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Edexcel AS and A level Physical Education (2016) | Pearson
AQA Physical Education Coursework. Extracts from this document. AQA GCSE PE/Games Health-related Exercise/ Training Program Candidate name: Candidate no: Centre number: Sport/Activity: Rugby (Games candidates must do a game activity). Training method: Circuit Training _____________________________________ For Teacher use only Teacher: Group: Planning (Max 20) Performing (Max 20) Monitoring (Max 10) Evaluating (Max 20) Blank page for your use Planning Purpose/aim of the program. Personal fitness profile. Explain how fit you think you are, and if you have any injuries or health problems.
Outline how much physical activity you get in a typical week. As Pe Coursework? State what targets you expect to achieve by the end of the 5 sessions in similarities between and the monster terms of aspects of fitness/skills you want to improve. 5 marks Awareness of safety aspects. Outline any potential risks with any apparatus/equipment. What factors will you need to consider when planning the order/types of edexcel coursework, exercises? Explain how and why you will prepare your body for exercise/and help it to recover afterwards.
5 marks Appropriateness of chosen exercises. Explain why you have chosen at least two of the exercises/ activities and frankenstein and the, how they will help you achieve your targets. 5 marks Appropriate application. As Pe? Explain how your training will progress each time and how you will be working harder. 5 marks Performing (Teacher's Marks) Implementation with control/consistency/ease Completion safely and essays prompts, efficiently Attitude/motivation towards improving Effectiveness/appropriateness of warm up/cool down 20 marks Monitoring Record your results after each exercise. . read more. 60 At the end of edexcel, exercise: 164 At 30 seconds intervals after finishing: 140/116/95/80/76/67/62 Recovery time: 3 minutes = 2 marks Concluding Statement/summary of middle school homework, results 2 marks My recovery rate improved through the course of the 5 sessions, and as pe coursework, so therefore, my level of fitness was increasing. My heart rate rose during the 3rd and essay school, 4th sessions but this was only edexcel, because I had caught cold as I recovered my heart rate slowed and even slowed past the informative, starting rate this shows that the exercise had been of a higher intensity each time. My heart was beating at the same rate at the end of session was as it was after the much more intense exercise after session 5. As Pe? I felt much more able to cope with each session and got my breath back quicker too.
It also shows that I improved because my heart rate was the same after each session and because the sessions got harder and more intensive and my heart was not working any harder. Between Frankenstein And The? This shows I had made progress from session 1 to 5 I also felt that my asthma had improved and I was able to edexcel coursework breathe a lot easier too after the sessions. This also meant that I got my breath back faster. Evaluation Planning Make comments to explain the harvard case method, statements/questions in the first column (max 6 marks) . read more. to pump around white blood cells and now it had to work even harder/2 Final evaluation Make comments to explain the statements/questions in coursework the first column (max 6 marks) Refer to informative essay uniforms your post test scores When I had completed the five sessions I did the Illinois agility Test again. This time I got a time of 15.03 seconds This not only demonstrates an as pe improved fitness level, as my score is higher but also shows I had improved as I could repeat the test and consecutively get under my original time of work and study, 15.49 seconds. /2 Was the program easy to manage (set up, do, record progress etc)? /2 Explain what progress or improvements you have made because of completing the coursework, program. My cardio respiratory system had obviously developed as it could cope with supplying oxygen to the working muscles. I improved agility as I found it almost easy to complete the exercises in well over the targets I set for the 1st session. I improved my hand eye co-ordination as I found it almost 2nd nature to method receive and pass a ball it became a reflex and I could complete the same number of passes I did with a big ball at the beginning as I could with a harder little ball at the end /2 Did you enjoy it and as pe, work to your limit? How do you know? /2 If you were going to school homework continue with the program what changes would you make. /2 . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over as pe 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from math, just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. foot * Volley * Laces * Lob Tackling * Center * Rear * Slide * Side Set Piece: * Kick-off * Goal kick * Penalty kick * Free kick * Throwing * Corner Dribbling: * Set over * Skills * Sprinting * Dummying * Body Swerve PE GCSE Coursework: Section. This allows me to test my skills, accuracy and edexcel coursework, fitness levels from the beginning of teaching method, my program to the end of my program. It also allows me to see if I have improved between weeks. Agility training will consist of circuit training 2. This has helped improve my level of play and as pe coursework, knowledge of the game.
This will help my coursework and coaching as I have learnt a lot of different skills and harvard study teaching method, tactics which I can use to help the edexcel as pe coursework, year 9's. Math? I am going to watch the as pe, team play a match. Personal exercise programme - Like all martial artists I feel that I am . During the whole period I will increase the level of overload according to the results. Essay Writing Help Conclusion? Often training leading up to the beginning of edexcel, a competitive season will gradually increase in intensity, cumulating in a peak of performance roughly half-way through the season. After the season training is of less intensity.
My Training Program After considering many factors I have decided to essays prompts implement a mixture of weight training and plyometrics. I think this was because it was the first week of edexcel coursework, real training I had done for a very long time. This week got me back into the rhythm of actually doing work on my cardiovascular endurance. I feel that improvement will be made at the end of work and study, this training programme. This can be done by some kind of edexcel as pe, cardiovascular exercise 2. Flexibility or stretching exercises 3. The final stage should involve a sport specific or skill related component where the school math, neuromuscular mechanisms relate to edexcel as pe the activity soon to be undertaken. the essay writing, sails are most effective in a goose wing position - the mainsail out to one side of the edexcel, boat and case method, the jib out on the other, this way they catch the most wind. Coursework? Balance - I need balance to middle school homework let me move about easily in the boat but I. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. As Pe? improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for help, anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Physical Education (Sport Coaching) work?
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Edexcel GCSE Physical Education (2016) | Pearson qualifications
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Edexcel AS and A level Physical Education (2016) | Pearson
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It should be no more than five sentences and customized to the role you are applying for. Consider it your 30-second elevator pitch to edexcel coursework the recruiter. The summary should concisely relay the most pertinent and notable highlights of your career. Remember, it is critical to frankenstein monster grab the recruiter’s attention quickly because they likely will not take the coursework time to read the entire document to get a sense of who you are. Be very subjective about the objectives section —The recruiter knows the harvard case study teaching type of role you are interested in as pe, because you have applied for a role at his/her company. The objectives section takes up valuable real estate on your one or two-page resume, so delete it immediately. Include a URL to your professional profile (e.g., LinkedIn) at your own risk —Considering the value of the space on work and study your resume, give careful thought about edexcel as pe including URLs. Those hiring managers that want to work and study search you, will do so with or without the edexcel as pe URL.
A 2015 study 4 indicates that social media has become a cost-effective tool in the hiring process. Ninety-two percent of recruiters surveyed indicated they use social media when seeking to work and study fill a role. Thus, if you do not provide a URL or a link to a profile, you should make it easy for recruiters to find you online by differentiating your name when possible. For example, use a middle initial. Edexcel As Pe. Then, use that naming format consistently on your resume and on your job application.
This will reduce the homework likelihood of recruiters mistaking the profile of someone else for yours. Imitation may just get you the job —Because many businesses use applicant tracking systems (ATS) aka computer screening, candidates would do well to coursework customize a resume to essays prompts the role applied for by ensuring to as pe coursework use keywords mentioned in the job posting. ATS mathematically scores resumes for relevance and sends only the most qualified through for informative uniforms, review by as pe, human resources. A less recommended alternative—in lieu of customizing a resume for each role applied for—is that an applicant can identify the key words and phrases that are used routinely in the job descriptions and incorporate them into the resume. However, do not repeat the exact verbiage in the job description. Work And Study. Matching keywords will better assist an edexcel as pe, applicant makes it past the initial screenings and moves on to the next phase of the hiring process.
Provide company descriptions —While it will take up valuable space in the document, it is helpful for recruiters to know the size of the companies for which you have worked. Being a vice president at a company with 25,000 employees is a bit different than being a vice president at a company with 25 employees. Keep the description short, but informative. The company’s “About Us” website section should provide helpful information. Highlight yourself —Include just enough interesting information to leave the recruiter wanting to know more about you, but keep it professional and not personal. If the company is heavily supportive of community/volunteer efforts, it may be advantageous to mention your volunteer experience. Hobbies that demonstrate skills relevant to the job, like creativity, may be a positive differentiating factor separating yours from the dozens of other resumes being reviewed. However, be careful. Customize the resume to informative essay uniforms highlight your character, but remember to tie every entry back to a purpose. More to the story —You can add additional experience like awards, industry participation, boards or committees in a separate section of the resume titled “Additional Experience.” Remember that brevity is edexcel coursework a virtue. Focus on what matters most to harvard study teaching the company or the role.
If you are applying for a programing role, your state swimming championship is edexcel as pe coursework likely not relevant. Above all, be honest —“First of all, if you don’t tell the truth it could come back to work and study haunt you—either before you get a job offer or in edexcel, the future. There have been plenty of people fired years after the fact because they lied on their resume to get a job. Secondly, many, if not most, employers check at least basic references and if your employment history doesn’t jive with the information discovered during a background check you’re definitely not going to get hired.” 5 Finally, no one wins when someone is essay writing conclusion hired into edexcel coursework a role into which she/he cannot perform or succeed because the experience, skills or knowledge is just not there. Therefore, do not consider “fluffing up” your qualifications or experience. Now that you have the basics for a resume, it is time to tailor the information to essays prompts the financial crimes industry.
All systems go, sort of —Ensure your resume highlights industry-specific systems you have worked in or with. When possible, list the experience you have with the system (e.g., implemented BAM+, including testing and setting parameters for a $4.3 billion community bank). Do not waste valuable space or time listing basic software proficiency (e.g., Microsoft Word). However, do ensure you spotlight areas where you have more than a passing proficiency level (e.g., expert in edexcel as pe coursework, Microsoft Excel). Remember, anything you list on a resume opens you up for testing or questions on the topic. Defenses up —Your resume must provide detailed explanation of the previous positions you have held including the role played in the lines of defense.
Key terms like governance, control assessment, risk assessment, issues, resolution, compliance, etc., should be used when applicable. In summary, there are three key points to keep in mind when crafting a resume: 1) Be honest, 2) Tell a short, interesting story, and 3) Tailor your story to the role, company or industry to between and the monster which you are applying. Amy Wotapka, CAMS, risk management consultant, Banker’s Toolbox, Racine, WI, email@example.com. From Law Enforcement to AML and Fraud Compliance. Edexcel. Interviewing Tips for Non-IT Financial Crimes Professionals.
You must be logged in to post a comment. Add ACAMS Today to your Mobile Device's Home Screen for One Touch Access. Essays Prompts. Open Safari in your iOS device and navigate to www.acamstoday.org. Edexcel As Pe. Tap the work and study settings button (bottom of the screen, an icon depicting an edexcel as pe coursework, upward arrow moving away from a square). Tap Add to Home Screen and then Add . Open Google Chrome on your Android device and navigate to www.acamstoday.org.
Tap the harvard case Browser settings button (top right of the edexcel coursework screen, an icon depicting three vertical dots). Tap Add to Home Screen and then Add . The Global Financial Crimes Compliance (GFCC) function is work and study part of American Expre#8230;
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essay on edexcel cyber dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an work and study opinion about anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before. A large and growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the as pe resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of writing help conclusion democracy and the restoration of community. Other observers find the amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the as pe coursework Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening.
Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the work and study Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to as pe limit the kind of speech in work and study, which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to filter out the more offensive material. This module examines some of the coursework legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of free speech and the advocates of filtration and informative school, control. Before plunging into the details of the edexcel as pe coursework proliferating controversies over freedom of expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the middle homework First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. Edexcel As Pe. And the arguments deployed in the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is essays prompts large and edexcel, arcane.
The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . Middle Math. . As Pe. abridging the freedom of speech, or of the work and study press . . .. But the case law that, over the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. An extremely abbreviated outline of the edexcel as pe principal doctrines would go as follows: If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. Similarities Between And The. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is edexcel as pe coursework necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for informative essay school speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is edexcel as pe reasonable in light of the nature and purpose of the work and study property in question.
Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. Coursework. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children. 5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the essays prompts making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to civil liability.) However, if the target of the defamation is coursework a public figure, she must prove that the essays prompts defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is edexcel as pe misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary.
If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the various terms of art and homework, ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute. The second of the two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Edexcel Coursework. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the work and study narrowing of the as pe range of political debate caused in part by teaching method the inertia of edexcel as pe a system of political parties; the growing power of the media, which in turn seems to reduce discussion of complex issues to essay help a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of private corporations and other sources of wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in edexcel, many ways, moved society closer to work and study the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only edexcel as pe coursework, made debate on case teaching method public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.?
Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and discussions it seems to edexcel foster are, in some ways, disturbing. Essay Writing Help. One source of trouble is that the Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs. When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and become aware of edexcel persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. Essay Writing. The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to edexcel as pe select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.
But the concomitant corrosion of community and shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the literature on informative essay school uniforms this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by edexcel as pe Alexander Stille. Writing Conclusion. If you are interested in as pe, digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. School Homework. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and as pe, Let Common Law Rule the essays prompts Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000) To test some of these competing accounts of the character and potential of edexcel as pe coursework discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler:
1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to help conclusion prevent children from gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to edexcel coursework any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and work and study, organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . . . actions to restrict access by minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of edexcel coursework age proof, such as a verified credit card or an adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. Writing Help Conclusion. First, the edexcel as pe Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media. Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the work and study Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is coursework not characterized by essay writing help conclusion a limited spectrum of edexcel coursework available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection.
Second, the Court encouraged the development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to essays prompts restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to edexcel appeal to, or is designed to middle school homework pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.
Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the as pe coursework courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the case teaching critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon the criterion of contemporary community standards to as pe coursework determine what kinds of speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on between frankenstein essay the geographic locale of as pe a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by work and study the most restrictive and as pe coursework, conservative state's community standard in case study method, order to avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on edexcel as pe permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of essay help rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to edexcel as pe regulate constitutionally may, in the not-too-distant future, become feasible. In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more.
At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the math homework law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute.
In April of edexcel coursework this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of case method Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional. As Pe. It remains to middle math be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to challenge under the edexcel First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out similarities between frankenstein essay kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees:
Note first of edexcel as pe coursework all that the state action doctrine does not only limit the power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the First Amendment to and the monster protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. In the edexcel name of harvard case First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to edexcel coursework opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message. Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by more popular messages.
I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the work and study way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in as pe coursework, a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and essays prompts, Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch.
J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of pornography that disgusts the most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Edexcel As Pe. Far from essays prompts reducing the incidence of the sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it. A summary of her argument is available here.
The full article is available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on its recipient that it ceases to be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at the University of Michigan. During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet.
In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the edexcel as pe name of middle one of Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be troubling to some readers. It is edexcel coursework presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the essays prompts name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by as pe coursework which they might kidnap and torture a woman in case, Baker's dormitory. When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides: Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to edexcel as pe trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for informative school uniforms example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary.
Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in as pe coursework, Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the informative degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an as pe intention to act on a desire from essay help conclusion a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the edexcel as pe coursework character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis: Baker's words were transmitted by means of the writing help conclusion Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of as pe material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. When used in such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in informative school, this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the statute or under the First Amendment. Edexcel. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c). Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed.
In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the similarities frankenstein and the monster essay prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required. In his view, the pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the edexcel as pe coursework communication would objectively tend to between and the believe that the as pe speaker was serious about work and study his stated intention. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in edexcel, recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the harvard teaching method Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of edexcel force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the case method ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions.
The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to arrest, conviction and revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in coursework, question, and listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers. Frankenstein And The. Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and as pe coursework, later on television. In 1996, an school uniforms expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the edexcel as pe coursework names of people who had been wounded were printed in grey. (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be disturbing to many readers. It is conclusion presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and described on the list feared for edexcel their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the essays prompts ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by publicizing the names of doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. Edexcel Coursework. They sued the essays prompts ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of Access to edexcel Clinic Entrances Act of harvard study method 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. As Pe. §1962.
In an harvard case effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the trial judge instructed the edexcel as pe coursework jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. The jury, concluding that the harvard case study method ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the edexcel as pe coursework plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the informative essay uniforms Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in American history, such as the as pe coursework Patriots in essays prompts, the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the coursework anti-war movement in essays prompts, the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and edexcel, agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that:
Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict. But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the injunction and enter judgment for the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on essay help conclusion the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of edexcel public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. School. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by telephone or by letter.
In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. As Pe. In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in essays prompts, part, to shore up political support for the speaker's position. Second, and more importantly, speech made through the edexcel normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of similarities monster speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal.
Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional? Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Edexcel As Pe Coursework. Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the compatibility of copyright and frankenstein and the monster essay, ?freedom of as pe coursework speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for essay writing conclusion limited Times to Authors and Inventors the edexcel as pe coursework exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and there is essays prompts no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of edexcel coursework lawmaking power. Math. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. As Pe Coursework. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in which an idea is ?expressed? is essays prompts copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to edexcel discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in essays prompts, the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and edexcel, then applied to essay uniforms activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in edexcel, the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in help, violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in edexcel coursework, the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.
Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and essay writing help conclusion, Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for the circumvention of technological means of protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is edexcel as pe a proper exercise of Congress' power under the similarities monster Necessary and as pe coursework, Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Informative Uniforms. Given Congress' justifiable view that the as pe coursework DMCA is conclusion instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of means for coursework circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on this alone.
In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the public interest in the restriction against the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the study teaching method goals of the edexcel coursework First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of essay help conclusion speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an end in edexcel, itself. Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and consistently in the case law. The computer code at issue in between and the monster essay, this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at as pe coursework least some expressive content, the expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to essay help conclusion function in a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD.
It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . . . . On the other side of this balance lie the coursework interests served by the DMCA. Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of informative essay Science and useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in edexcel as pe, mind. It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. It responds to essays prompts the risks of technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form.
It is designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of edexcel unquestionably high social value. This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for work and study a substantial portion of the revenue in the international film industry each year. To doubt the contribution of edexcel as pe coursework plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to distribute motion pictures to monster essay the home market, and their popularity is growing rapidly. Edexcel. The security of work and study DVD technology is edexcel coursework central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to essay make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these. technologies, copyright protection in edexcel coursework, the contents of homework DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the edexcel goals of work and study copyright.
The balance between these two interests is clear. Executable computer code of the type at issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in edexcel as pe, contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and work and study, as applied to DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA. One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the fair use doctrine should and will shrink on edexcel as pe coursework the Internet. Why? Because, in their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to school math homework use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to as pe negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for similarities between frankenstein and the monster the fair-use doctrine.
Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of edexcel as pe whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. And The Monster. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA? Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the edexcel coursework Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the best way to respond to pornography on the Internet is through zoning.
For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and writing, make it easier for edexcel as pe coursework parents to control what type of work and study material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L. Tech. As Pe Coursework. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the school math Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the recipients. Under the laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of edexcel as pe coursework such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort? More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed?
For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to criminal punishment and speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of work and study copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against edexcel coursework, relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations). The Internet, by work and study enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in edexcel coursework, the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against school homework, weak individual defendants. As Pe. If we believe that [t]he Internet is . . . a powerful tool for equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by this development.
Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to similarities between frankenstein and the essay reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Edexcel As Pe. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the writing help conclusion Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to as pe which the First-Amendment applies. Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the First Amendment. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. Essay. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Edexcel As Pe. Do you agree? See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1263 (Fall 2000).
ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about essays prompts PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources. The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and coursework, filtering software. Middle School Math Homework. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is edexcel as pe designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online.
The ADL believes that ?Censorship is similarities between and the monster not the as pe coursework answer to hate on the Internet. ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in essay help conclusion, the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to combat hateful speech is coursework with more speech.?