817-1818). 2.2. The Seminole Wars.
The aftermath of American Revolution brought even deeper division between the Seminoles and the United States. Many Seminoles relied on Britain for support. American settlers argued that Seminoles provided a refuge for runaway slaves. The Seminole became friends with escaped African-American slaves. The slaves were given shelter among Seminole families. A fraction of ink college essays, Seminoles held side with the Red Sticks faction of Creeks in the Creek War (1813-1814). After their defeat, many Red Sticks found shelter with the Seminoles in Florida. As a justification for leading an army out of Georgia, General Andrew Jackson used the runaway slaves, against the Seminole. This event initiated the First Seminole War of 1817'18. Prior to data section paper returning his troops north to Georgia, Seminole villages were completely devastated.
When Jackson was elected president, he intended to send the Seminole to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Along with other Southeast tribes 3,000 Seminole were relocated westward by U.S. soldiers in the 1830s. When counting the Seminole casualties starvation and disease should be considered, too. Those who survived were not even allowed to essays presented stop and of research paper bury their dead. The Seminole who were not willing to leave Florida begun a guerrilla war. The name for their resistance was the ink college, Second Seminole War of data of research paper, 1835'42. Essays Gabriel And Denmark Vesey? The Treaty of Payne's Landing, was ratified by minority of Seminoles in May 1832. Indians were demanded to give up their Florida lands within three years and move westward. The U.S. Army arrived in 1835 to of research paper implement the treaty and found Indians unwilling to move and ready for war. The federal government lost 1,500 men and some 500 Seminoles managed to question the answer escape.
In 1842, the war ended and majority of Seminoles had been relocated from Florida to Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. A Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was based on disputes, largely over land, between whites and data of research Seminoles who remained in Florida. Since military patrols were in charge of capturing the post graduate, Indians, it does not surprise that the Seminole population numbered about 200 at the end of Third Seminole War, in 1858. The Third Seminole War represents the last attempt of paper, forced removal. 'Approximately three thousand Seminoles were removed to the Indian Territory, voluntarily or otherwise.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. 469) 3. SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT.
The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 paved the way for the removals of Indians that would follow. Programs? The eastern Indian communities, even then, presented a problem in the view of American politicians. The Jefferson administration bought from the French a vast region of land west of the Mississippi River, for $15 million, Thomas Jefferson had every reason to believe that such vast territory would pay off. Jefferson proposal was with regard to Indians who continued to occupy lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River that the Louisiana Territory could become a new home to these people. Data Section Paper? Even public, was misguided into thinking that the teen ink college, federal government would be helping the Indians, and that the Indians and their culture would eventually disappear, if they remained exposed to the whites. It was presented as a matter of choice, although it had very little to do with the harsh reality Native Indians were about to data section paper face. 3.1. The Indian Removal Act. The settlements of both the Europeans and the Americans from the early 1600s to the early 1800s were pushing the boundaries of the Indian territories further inland. Of Young Goodman Brown? Territorial expansion of the United States was often backed up by data section paper, various treaties, laws and gabriel prosser and denmark vesey even some of legal rulings supported these actions.
From 1780's the U.S. Constitution had already contained articles granting 'Congress and the president exclusive control over Indian affairs. Of Research Paper? This essentially meant that each of the states was subject to federal regulations in its dealings with local tribes. ' (Marsico, 2010, p. Teen? 20) At the time, the state of Georgia was dealing with legitimate means to dissolve the Cherokee Nation; the Congress passed the Indian Removal Act (1830). It was Andrew Jackson who signed it into law on May 28, 1830. 'This act granted the executive the authority to data of research paper negotiate land-exchange treaties with native nations residing within the boundaries of the United States. Cooperating nations would receive Western land in return for about gabriel prosser vesey ceding their territory.
Thus ''Indian Territory'' in present-day Oklahoma was born.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 37) Even though the Indian Removal Act contained clauses regarding the protection of the tribes that were subject to removal, it was carried out without this clause being enforced. At first glance, those Americans who believed that it would serve to the benefit of the Native Indians and would protect them of possible extinction even favored it. However, it raised much controversy among numerous organizations; especially the data section, ones in the Northeast were hard opponents of the and studies to william, legislation. Some of the statesmen and senators opposed to the notions of removal. Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey was among the data section, loudest opponents: 'We have crowded the tribes upon a few miserable acres on our southern frontier,' he proclaimed.' (Bowes, 2009, p. 19) In spite of the opposition efforts, the passage of the post programs, Indian Removal Act in the House of Representatives was ensured by a vote of 102 to 97. 'In the succeeding ten years the Atlantic and Gulf states were cleared of the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles.
Some went resignedly, others at bayonet point.' (McNickle, 1973, p. 74) Early XIX century witnessed an increase in the number of non-Indian settlers. In 1820s, a number of the of research, Choctaw migrated west of the Mississippi. However, the majority was not willing to leave their homeland. The reason that some left voluntary was the, the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek that was signed between the Choctaw negotiators and the government representatives Colonel John Coffee and Secretary of essays, War John Eaton, on September 27, 1830. This treaty is regarded as one of the largest transfers of land between U.S. Government and Native Americans. In sequence of events, this presents the first removal treaty enforced under the Indian Removal Act. The Choctaw gave away 11 million acres of the data of research paper, Choctaw land in programs exchange for 15 million acres in the Indian Territory. The U.S. Congress ratified the data section, Treaty in 1831.
The treaty contained a clause applicable to those who remained to obtain U.S. citizenship. Some 1,300 Choctaws, who remained in graduate programs the state of data section, Mississippi, became citizens of the United States. It is estimated that around 15,000 Choctaws left and essays presented to william found their new homes in the Indian Territory, i.e., state of Oklahoma. The word Oklahoma is of Choctaw origin, meaning red people. On the grounds of the Curtis Act, their government was disassembled, as it was a precondition for acknowledging the of research, Oklahoma status of goodman brown, a state. Subsequently, the Choctaws ended up divided into two distinct groups: the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians that gained federal recognition in data section of research 1945. The Mowa Band of Choctaw presently inhabiting state of Alabama is not recognized by the federal government. 3.2. Andrew Jackson.
Andrew Jackson was seventh President of the United States. He was born in 1767 in Waxhaw, South Carolina. He studied law. In 1788 he moved to Nashville. Christmas Tree? During his career, he worked as prosecutor, judge, Tennessee congressman and senator from 1823 to 1825. He fought as general in data section the War of 1812 defeating the Creek Indians in 1814 and the British at New Orleans in literature minus 1815.
Three years later, in 1818, he undertook another military assignment to chase off Seminole Indians into Spanish Florida. John Quincy Adams won the presidential elections of 1824. Four years later, Jackson defeated Adams and became the seventh president of the United States. Jackson was a founder of the Democratic Party. He supported extension of slavery into the West. He was a political opponent of the Whig Party and Congress on matters such as the Bank of the United States. He was known for his rage. He used to challenge men to section of research paper duels and sometimes even causing deadly consequences. Essay Tree? During his military career, he fought against the Red Stick Creeks and Seminoles, and the War of 1812 in the Battle of data section paper, New Orleans; he earned a status of a national hero. Literature? 'Jackson cultivated his military reputation as an of research ''Indian fighter.' He often acted as a loose cannon, disobeying orders or creating his own, in order to ink college further the cause of Manifest Destiny, the spread of U.S. control over data section of research paper, the North American continent.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 85) In Jackson's perception the greatest threat to settlement and expansion of the United States, was the question of psychological of young goodman, Native Indians.
In the eyes of the common man Jackson was regarded not only section of research as a war hero, but also as one of their own, a common man. His presidential career, in two subsequent terms, lasted from March 4, 1829 to is the the answer March 4, 1837. Jackson is perhaps best known for providing the environment and tracing the route for the Trail of Tears through the Indian Removal Act. Data Of Research Paper? The 'Indian fighter' ratified nearly seventy removal treaties. Essays? The majority of those treaties provided for relocation and data paper primarily by the use of christmas tree, force of nearly 50,000 eastern Indians to Indian Territory with aim to make available millions of acres of section paper, land to graduate programs white settlers. 'Although the data section, Trail of Tears itself did not occur until the administration of Martin Van Buren, Jackson's former vice president and hand-picked successor, Jackson was responsible for providing the key ingredients necessary for removal to teen essays take place.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 86) Jackson's approach to the ''Indian question'' is perhaps best exemplified by his ignorance toward judiciary and non-interference regarding Georgia's oppression of the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia lawmakers devised a lottery system to redistribute Cherokee land to Georgia citizens. The Cherokees appealed to the national government, claiming that the Georgia state laws, by violating the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation, also violated international treaties that the United States had made with the Cherokees.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) According to John Marshall in section case of Cherokee Nation versus Georgia, in 1831, the treaties with the Cherokee Nation were not to be regarded in terms of international treaties, instead native nations were to be regarded as ''domestic dependent nations.'' Further on, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over this matter since the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign nation. Presented To William? Therefore, they were not entitled to sue in federal court that would eventually provide them with legal grounds for prevention of further cessions of their lands as well as their removal from tribal lands. However, this case was important as the Cherokees based on this interpretation of a legal matter decided to bring another case before the court.
The second case Worcester versus Georgia before the Supreme Court was in 1832. This case was initiated by white missionary Samuel Worcester who sued the state of Georgia on the grounds of imposing its laws over the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia had passed an act that required all whites who lived within the Cherokee Nation to apply for a state permit and swear an oath of allegiance to Georgia.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) Worcester was a minister within the American Board of section of research paper, Commissioners for graduate Foreign Missions. His non-compliance with the data section paper, Georgia act resulted in ink college essays subsequent arrest. He was tried and sentenced to four years of hard labor in a Georgia court. According to Marshall the relations with native nations were within a jurisdiction of the national government, therefore Georgia State was not entitled to data section intervene into an issue involving 'a group the United States had already recognized and and studies to william agreed to protect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) The state of Georgia refused to release Worcester. 'President Jackson, the so-called old Indian fighter, is reported to have said in response with reference to the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it (Mooney, 1900: 114).' (Russell, 1987, p. 116) However, none of the data section of research, cases tried before the analysis goodman brown essay, U.S. Data Section Of Research? Supreme Court served its purpose and the Trail of Tears was inevitable.
President had at his disposal a discretionary power, to authorize forceful removal, since such clause was incorporated in many removal treaties and bills. Furthermore, those policies included the psychological of young, deadlines, and in some cases even prior to the expiry of the deadline, force was used, if deemed necessary. Whether enforcement of the bills justifies the use of force is data section, disputable. Since historical sources indicate that vast majority of Indians opposed the removals, it was obvious that if government wanted to ink college enforce removal bills, it had to be, by force. 3.3. The Treaty of New Echota.
The Treaty of New Echota was named after New Echota, the Cherokee capitol in Georgia, where it was signed. The United States as a result of this cession claimed the Cherokee lands in the Southeast in exchange for lands in Indian Territory and $15 million. 'The U.S. Senate ratified the paper, Treaty of essays about gabriel prosser vesey, New Echota by one vote, and on data of research paper, May 23, 1836, President Andrew Jackson proclaimed it in effect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) About twenty thousand Cherokees were to voluntarily leave their homes as of May 23rd, 1838. Jackson remained firm and analysis of young goodman essay acted accordingly, The Treaty of New Echota had to be implemented, regardless of evident hesitations by his own men. U.S. Troops commander, initially appointed to implement the Treaty of New Echota, was General John Ellis Wool. Upon his arrival, he was faced with the protesting by the Cherokee to both, the process of disarmament and the Treaty, itself. Data Section Paper? 'Wool asked to essays ridgeway be relieved of his mission, and he was.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. Of Research? 55) In December 1837, the teen essays, Cherokee were notified by the government that the clause in the Treaty of New Echota under which, they were given deadline of two years from the section, ratification of the treaty, to leave, would be enforced. In early 1838, and A delegation headed by teen ink college, John Ross and other Cherokee leaders, paid a visit to Washington, D.C. to data section of research present the literature is the question minus ap essay, signatures of 15,665 Cherokees who were against the Treaty of New Echota, but the Senate Committee on data section of research paper, Indian Affairs had voted and authorized the Treaty implementation. 'The U.S. secretary of war told John Ross that Jackson no longer recognized any government among the Eastern Cherokees, and gabriel and denmark vesey neither Ross nor anyone else would be allowed to challenge further the data, legitimacy of the removal treaty.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) Approximately two thousand Cherokees, which is some 15 percent of the Cherokee Nation, acted out of their own will and joined ''Old Settlers'' in literature question the answer Indian Territory, along with members of the Treaty Party. According to Jackson no further communications with John Ross, in writing or orally, on this matter is allowed.
When Jackson's second presidential mandate ended, the data section of research, White House successor became, Martin Van Buren. He commenced his presidential duties in March 1837. Post? Since he was vice president during Jackson's mandate, he made it known that he will stick with Jackson's policies. Out of sympathy with the Cherokee cause, citizens around the United States sent messages and petitions; however, Van Buren organized seven thousand soldiers to section of research prepare for tree action. Section? 'Time had run out. On May 23, 1838, the essays and studies presented, military roundup of the Cherokee Nation began.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 57) The Cherokee were disarmed and General Winfield Scott was assigned to monitor their removal.
'On May 10, 1838, General Scott issued the data section paper, following proclamation:' 'Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the Treaty of 1835, to join that part of essay, your people who are already established in prosperity, on the other side of the Mississippi. . . . Data Section Of Research Paper? The full moon of May is already on the wane, and before another shall have passed away, every Cherokee man, woman and child . . . must be in motion to and studies join their brethren in the far West.' Scott's proclamation clearly outlined that no Cherokee would remain in the territory, they all had to section of research paper 'move' and that Army would reassure the implementation of the Treaty, by force. 4. Essays And Denmark Vesey? EXODUS OF NATIVE INDIAN TRIBES. 4.1. The Trail of Tears. It took four weeks in data section paper May and June, to carry out four military operations (Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama).
Approximately seventeen thousand Cherokees rounded up at gunpoint were removed to various containment camps designated for the Cherokee prisoners. Those camps proved to be inadequate as no basic sanitation was provided for the prisoners. The roundups were carried out in a way that took the Cherokees by christmas, surprise. Vast majority of families were separated, husbands from wives and children, and many had only their clothes on them, and all other possessions were left behind. 'John G. Burnett, a soldier involved with the roundup, described the operation: 'Men working in the fields were arrested and driven to the stockades. Women were dragged from their homes by soldiers whose language they could not understand. Children were often separated from their parents and driven into the stockades with the sky for data section paper a blanket and the earth for a pillow. . . .' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 58) John Wool, though initially appointed as the military commander of the literature is the the answer ap essay, removal campaign was replaced by Major General Winfield Scott, also known as ''Old Fuss and Feathers,'' Scott was a renown veteran, he fought in the War of section of research paper, 1812, the Blackhawk War and the Seminole Wars. ' Scott looked at his mission without enthusiasm; when he realized that many of the Georgia troops seemed as interested in teen ink college killing the Cherokees as removing them, he realized the extent of the challenge he faced.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 57) The first exodus westward occurred from spring 1838 and lasted to the summer. The first groups marched the route of 800 miles.
The intense heat had deadly consequences for children and the elderly. The second exodus was in the fall and winter of 1838-39. Unlike the first exodus that was in the heat, the second one was in data of research the rainy season and for that reason the wagons sunk down in the mud, and with freezing temperatures and snow, the journey got even worse. Numerous reasons need to essay be taken into account when considering the Cherokee casualties, from data section of research paper disease, food shortages, and weather conditions to failure of the U.S. troops to protect the Cherokee from attacks by bandits. Initially, the Cherokees were loaded on steamboats, taken down the Tennessee and teen ink college Ohio rivers to the Mississippi and from there forced to take the land routes to Indian Territory. Indeed, a few thousand Cherokee were removed, as planned. Since this removal was undertaken in the hottest season, due to sickness, human losses were enormous. the Cherokee National Council, John Ross along with other chiefs made a proposal to General Scott that the Cherokee be allowed to postpone the removal to the fall, when the weather is milder, to prevent further casualties. 'That request was granted, and in October, 1838, the Cherokee began to remove themselves, primarily over land, in 13 recorded groups averaging about 1,000 people each.' (Russell, 1987, p. 117) The first and data section of research paper the second exodus in combination with the dreadful conditions of the confinement camps caused the deaths of nearly 4,000 Cherokee, which represents a quarter of their total number.
The death toll rose even with the arrival of the Cherokee in the Indian Territory, due to epidemics and continuous lack of food. Other Southeast tribes primarily the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole shared the destiny of the Cherokee. Perhaps the closest to the exact figures of and denmark, Cherokee population, which was primarily affected by the Trail of Tears, is statistical information provided by Russell Thornton. According to Thornton: 'A census of the Eastern Cherokees (sometimes called the Henderson Roll) was conducted in 1835: it enumerated 16,542 Cherokees. By this time there may have been 5,000 Cherokees west of the Mississippi River: from 1828 to 1834, 2,802 Cherokees had registered for removal (plus 578 blacks and 47 whites. Nevertheless, by 1834 only 1,171 Cherokees (plus 293 blacks) had actually emigrated, according to official records).' (Russell, The Cherokees: A Population History, 1992, p. 50) The removals that lasted from 1831 to 1834 were carried out under inhumane and horrifying conditions, such as lack of food, blankets and wagons. Sporadic attacks from data ambush by bandits were not prevented by the U.S. soldiers. It is estimated that nearly a quarter of the essays presented to william ridgeway, Choctaw died during the marches, while those who survived the dreadful journey, after their arrival in the Indian Territory, died as a result of various diseases and starvation. Theoretically, the Indian Territory was regarded as a permanent homeland for many tribes. 'Originally, the promised region stretched from the state boundaries of of research paper, Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa to the 100th meridian, about 300 miles at the widest point. Nonetheless, with increasing non-Indian settlement west of the ink college, Mississippi in the mid- 1800s, the Indian Territory was reduced again and again.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) As of 1854, the paper, north of the Indian Territory included the presented to william ridgeway, territories of Kansas and Nebraska that were later recognized states status. From 1866 onwards, tribes situated in those regions were resettled to the south, allegedly reserved for the Southeast tribes, also known as the 'Five Civilized Tribes.' In the 1880s, arrival of the Boomers followed and again Indian reservations became matter of interests of the Whites in pursuit of more Indian lands for section of research settlement.
Most of the relocations of the Five Civilized Tribes were carried out on the grounds of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The political viewpoint of President Jackson on Indian question was backed up by his own views that the 'red men' were not capable of integration into the society of the Whites, nor did they have the intelligence to coexist in the white society. Moreover, according to him, they had to accept Christianity; otherwise they are destined to ink college essays eventual extinction. Further on, the government's policy was to be welcomed by of research paper, the Native Indians, as it will, at the expense of the government, carry out the relocation. Such policy would positively affect other Native Indians, to follow the pattern of the 'five civilized tribes'. President Andrew Jackson' in post his Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830) outlines the relevance of the government's policy, as follows: 'The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and of research we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and literature question the answer ap essay West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the United States, to data section paper send them to land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual.' The map shows numerous routes that were taken by Native Indian tribes at the time of forcible removals from 1830 to 1840. The Choctaw were the first tribe forcibly removed from their homeland. Non-Indian settlers had territorial aspiration toward their lands. State governments just as the federal government kept side with whites over Indians. Ironical was their role in the Creek War, when the Choctaw had fought under Andrew Jackson, who would later become president of the United States and mastermind of the 'legitimate' removal of the Native Indians.
Despite the fact that the Choctaw were not represented by the majority, a few members of the Choctaw were talked into post programs signing the data section paper, Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, in 1830. This Treaty led to ceding of all Choctaw lands in the state of essays and studies presented ridgeway, Mississippi. Those who disapproved the Treaty remained and hid out in the Mississippi and Louisiana woods. However, the vast majority were made to move westward by U.S. Army.
However, the Choctaw who reached their new homelands, designated by the U.S. Data Of Research Paper? government, persisted and had undergone reorganization as a tribe and started a new life. They even adopted a republican form of government, modeled after that of the United States and many customs of the 'civilized' Whites, and that is about christmas tree, how the Choctaw along with the Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole, gained a reputation as one of the 'Five Civilized Tribes' During the Creek removal of 1836 and section of research paper following their arrival in the Indian Territory, out of 15,000 who were to move to the Southeast, about 3,500 died as a consequence of hunger, disease and ambushed bandit attacks. 'Pressures caused by non-Indian expansion did not cease, however. The General Allotment Act of 1887, designed to force the breakup of tribal landholdings for increased development, caused the eventual loss of much acreage. What was supposed to exist permanently for native peoples as the Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma in 1907 (Oklahoma is a Muskogean word, coined by the Choctaw Allen Wright to mean 'red people,' and first applied to the western half of the Indian Territory in 1890.)' (Waldman, 2006, p. 71) 4.3. Georgia Gold Rush. The Native Indians inhabiting the area of the Appalachian Mountains were aware of the gold resources long before the arrival of the first Spanish expeditions in their lands. The gold was discovered in the Blue Ridge Mountains around 1733, and for almost 100 years the site remained unmined. Frank Logan, farmer and teen essays prospector, takes credit for discovering gold on Dukes Creek, a tributary of the Chattahoochee River in 1828.
America's first gold rush was on horizon. Many explorers told stories of Indians wearing gold. One such story was that of Diego Miruelo, who was supposedly given a small quantity of gold when trading some goods with Florida Indians. However, Hernando de Soto is known for launching the first grand expedition in of research pursuit of gold in 1540. Literature Question Minus? Thousands of prospectors in late 1829 rushed to North Georgia, also known as the Cherokee Nation, looking for gold . ' The sudden influx of data of research paper, miners into the Cherokee Nation was known even at the time as the Great Intrusion. One writer said in psychological of young goodman brown the Cherokee Phoenix, Our neighbors who regard no law and data section pay no respects to the laws of humanity are now reaping a plentiful harvest. . . . We are an abused people. The gold was discovered in Georgia on October 27, 1828. Benjamin Parks, who lived in Hall County (now Lumpkin County), is teen ink college essays, known as the first discoverer. Among other first discoverers is section of research paper, Georgia prospector Frank Logan. Supposedly, Logan on his way back to the North Carolina gold fields, discovered gold in 1828 on Dukes Creek. The story of essays prosser and denmark vesey, Benjamin Parks is considered unsubstantiated because he initially claimed he found the gold in 1827 and data leased the land to mine, but he was not the essays, owner of that land until July, 1828.
The news of gold mines spread and more men were lured into making money, the easy way. 'Whispers of the paper, gold in Georgia spread slowly, but the trickle turned to a flood when the Georgia Journal ran a story on christmas, Gold. two mines in section paper Habersham.' 4.4. Assimilation and Allotment. Controversial political views outlined a necessity for their removal. Some argued that the prosser, Indians could have remained, if assimilated; while others proposed their removal, as they had no capacity for assimilation into superior and section technically advanced society of the whites. Either way, the choice was not to be made by the Indians.
Numerous arguments in favor and against removal legislation come down to one distinct term ' assimilation. Much debate evolved around the process of assimilation. Whether Indians could assimilate or had no capacity of it is irrelevant, as they could not be accepted for minus the answer ap essay who they are. They were deprived of right to live in section paper accordance with their own culture and customs, in their traditional lands, using their native languages. Some 50 years after the Removal of Native Indians, more precisely on February 8th, 1887, Congress passed the General Allotment Act (or the Dawes Severalty Act). 'U.S. law providing for the distribution of Indian reservation land among individual tribesmen, with the aim of to william, creating responsible farmers in the white man's image. It was sponsored in several sessions of Congress by Sen.
Henry L. Dawes of section of research paper, Massachusetts and finally was enacted in February 1887. Under its terms, the president determined the suitability of the recipients and issued the grants, usually by a formula of 160 acres to each head of question ap essay, household and data section 80 acres to each unmarried adult, with the stipulation that no grantee could alienate his land for 25 years.' It also enabled the Indians who received land, to become U.S. citizens, meaning they had to comply with the federal, state, and local laws. Although it was aimed at the welfare of the Indians, there were no enough votes in Congress to pass it. Amendments to the Act were made, in terms of any remaining land, after the allotment to the Indians, would be offered for public sale and then passing the Act followed. 'By 1889, 2 million acres had been bought from the Indians, usually at question minus the answer ap essay, ridiculously low prices, and thrown open to data section of research paper non-Indian settlement. The Oklahoma Land Run took place that year, with settlers lining up at a starting point to race for choice pieces. Those who cheated and entered the teen ink college essays, lands open for settlement were called 'sooners.' In 1890, Oklahoma Territory was formed from these lands.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) The leaders of Cherokee and Choctaw leaders rejected allotment and decided to paper resolve the matter at federal courts. In response, Congress passed the Curtis Act of 1898, with aim to essays ridgeway dissolve their tribal governments and courts. Furthermore, The Curtis Act was, in a way prolongation of land Allotment policy. The U.S. government's policies were structured around regaining Indian lands. Section Paper? In 1905, a proposal to the federal government was made by representatives of the Five Civilized Tribes for establishment of a separate Indian state, known as Sequoyah. 'Legislation was submitted to Congress but was not enacted. Oklahoma, all of which had once been Indian land, became a state in 1907.
During this period, in 1924, the federal government passed the Citizenship Act, conferring citizenship on all Native Americans. Two states'Arizona and New Mexico' delayed giving Indians voting rights until much later. In 1934, with the Indian Reorganization Act (or the Wheeler-Howard Act), the policies of essays, Assimilation and section paper Allotment ended.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) It was not until President Franklin D. Roosevelt and essays about and denmark vesey his commissioner of Indian affairs, John Collier appeared on the political stage that the Native Indians would initiate the data section of research paper, process of rediscovering their lost culture. Those who imposed the assimilation policy had intended to diminish the relevance of Indian heritage and reorganize their tribal features to fit into christmas tree their own. Data Section Of Research? However, the question ap essay, tribes that were encircled with the allotment process never repossessed the lands lost to whites.
The term reservation is applied to most of tribally held lands in other states. Remaining Indian lands in Oklahoma are referred to section of research paper as Indian trust areas. 5. THE TRAIL OF TEARS, WATER AND LAND ROUTES. 'Various scholars have speculated that the camp conditions might have been responsible for perhaps one-third to one-half of all of the graduate programs, deaths associated with the Trail of Tears, though the records leave little chance for anything more than speculation. Scott divided the data section paper, camps into three military districts, each with its own plan for removal to essay tree Indian Territory involving land and water routes.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 59) The tribes were made to take two main routes to reach Oklahoma. Each route went through the Ozarks; the water route, also called the southern route went through Arkansas and the land route, also known as northern route, went through the data of research, Ozarks of question minus ap essay, southern Missouri. The Native American Indians were removed from the data of research paper, southeastern United States to west of the Mississippi. The outrageous 800-mile trail, from Georgia to eastern Oklahoma, took place during 1838 and 1839. The illustration presents both main routes, i.e., the land and water route. Illustration 2 - Routes of the post programs, Trail of data of research paper, Tears from the essays, National Park Service. The territorial aspirations of the Whites were fueled by the discovery of gold in Georgia in 1828, which was confirmed in 1830.
President Andrew Jackson's policy on the Indian Removal corresponds to that timeframe and that same year Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and from that moment on it was 'legitimate' to remove Native Indians from data section of research paper their ancestral lands to so called Indian Territory or reservations. The map illustrates ceded lands, routes of Indian removal and Indian reservations. President Jackson outlined in presented ridgeway his Second Annual Message to Congress on December 6, 1830 that: 'The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to data section paper the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians themselves'It puts an end to all possible danger of essays and studies presented to william, collision between the authorities of the General and paper State Governments on account of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by teen, a few savage hunters.' ' European settlements in the Southeast of the U.S: begun with explorer expeditions in XVI century. The Spanish established missions in Florida and Georgia, and in 1607, the English established Jamestown, Virginia. Of Research? Later XVII century is marked by the English who took part in Indian slavery and deerskin trade in South Carolina, and exploitation of the of young goodman brown, Mississippi River by the French.
Perhaps the most genocidal event was triggered by the passage of the 1830 Indian Removal Act. Known as 'Indian Fighter', President Andrew Jackson authorized the use of force to implement it. It provided European settlers with vast regions of data section of research, rich soil to establish farms on lands inhabited by the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Namely, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole presented a role-model of successful assimilation into whites' society and brown essay it was from 1830-1839, that systematical removals were enforced upon them. The routes they were forced to take, from their southeastern lands to present-day Oklahoma, became symbolically known as the 'Trail of Tears'.
According to data from 1980, 60,000 Cherokee, 24,000 Choctaw, 15,500 Creek, 6,000 Chickasaw, and 5,000 Seminole live in of research Oklahoma. Some argue that genocide is difficult to identify while others have no doubt about teen ink college its classification. Data Of Research? Genocide in broader context applies to the acts 'committed with intent to about destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. ' The Trail of Tears cannot be categorized only in of research terms of tragedy of the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Modern society has name for it and this event is to be named for what it is. The intention to eradicate Native Indians may be questionable; however the christmas, Indian Removal Act clearly outlined that Indians may become extinct or their lands abandoned: The fact that Indian Removal Act was an instrument in the hands of U.S: government to relocate five Native Indian Nations without their consent, by force, constitutes crime. Data? 'The crime of genocide has two elements: intent and action 'it must be inferred from a systematic pattern of coordinated acts.
Intent is different from a motive. Whatever may be the motive for the crime (land expropriation, national security, territorial integrity, etc.,) if the perpetrators commit acts intended to destroy a group, even part of a group, it is genocide.' Bowes, John P. (2009). The Trail of essays gabriel and denmark, Tears: Removal in the South (Landmark Events in paper Native American History). New York: Infobase Publishing. Marsico, K. (2010).
Perspectives on the Trail of Tears: The Tragedy of post graduate, American Indians. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. McNickle, D. (1973). Indian Survivals and Renewals. New York: Oxford University Press. Rasmussen, Kent R., the Editors of section paper, Salem Press. (1995). American Indian Tribes. Pasadena: Salem Press, Inc. Sturgis, Amy H. Is The? (2007).
The Trail of Tears and data of research Indian Removal, Westport: Greenwood Press. Thornton, R. (1990). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492, (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 186). University of Oklahoma Press. Thornton, R. (1992).
The Cherokees: A Population History, University of Nebraska Press. Waldman, C. About? (2006). Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, 3rd Ed., New York: Checkmark Books. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Language essay, dissertation or piece of data section of research paper, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on essays and studies to william, hand, waiting to help you. Each of data paper, us is qualified to a high level in minus our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Language work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Language essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, The Trail Of Tears American Indian Genocide . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/english-language/trail-tears.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of section paper, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to essays presented request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and data section of research Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.