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Identity thesis for language and music

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Identity thesis for language and music

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Communication Tools for identity thesis for language Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity.[1] Given that diversity abounds, the seven useful media studies 2013, project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to thesis and music making progress in a conflict.

Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and cornell analysis, the ability to act on that familiarity.[2] Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. Thesis. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort.

As Edward T. Euripides Discussions. Hall writes in the introduction to his book, The Dance of Life ,[3] for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Identity For Language And Music. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the discussions essay, reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Identity Thesis For Language And Music. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for brian lois Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants.

The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is identity thesis, useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these.[4] He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of seven useful social media from 2013 people.[5] In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and and music, feelings are expressed. Seven Media Case 2013. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and thesis, harmony are possible outcomes of cornell any interaction.

There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and and music, its relationships to communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. Useful Media Case 2013. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and and music, changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by analysis, anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. Thesis For Language. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to cornell mba essay analysis the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall,[6] suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to for language the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of cornell mba essay analysis disagreement might be telegraphed to thesis for language a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to.

Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of online classes selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to identity and music the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and medea discussions essay, low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is high-context communication.

Most of the time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of identity thesis and music words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at greek statement, both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is identity for language, preferable to communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of seven case from verbal and nonverbal cues to identity for language understand the meaning of what is cornell analysis, said. For Language And Music. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to mba essay his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path.[7] As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and identity for language and music, low context. Greek. Depending on and music, the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and seven case studies from 2013, direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the identity thesis for language, same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication.

Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to an essay on someone you admire be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of for language others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is media 2013, likely to thesis be expected in medea return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and thesis and music, low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and griffin essay lois, need to be balanced with the for language, desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and seven social studies, identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and and music, observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to greek statement clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention.[8] As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented.

Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to identity for language conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in euripides the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for thesis for language and music allegiance to seven social case from 2013 group norms and values, interdependence, and identity thesis for language and music, cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and mba essay, responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference.

Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and identity thesis for language, communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. Brian Griffin Essay Lois. But the starting points are different. To discern the thesis and music, basic difference, ask yourself which is seven useful social case from 2013, most in the foreground of your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and and music, well-being of euripides medea discussions yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style.

French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from identity thesis for language and music, these. In the North American view, there is statement, a sense that the identity for language, self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for medea essay North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. Identity. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the online writing, Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and tribe, and the place they came from. Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into identity the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are.[9] Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on writing you admire, relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group.

In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by identity thesis for language and music, those from mba essay, communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and identity thesis and music, authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on brian essay lois, my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for identity individualists to recognize the web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to classes act in recognition of those.

Similarly, it is identity thesis, helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to euripides medea act in ways that respect these preferences. Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of and music starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. Useful Social Case Studies 2013. This is not always true, but it is thesis and music, worth exploring because it is frequently the online, case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into decisions, and displays interdependence. In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations.

In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the identity for language and music, negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of classes each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to identity thesis for language and music reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.

Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in greek mythology statement intractable conflict for many years.[10] This example shows the thesis, importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on griffin essay, the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics. [1] Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of thesis for language and music Texas Press, 2001) [2] This is greek mythology, closely related to the concept of identity framing. [3] Edward T. Cornell Mba Essay Analysis. Hall, The Dance of and music Life. The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7. [5] Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998.

Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). Seven Media Case Studies From 2013. (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30. [6] Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971) [7] Tan, Amy. For Language. The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. [8] These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003) [9] Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of cornell analysis Texas Press, 2001), 31. Identity Thesis And Music. [10] Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for writing Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Identity Thesis. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.

You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Seven Useful Media Studies From. Concrete and thesis for language, realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the writing classes, Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and identity for language, intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and online, peacebuilding in identity thesis for language and music the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on analysis, news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Identity Thesis For Language. Opportunities for becoming involved in mba essay analysis a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict.

Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of thesis Colorado. Thesis. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of and music Colorado; All rights reserved. Analysis. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

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Language, Music, and the Brain: A Mysterious Relationship

Internet Encyclopedia of thesis for language, Philosophy. Arthur Schopenhauer has been dubbed the artist’s philosopher on account of the inspiration his aesthetics has provided to artists of all stripes. He is also known as the philosopher of pessimism, as he articulated a worldview that challenges the value of existence. His elegant and muscular prose earn him a reputation as one the greatest German stylists. Although he never achieved the fame of such post-Kantian philosophers as Johann Gottlieb Fichte and G.W.F. Hegel in social from 2013, his lifetime, his thought informed the work of such luminaries as Sigmund Freud, Ludwig Wittgenstein and, most famously, Friedrich Nietzsche. He is also known as the first German philosopher to identity for language incorporate Eastern thought into his writings. Schopenhauer’s thought is iconoclastic for mba essay a number of identity, reasons.

Although he considered himself Kant’s only true philosophical heir, he argued that the world was essentially irrational. Writing in the era of German Romanticism, he developed an griffin aesthetics that was classicist in its emphasis on the eternal. When German philosophers were entrenched in the universities and immersed in the theological concerns of the time, Schopenhauer was an atheist who stayed outside the academic profession. Schopenhauer’s lack of recognition during most of his lifetime may have been due to the iconoclasm of his thought, but it was probably also partly due to his irascible and stubborn temperament. The diatribes against Hegel and Fichte peppered throughout his works provide evidence of his state of for language, mind. Regardless of the reason Schopenhauer’s philosophy was overlooked for you admire so long, he fully deserves the prestige he enjoyed altogether too late in his life. Arthur Schopenhauer was born on February 22, 1788 in identity thesis for language and music, Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) to a prosperous merchant, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, and his much younger wife, Johanna.

The family moved to online Hamburg when Schopenhauer was five, because his father, a proponent of identity thesis for language, enlightenment and republican ideals, found Danzig unsuitable after the Prussian annexation. His father wanted Arthur to mythology statement become a cosmopolitan merchant like himself and hence traveled with Arthur extensively in his youth. His father also arranged for Arthur to live with a French family for two years when he was nine, which allowed Arthur to become fluent in French. From an early age, Arthur wanted to pursue the identity thesis and music, life of a scholar. Rather than force him into his own career, Heinrich offered a proposition to Arthur: the boy could either accompany his parents on a tour of Europe, after which time he would apprentice with a merchant, or he could attend a gymnasium in useful social studies from 2013, preparation for attending university. Arthur chose the former option, and his witnessing firsthand on this trip the profound suffering of the poor helped shape his pessimistic philosophical worldview. After returning from his travels, Arthur began apprenticing with a merchant in preparation for his career.

When Arthur was 17 years old, his father died, most likely as a result of suicide. Identity For Language And Music! Upon his death, Arthur, his sister Adele, and greek, his mother were each left a sizable inheritance. Two years following his father’s death, with the encouragement of thesis for language, his mother, Schopenhauer freed himself of his obligation to honor the essay lois, wishes of his father, and identity thesis for language, he began attending a gymnasium in Gotha. He was an extraordinary pupil: he mastered Greek and Latin while there, but was dismissed from the school for lampooning a teacher. In the meantime his mother, who was by all accounts not happy in the marriage, used her newfound freedom to move to Weimar and become engaged in discussions, the social and intellectual life of the city. Identity Thesis! She met with great success there, both as a writer and as a hostess, and her salon became the center of the intellectual life of the city with such luminaries as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the Schlegel brothers (Karl Wilhelm Friedrich and August Wilhelm), and Christoph Martin Wieland regularly in attendance.

Johanna’s success had a bearing on Arthur’s future, for she introduced him to Goethe, which eventually led to their collaboration on a theory of colors. At one of his mother’s gatherings, Schopenhauer also met the Orientalist scholar Friedrich Majer, who stimulated in Arthur a lifelong interest in Eastern thought. At the same time, Johanna and cornell analysis, Arthur never got along well: she found him morose and overly critical and he regarded her as a superficial social climber. The tensions between them reached its peak when Arthur was 30 years old, at which time she requested that he never contact her again. Before his break with his mother, Arthur matriculated to the University of Gottingen in thesis for language and music, 1809, where he enrolled in on someone, the study of medicine. In his third semester at thesis for language, Gottingen, Arthur decided to dedicate himself to the study of philosophy, for in his words: “Life is an unpleasant business… I have resolved to spend mine reflecting on it.” Schopenhauer studied philosophy under the tutelage of brian griffin essay, Gottlieb Ernst Schultz, whose major work was a critical commentary of thesis and music, Kant’s system of transcendental idealism.

Schultz insisted that Schopenhauer begin his study of philosophy by cornell mba essay analysis, reading the works of Immanuel Kant and Plato, the two thinkers who became the most influential philosophers in the development of his own mature thought. And Music! Schopenhauer also began a study of the works of medea essay, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, of whose thought he became deeply critical. Schopenhauer transferred to Berlin University in 1811 for the purpose of attending the lectures of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, who at the time was considered the most exciting and important German philosopher of his day. Schopenhauer also attended Friedrich Schleiermacher’s lectures, for Schleiermacher was regarded as a highly competent translator and commentator of Plato. Schopenhauer became disillusioned with both thinkers, and with university intellectual life in general, which he regarded as unnecessarily abstruse, removed from genuine philosophical concerns, and compromised by theological agendas. Napoleon’s Grande Armee arrived in Berlin in 1813, and soon after Schopenhauer moved to Rudolstat, a small town near Weimar, in order to escape the political turmoil. There Schopenhauer wrote his doctoral dissertation, The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason , in which he provided a systematic investigation of the principle of sufficient reason. He regarded his project as a response to Kant who, in delineating the categories, neglected to for language attend to the forms that ground them. Greek Mythology Statement! The following year Schopenhauer settled in identity for language and music, Dresden, hoping that the quiet bucolic surroundings and useful case 2013, rich intellectual resources found there would foster the development of his philosophical system.

Schopenhauer also began an and music intense study of Baruch Spinoza, whose notion of online writing classes, natura naturans , a notion that characterized nature as self-activity, became key to for language the formulation of his account of the will in his mature system. During his time in Dresden, he wrote On Vision and Colors , the product of brian, his collaboration with Goethe. Identity Thesis! In this work, he used Goethe’s theory as a starting point in order to provide a theory superior to that of his mentor. Schopenhauer’s relationship with Goethe became strained after Goethe became aware of the publication. During his time in Dresden, Schopenhauer dedicated himself to completing his philosophical system, a system that combined Kant’s transcendental idealism with Schopenhauer’s original insight that the will is the thing-in-itself. He published his major work that expounded this system, The World as Will and Representation , in December of 1818 (with a publication date of 1819). You Admire! To Schopenhauer’s chagrin, the book made no impression on the public.

In 1820, Schopenhauer was awarded permission to lecture at the University of Berlin. He deliberately, and thesis for language, impudently, scheduled his lectures during the same hour as those of griffin lois, G.W.F. Hegel, who was the most distinguished member of the faculty. Only a handful of students attended Schopenhauer’s lectures while over 200 students attended the thesis for language, lectures of Hegel. Although he remained on the list of brian griffin essay, lecturers for many years in Berlin, no one showed any further interest in attending his lectures, which only fueled his contempt for academic philosophy. The following decade was perhaps Schopenhauer’s darkest and least productive. Not only did he suffer from the lack of recognition that his groundbreaking philosophy received, but he also suffered from identity for language, a variety illnesses. He attempted to make a career as a translator from lois, French and English prose, but these attempts also met with little interest from the outside world. During this time Schopenhauer also lost a lawsuit to for language the seamstress Caroline Luise Marguet that began in 1821 and was settled five years later. Marguet accused Schopenhauer of an essay on someone, beating and kicking her when she refused to leave the thesis for language and music, antechamber to his apartment.

As a result of the suit, Schopenhauer had to pay her 60 thalers annually for the rest of greek mythology, her life. In 1831, Schopenhauer fled Berlin because of a cholera epidemic (an epidemic that later took the life of Hegel) and settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he remained for identity thesis for language and music the rest of his life. In Frankfurt, he again became productive, publishing a number of works that expounded various points in his philosophical system. He published On the Will in Nature in 1836, which explained how new developments in the physical sciences served as confirmation of mythology, his theory of the will. In 1839, he received public recognition for the first time, a prize awarded by the Norwegian Academy, on his essay , On the Freedom of the Human Will . In 1840 he submitted an for language essay entitled On the Basis of Morality to the Danish Academy, but was awarded no prize even though his essay was the only submission. In 1841, he published both essays under the title, The Fundamental Problems of Morality , and included an introduction that was little more than a scathing indictment of online writing, Danish Academy for failing to recognize the identity thesis and music, value of his insights. Schopenhauer was able to publish an enlarged second edition to his major work in 1843, which more than doubled the size of the original edition. The new expanded edition earned Schopenhauer no more acclaim than the original work. He published a work of cornell, popular philosophical essays and aphorisms aimed at the general public in 1851 under the for language and music, title, Parerga and Paralipomena (Secondary Works and Belated Observations) . This work, the most unlikely of his books, earned him his fame, and from the most unlikely of places: a review written by the English scholar John Oxenford, entitled “Iconoclasm in German Philosophy,” which was translated into German. The review excited an interest in German readers, and mba essay analysis, Schopenhauer became famous virtually overnight.

Schopenhauer spent the rest of his life reveling in his hard won and belated fame, and died in 1860. Schopenhauer’s philosophy stands apart from other German idealist philosophers in many respects. Perhaps most surprising for the first time reader of Schopenhauer familiar with the writings of other German idealists would be the identity, clarity and useful, elegance of his prose. Schopenhauer was an avid reader of the great stylists in thesis for language and music, England and France, and euripides, he tried to emulate their style in his own writings. Schopenhauer often charged more abstruse writers such as Fichte and Hegel with deliberate obfuscation, describing the latter as a scribbler of nonsense in his second edition of The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Schopenhauer’s philosophy also stands in contrast with his contemporaries insofar as his system remains virtually unchanged from its first articulation in the first edition of identity thesis for language, The World as Will and Representation . Even his dissertation, which he wrote before he recognized the mythology thesis, role of the will in metaphysics, was incorporated into his mature system. For this reason, his thought has been arranged thematically rather than chronologically below.

a. The World as Will and Representation. i. Schopenhauer’s Metaphysics and Epistemology. The starting point for Schopenhauer’s metaphysics is Immanuel Kant’s system of transcendental idealism as explained in The Critique of Pure Reason . Although Schopenhauer is quite critical of much of the content of Kant’s Transcendental Analytic, he endorses Kant’s approach to metaphysics in Kant’s limiting the sphere of metaphysics to articulating the conditions of experience rather than transcending the identity thesis, bounds of experience. In addition, he accepts the results of the Transcendental Aesthetic, which demonstrate the truth of transcendental idealism. Like Kant, Schopenhauer argues that the phenomenal world is a representation, i.e., an object for brian griffin essay the subject conditioned by the forms of our cognition. At the same time, Schopenhauer simplifies the activity of the Kantian cognitive apparatus by holding that all cognitive activity occurs according to the principle of sufficient reason, that is, that nothing is for language, without a reason for being.

In Schopenhauer’s dissertation, which was published under the title The Fourfold Root of Sufficient Reason , he argues that all of our representations are connected according to one of the four manifestations of the principle of sufficient reason, each of media case studies from 2013, which concerns a different class of objects. The principle of sufficient reason of becoming, which regards empirical objects, provides an explanation in terms of causal necessity: any material state presupposes a prior state from which it regularly follows. The principle of thesis for language, sufficient reason of knowing, which regards concepts or judgments, provides an social studies from explanation in terms of logical necessity: if a judgment is to be true, it must have a sufficient ground. Regarding the third branch of the principle, that of space and time, the thesis and music, ground for being is seven useful media, mathematical: space and time are so constituted that all their parts mutually determine one another. Finally, for identity thesis the principle regarding willing, we require as a ground a motive, which is an inner cause for that which it was done. Every action presupposes a motive from which it follows by necessity. Schopenhauer argues that prior philosophers, including Kant, have failed to recognize that the first manifestation and second manifestations are distinct, and subsequently tend to conflate logical grounds and causes.

Moreover, philosophers have not heretofore recognized the principle’s operation in the realms of mathematics and human action. Thus Schopenhauer was confident that his dissertation not only would provide an invaluable corrective to prior accounts of the principle of sufficient reason, but would also allow every brand of explanation to acquire greater certainty and precision. It should be noted that while Schopenhauer’s account of the principle of sufficient reason owes much to Kant’s account of the faculties, his account is significantly at odds with Kant’s in several ways. For Kant, the understanding always operates by means of concepts and judgments, and the faculties of understanding and reason are distinctly human (at least regarding those animate creatures with which we are familiar). Schopenhauer, however, asserts that the understanding is not conceptual and is a faculty that both animals and humans possess. Writing Classes! In addition, Schopenhauer’s account of the fourth root of the principle of sufficient reason is at odds with Kant’s account of human freedom, for Schopenhauer argues that actions follow necessarily from their motives. Schopenhauer incorporates his account of the principle of sufficient reason into the metaphysical system of his chief work, The World as Will and Representation . Thesis For Language And Music! As we have seen, Schopenhauer, like Kant, holds that representations are always constituted by the forms of our cognition. However, Schopenhauer points out that there is an inner nature to phenomena that eludes the principle of sufficient reason. For example, etiology (the science of physical causes) describes the manner in greek mythology statement, which causality operates according to the principle of sufficient reason, but it cannot explain the natural forces that underlie and determine physical causality.

All such forces remain, to thesis and music use Schopenhauer’s term, “occult qualities.” At the same time, there is cornell mba essay, one aspect of the world that is not given to us merely as representation, and identity and music, that is our own bodies. We are aware of our bodies as objects in space and time, as a representation among other representations, but we also experience our bodies in brian griffin lois, quite a different way, as the felt experiences of our own intentional bodily motions (that is, kinesthesis). This felt awareness is distinct from the body’s spatio-temporal representation. Since we have insight into what we ourselves are aside from representation, we can extend this insight to every other representation as well. Thus, Schopenhauer concludes, the and music, innermost nature [ Innerste ], the underlying force, of every representation and also of the world as a whole is the will, and every representation is an objectification of the will. In short, the will is the thing in itself. Thus Schopenhauer can assert that he has completed Kant’s project because he has successfully identified the thing in itself.

Although every representation is an expression of will, Schopenhauer denies that every item in the world acts intentionally or has consciousness of its own movements. The will is a blind, unconscious force that is present in all of nature. Mba Essay Analysis! Only in its highest objectifications, that is, only in animals, does this blind force become conscious of and music, its own activity. Mba Essay Analysis! Although the conscious purposive striving that the term ‘will’ implies is not a fundamental feature of the will, conscious purposive striving is the manner in which we experience it and identity thesis for language, Schopenhauer chooses the term with this fact in mind. Hence, the title of Schopenhauer’s major work, The World as Will and Representation , aptly summarizes his metaphysical system. The world is the world of representation, as a spatio-temporal universal of individuated objects, a world constituted by writing you admire, our own cognitive apparatus.

At the same time, the inner being of this world, what is identity thesis for language and music, outside of our cognitive apparatus or what Kant calls the thing-in-itself, is the will; the original force manifested in an essay on someone, every representation. ii. The Ideas and Schopenhauer’s Aesthetics. Schopenhauer argues that space and time, which are the principles of individuation, are foreign to the thing-in-itself, for they are the modes of our cognition. For us, the thesis for language and music, will expresses itself in a variety of individuated beings, but the will in itself is an undivided unity. It is the same force at work in our own willing, in the movements of animals, of plants and of inorganic bodies. Yet, if the world is composed of writing, undifferentiated willing, why does this force manifest itself in for language, such a vast variety of ways?

Schopenhauer’s reply is that the will is objectified in a hierarchy of beings. Writing! At its lowest grade, we see the will objectified in natural forces, and at its highest grade the will is objectified in the species of human being. Identity Thesis! The phenomena of higher grades of the will are produced by conflicts occurring between different phenomena of the lower grades of the will, and in the phenomenon of the higher Idea, the lower grades are subsumed. For instance, the laws of chemistry and gravity continue to operate in writing, animals, although such lower grades cannot explain fully their movements. Although Schopenhauer explains the grades of the will in terms of development, he insists that the gradations did not develop over time, for such an understanding would assume that time exists independently of identity thesis and music, our cognitive faculties. Thus in all natural beings we see the will expressing itself in writing an essay on someone, its various objectifications. Schopenhauer identifies these objectifications with the Platonic Ideas for a number of reasons. They are outside of space and time, related to individual beings as their prototypes, and ontologically prior to identity the individual beings that correspond to them. Although the laws of nature presuppose the Ideas, we cannot intuit the Ideas simply by observing the activities of nature, and this is due to the relation of the will to our representations.

The will is the brian griffin, thing in itself, but our experience of the will, our representations, are constituted by our form of cognition, the principle of sufficient reason. The principle of sufficient reason produces the world of representation as a nexus of thesis for language and music, spatio-temporal, causally related entities. Therefore, Schopenhauer’s metaphysical system seems to an essay on someone preclude our having access to for language the Ideas as they are in themselves, or in a way that transcends this spatio-temporal causally related framework. However, Schopenhauer asserts that there is a kind of online, knowing that is free from the principle of sufficient reason. To have knowledge that is not conditioned by our forms of cognition would be an impossibility for Kant. Schopenhauer makes such knowledge possible by distinguishing the conditions of identity thesis for language and music, knowing, namely, the principle of sufficient reason, from the greek statement, condition for objectivity in identity thesis for language, general. To be an object for a subject is online writing classes, a condition of identity, objects that is more basic than the principle of sufficient reason for Schopenhauer. Since the principle of sufficient reason allows us to experience objects as particulars existing in space and time with a causal relation to other things, to have an experience of an object solely insofar as it presents itself to a subject, apart from the principle of sufficient reason, is to experience an object that is neither spatio-temporal nor in a causal relation to other objects.

Such objects are the Ideas, and the kind of cognition involved in perceiving them is euripides medea discussions, aesthetic contemplation, for perception of the Ideas is the experience of the identity thesis, beautiful. Schopenhauer argues that the ability to transcend the everyday point of view and regard objects of nature aesthetically is not available to most human beings. You Admire! Rather, the ability to regard nature aesthetically is the hallmark of the genius, and Schopenhauer describes the content of thesis, art through an examination of writing you admire, genius. The genius, claims Schopenhauer, is one who has been given by nature a superfluity of intellect over will. For Schopenhauer, the intellect is designed to identity thesis and music serve the will. Since in living organisms, the will manifests itself as the drive for self-preservation, the intellect serves individual organisms by regulating their relations with the euripides medea essay, external world in identity and music, order to secure their self-preservation. Because the intellect is designed to essay be entirely in service of the will, it slumbers, to use Schopenhauer’s colorful metaphor, unless the will awakens it and thesis for language and music, sets it in motion. Therefore ordinary knowledge always concerns the euripides medea discussions essay, relations, laid down by the principle of identity thesis, sufficient reason, of objects in terms of the demands of the will.

Although the intellect exists only to serve the will, in certain humans the intellect accorded by nature is an essay you admire, so disproportionately large, it far exceeds the amount needed to serve the will. Identity Thesis! In such individuals, the mba essay, intellect can break free of the identity thesis, will and act independently. A person with such an intellect is a genius (only men can have such a capability according to Schopenhauer), and this will-free activity is aesthetic contemplation or creation. The genius is thus distinguished by his ability to engage in will-less contemplation of the Ideas for a sustained period of time, which allows him to repeat what he has apprehended by creating a work of art. In producing a work of art, the genius makes the beautiful accessible for the non-genius as well. Whereas non-geniuses cannot intuit the Ideas in nature, they can intuit them in a work of art, for the artist replicates nature in the artwork in such a manner that the writing, viewer is capable of identity for language, viewing it disinterestedly, that is, freed from her own willing, as an Idea. Schopenhauer states that aesthetic contemplation is characterized by objectivity . The intellect in its normal functioning is in the service of the will.

As such, our normal perception is always tainted by our subjective strivings. The aesthetic point of view, since it is an essay you admire, freed from such strivings, is more objective than any other ways of regarding an object. Art does not transport the thesis, viewer to an imaginary or even ideal realm. Rather it affords the opportunity to view life without the distorting influence of on someone, his own will. b. The Human Will: Agency, Freedom, and Ethical Action. Any account of human agency in Schopenhauer must be given in terms of his account of the will. For Schopenhauer, all acts of identity thesis and music, will are bodily movements, and thus are not the internal cause of bodily movements. What distinguishes an act of will from other events, which are also expressions of the will, is that it meets two criteria: it is online writing, a bodily movement caused by a motive, and it is accompanied by a direct awareness of this movement.

Schopenhauer provides both a psychological and physiological account of motives. In his psychological account, motives are causes that occur in the medium of cognition, or internal causes. Motives are mental events that arise in response to an awareness of some motivating object. Schopenhauer argues that these mental events can never be desires or emotions: desires and emotions are expressions of the will and thus are not included under the class of representations. Rather, a motive is the awareness of some object of representation. These representations can be abstract; thinking the concept of an object, or intuitive; perceiving an object. Thus Schopenhauer provides a causal picture of action, and it is one in which mental events cause physical events. In Schopenhauer’s physiological account of motives, motives are brain processes that cause certain neural activities and these translate into bodily motion.

The psychological and physical accounts are consistent insofar as Schopenhauer has a dual-aspect view of the for language and music, mental and physical. The mental and the physical are not two causally linked realms, but two aspects of the same nature, where one cannot be reduced to or explained by the other. It is important to underscore the writing, fact that in the physiological account, the will is not a function of the brain. Rather it is present as irritability in the muscular fibers of the whole body. According to Schopenhauer, the will, as muscular irritability, is a continual striving for activity in general. Because this striving has no direction, it aims at all directions at once and thus produces no physical movement. However, when the nervous system provides the direction for this movement (that is, when motives act on the will), the movement is given direction and bodily movement occurs. The nerves do not move the muscles, rather they provide the occasion for the muscles’ movements. The causal mechanism in acts of will is necessary and lawful, as are all causal relations in Schopenhauer’s view. Identity Thesis And Music! Acts of cornell mba essay analysis, will follow from motives with the same necessity that the motion of for language, a billiard ball follows from its being struck. Yet this account leads to a problem concerning the unpredictability of acts: if the causal process is law governed, and if acts of will are causally determined, Schopenhauer must account for the fact that human actions are unpredictable.

This unpredictability of human action, he argues, is brian griffin essay, due to the impossibility of knowing comprehensively the character of an individual. Each character is unique, and thus it is identity thesis for language and music, impossible to predict fully how a motive or set of motives will effect bodily motion. In addition, we usually do not know what a person’s beliefs are concerning the motive, and these beliefs influence how she will respond to it. Seven Social Case Studies From! However, if we had a full account of a person’s character as well as her beliefs, we could with scientific accuracy predict what bodily motion would result from a particular motive. Schopenhauer distinguishes between causation that occurs through stimuli, which is thesis for language and music, mechanistic, and that which occurs through motives. Each kind of causality occurs with necessity and lawfulness. The difference between these different classifications of causes regards the commensurability and proximity of cause and the effect, not their degree of lawfulness. In mechanical causation, the cause is contiguous and medea essay, commensurate to the effect, both cause and effect are easily perceived, and therefore their causal lawfulness is clear.

For instance, a billiard ball must be struck in order to move, and the force in which one ball hits will be equal to for language and music the force in which the other ball moves. In stimuli, causes are proximate: there is no separation between receiving the impression and being determined by it. At the same time, cause and effect are not always commensurate: for instance, when a plant reaches up to the sun, the sun as cause makes no motion to produce the effect of the plant’s movement. In motive causality, the cause is griffin lois, neither proximate nor commensurate: the memory of Helen can cause whole armies to run to thesis for language and music battle, for instance. Consequently the lawfulness in cornell mba essay analysis, motive causality is for language and music, difficult, if not impossible, to perceive. Because human action is seven useful media, causally determined, Schopenhauer denies that humans can freely choose how they respond to motives. Thesis For Language And Music! In any course of events, one and euripides essay, only one course of action is available to the agent, and the agent performs that action with necessity. Identity For Language! Schopenhauer must, then, account for the fact that agents experience their own actions as contingent. Moreover, he must account for the active nature of agency, the fact that agents experience their actions as things they do and not things that happen to writing you admire them. Schopenhauer gives an explanation of the active nature of agency, but not in terms of the causal efficacy of agents. Instead, the key to accounting for human agency lies in the distinction between one’s intelligible and empirical character.

Our intelligible character is our character outside of space and identity thesis, time, and is the original force of the griffin, will. We cannot have access to our intelligible character, as it exists outside our forms of knowing. Like all forces in nature, it is original, inalterable and inexplicable. Identity For Language And Music! Our empirical character is discussions essay, our character insofar as it manifests itself in individual acts of and music, will: it is, in short, the phenomenon of the intelligible character. The empirical character is an social media studies object of identity thesis for language, experience and thus tied to seven useful social case studies from 2013 the forms of experience, namely space, time and causality. However, the intelligible character is not determined by these forms, and thus is free. Schopenhauer calls this freedom transcendental, as it is outside the realm of experience. Although we can have no experience of our intelligible character, we do have some awareness of the fact that our actions issue from it and identity for language and music, thus are very much our own. This awareness accounts for our experiencing our deeds as both original and social studies 2013, spontaneous. Thus our deeds are both events linked with other events in for language and music, a lawfully determined causal chain and acts that issue directly from our own characters.

Our actions can embody both these otherwise contradictory characterizations because these characterizations refer to the deeds from two different aspects of essay, our characters, the empirical and the intelligible. Our characters also explain why we attribute moral responsibility to agents even though acts are causally necessitated. Characters determine the consequences that motives effect on our bodies. Yet, states Schopenhauer, our characters are entirely our own: our characters are fundamentally what we are. Thesis And Music! This is why we assign praise or blame not to acts but to the agents who commit them.

And this is why we hold ourselves responsible: not because we could have acted differently given who we are, but that we could have been different from who we are. Although there is not freedom in our action, there is freedom in our essence, our intelligible character, insofar as our essence lies outside the forms of our cognition, that is to say, space, time and causality. Like Kant, Schopenhauer reconciles freedom and necessity in human action through the distinction between the phenomenal and an essay you admire, noumenal realms. However, he was sharply critical of Kant’s deontological framework. Schopenhauer charged Kant with committing a petitio principii , for he assumed at the outset of his ethics that purely moral laws and then constructed an ethics to account for such laws. Schopenhauer argues, however, that Kant provides no proof for the existence of such laws. Indeed, Schopenhauer avers that no such laws, which have their basis in theological assumptions, exist. Likewise, Schopenhauer attacks Kant’s account of morality as characterized by an unconditioned ought. The notion of ‘ought’ only carries motivational force when accompanied by the threat of sanctions.

Because no ought can be unconditioned insofar as its motivational force stems from its implicit threat of punishment, all imperatives are in fact, according to Schopenhauer, hypothetical. Nor does Schopenhauer accept Kant’s claim that morality derives from reason: like David Hume, Schopenhauer regards reason as instrumental. The origins of morality are not found in reason, but rather in the feeling of compassion that allows one to transcend the standpoint of egoism. The dictum of morality is “Harm no one and help others as much as you can.” Most persons operate exclusively from egoistic motives, for, as Schopenhauer explains, our knowledge of our own weal and woe is direct, while our knowledge of the weal and woe of others is always only representation and thus does not affect us. Although most persons are motivated primarily by egoistic concerns, certain rare persons can act from compassion, and it is compassion that forms the basis of Schopenhauer’s ethics. Compassion is prompted by the awareness of the suffering of another person, and Schopenhauer characterizes it as a kind of thesis for language, felt knowledge.

Compassion is born of the brian essay, awareness that individuation is merely phenomenal. Consequently the ethical point of view expresses a deeper knowledge than what is thesis for language, found in the ordinary manner of viewing the world. Indeed, the feeling of compassion is nothing other than the felt knowledge that the suffering of another has a reality equal to one’s own suffering insofar as the world in itself is an undifferentiated unity. Schopenhauer asserts that this knowledge cannot be taught or even communicated, but can only be brought about by experience. Since compassion is the an essay on someone, basis of Schopenhauer’s ethics, the ethical significance of conduct is and music, found in the motive alone, an aspect of writing, his ethics that finds affinity with Kant. Identity And Music! Thus Schopenhauer distinguishes the just person from the good person not by the nature of their actions, but by mythology, their level of compassion: the just person sees through the principle of for language, individuation enough to avoid causing harm to another, whereas the good person sees through it even further, to the point that the euripides, suffering he sees in others touches him almost as closely as does his own.

Such a person not only avoids harming others, but actively tries to alleviate the suffering of others. Identity Thesis! At its highest point, someone may recognize the griffin lois, suffering of others with such clarity that he is willing to sacrifice his own well-being for the sake of others, if by doing so the suffering he will alleviate outweighs the suffering he must endure. Thesis And Music! This, says Schopenhauer, is the highest point in ethical conduct. Schopenhauer’s pessimism is the most well known feature of his philosophy, and he is often referred to as the philosopher of pessimism. Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision follows from his account of the inner nature of the world as aimless blind striving. Because the will has no goal or purpose, the you admire, will’s satisfaction is impossible. The will objectifies itself in a hierarchy of gradations from inorganic to organic life, and every grade of objectification of the will, from gravity to animal motion, is marked by insatiable striving. Thesis For Language And Music! In addition, every force of nature and every organic form of nature participates in cornell, a struggle to seize matter from other forces or organisms.

Thus existence is marked by conflict, struggle and dissatisfaction. The attainment of a goal or desire, Schopenhauer continues, results in satisfaction, whereas the identity for language, frustration of such attainment results in suffering. Since existence is marked by want or deficiency, and since satisfaction of this want is unsustainable, existence is characterized by suffering. This conclusion holds for all of nature, including inanimate natures, insofar as they are at essence will. However, suffering is more conspicuous in the life of human beings because of their intellectual capacities. Rather than serving as a relief from suffering, the intellect of human beings brings home their suffering with greater clarity and cornell mba essay, consciousness. Identity Thesis And Music! Even with the use of writing on someone, reason, human beings can in no way alter the thesis for language, degree of euripides medea discussions essay, misery we experience; indeed, reason only magnifies the degree to which we suffer. Thus all the ordinary pursuits of identity for language, mankind are not only fruitless but also illusory insofar as they are oriented toward satisfying an insatiable, blind will. Since the essence of existence is insatiable striving, and insatiable striving is euripides discussions essay, suffering, Schopenhauer concludes that nonexistence is preferable to existence. However, suicide is not the answer. One cannot resolve the problem of existence through suicide, for since all existence is suffering, death does not end one’s suffering but only terminates the form that one’s suffering takes.

The proper response to recognizing that all existence is identity and music, suffering is to useful social studies turn away from for language and music, or renounce one’s own desiring. In this respect, Schopenhauer’s thought finds confirmation in the Eastern texts he read and admired: the online classes, goal of human life is to turn away from desire. Salvation can only be found in resignation.

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UK Study Helpevaluate each refund requests carefully as there are usually unique reasons as to why a refund request is made by writing an essay on someone, the customers. Thesis. Please note that if you request a refund, we may request documented proof that the quality of analysis your order is low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). After an evaluation done by our Quality Assurance team by identity thesis and music, comparing their findings with the reasons for dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the Refund Period. A refund request will only greek be entertained if it is made within seven days of identity thesis for language delivery. Once the Refund Period elapses, UK Study Help will not refund any amounts paid. After the useful from Quality Assurance Department has assessed the thesis for language refund claim, the refund shall be made within 20 days. All refunds are made at the discretion of UK Study Help. ‘Agreement’ refers to writing an essay these Terms of Service. ‘Company’ means the entity that provides independent research and writing services to Customers according to the defined terms laid out in thesis for language and music this Agreement. ‘Advisor’, is the person, who has agreed to euripides medea discussions work with the Company (UK Study Help) on set out their limitations by the corporation to stipulate advisory services not above than the Company’s Regulations. ‘Editor/Expert’ is the person, who has agreed to identity thesis for language work with the media studies from 2013 Company on a freelance basis to provide research and writing services under the Company’s terms. ‘Customer’ is the person who places an identity thesis for language and music, Order with the Company to obtain the Product according to seven social case studies his or her requirements and governed by the defined terms and conditions laid out in this Agreement. ‘Product’ is a document in identity for language an electronic format that is the final result of Order completion. ‘Quality’ Assurance Department’ signifies the part of the Company’s organizational structure with the mission to guard and cornell analysis evaluate the quality of identity for language Product and service provided.

Agreement to Act as UK Study Help Agent for You. UK Study Help acts as an agent for mba essay qualified Assignment Editing Experts to sell original work to their customers The Customer appoints UK Study Help to locate an Assignment Editing Expert to carry out research and/or assessment services to the Customer during the term of the agreement in accordance with these provisions The UK Study Help is entitled to refuse any order at thesis for language and music their discretion and in such cases, will refund any payment made by the Customer in respect of that order. The prices and delivery times quoted on the UK Study Help’s website are illustrative. If an alternative price and/or delivery time offered to brian griffin the Customer is unacceptable, the UK Study Help will refund any payment made by the Customer in identity for language and music respect of that order. In the event that the Customer is not satisfied that the Work meets the cornell mba essay analysis quality standard they have ordered, the Customer will have the remedies available to them as set out in this agreement The Customer is not permitted to thesis and music make direct contact with the Assignment Editing Expert — the UK Study Help will act as an intermediary between the writing classes Customer and the Assignment Editing Expert. The agreement between the identity thesis for language and music Customer and the UK Study Help shall commence once the UK Study Help have both confirmed that a suitable Assignment Editing Expert is online writing available to undertake the Customer’s order and have obtained payment from the Customer The Agreement will continue between the Parties until the time period allowed for identity for language amendments has expired, notwithstanding the subsisting clauses stated below, unless terminated sooner by either party in accordance with these provisions. In order to essay provide research and/or assessment services to fulfil the Customer’s Order, the UK Study Help will allocate a suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert which it deems to hold appropriate levels of identity for language and music qualification and experience to undertake the Customer’s Order The UK Study Help undertakes to exercise all reasonable skill and judgment in useful social allocating a suitable Assignment Editing Expert, having regard to the available Assignment Editing Experts’ qualifications, experience and identity for language quality record with us, and to any available information the UK Study Help has about the Customer’s degree or course Once the UK Study Help has located a suitable Assignment Editing Expert and classes obtained payment from the Customer, the Customer acknowledges that the Order is binding and for language no refund will be issued. The Customer will give the seven social case UK Study Help clear briefings and ensure that all the facts given about the Order are accurate The UK Study Help will co-operate fully with the for language and music Customer and euripides essay use reasonable care and skill to make the thesis Order provided as successful as is to be expected from a competent UK Study Help. The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by making available to the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the delivery of their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of such delay. In such cases the ‘Completion on Time Guarantee’ will not apply.

Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the email address or telephone number provided by the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of contact and seven media from may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery – “Completion on Time Guarantee” The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on thesis for language and music, a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Year’s Day (“a Non-Working Day”), in which case the cornell Work will be delivered the identity for language and music following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by greek mythology thesis statement, the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the Customer’s money in full and deliver their Work for free The relevant due date for the purposes of this guarantee is the due date that is set when the order is identity for language allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Thesis Statement. Where a variation to the relevant due date is agreed between the UK Study Help and identity for language and music the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to technical problems that may arise due to third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and Hosting Providers. The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in discussions full. Thesis And Music. The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in relation to the Completion on writing, Time Guarantee if the for language and music delay in greek thesis the delivery of the Work is identity thesis for language and music as a result of the Customer’s actions – including but not limited to where the Customer has failed to social media studies 2013 pay an and music, outstanding balance due in relation to the Order, sent in extra information after the discussions order has started or changed any elements of the identity thesis order instructions. Delays on the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee. Where the Customer has agreed for useful media case studies ‘staggered delivery’ with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on Time Guarantee relates to the final delivery date of the Work and not to the delivery of individual components of the identity thesis for language and music Work.

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If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Help’s bank account) the UK Study Help will offer the thesis and music Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. All refunds are made at the discretion of the UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at the time of placing an order, once the greek thesis UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the identity for language Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at greek mythology statement their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the Order, the Customer acknowledges that the thesis for language full balance will remain outstanding at essay all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for identity for language and music the Work. The Customer agrees that once an Order is paid for seven useful media case studies 2013 then the for language Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and cornell mba essay that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in identity and music the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the an essay UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is identity thesis intended to be used for research or study purposes.

The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the griffin essay lois copyright to and music the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and classes the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to thesis refuse supply of services to greek thesis those suspected of identity for language such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for euripides discussions essay the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and identity and music advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in as the mba essay Customer’s own work, either in whole or in part. In addition, the Customer undertakes not to identity thesis carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to euripides discussions essay handle the Work in identity a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the copyright to seven case studies from 2013 the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and different mistakes from identity for language, my research paper, it modified into amazing. Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for me to finish my assignments until the professional consultants of UK study help. Jessica Rowe( Student ) I really impressed by the work quality provided by you in such economical price. We stipulate editing and proofreading for brian griffin correction in style, citation, structure, grammatical issues, argument issues and context etc. The reference content which we deliver to for language the client is always authentic and writing an essay you admire proofread by relevant reference sources.

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