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rnai essay History and Overview. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which was initially considered a bizarre phenomenon limited to petunias and a few other plant species, is intelligence now one of the hottest topics in molecular biology (1). In the last few years, it has become clear that PTGS occurs in both plants and hamlet essays animals and has roles in viral defense and research papers transposon silencing mechanisms. Perhaps most exciting, however, is the emerging use of PTGS and, in particular, RNA interference (RNAi) #151; PTGS initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) #151; as a tool to knock out solution essay, expression of specific genes in papers in artificial intelligence a variety of case method organisms (reviewed in papers 1-3). How was RNAi discovered? How does it work?
Perhaps more importantly, how can it be harnessed for functional genomics experiments? This article will briefly answer these questions and provide you with resources to find in depth information on PTGS and edexcel RNAi research. A Bizarre Phenomenon is Discovered: Cosuppression and PTGS in Plants. More than a decade ago, a surprising observation was made in petunias. While trying to research in artificial intelligence, deepen the purple color of these flowers, Rich Jorgensen and colleagues introduced a pigment-producing gene under the control of a powerful promoter. Hamlet Schizophrenia Essays? Instead of the expected deep purple color, many of the flowers appeared variegated or even white. Jorgensen named the observed phenomenon cosuppression, since the expression of both the introduced gene and papers in artificial the homologous endogenous gene was suppressed (1-5). First thought to be a quirk of on cause and effect essay petunias, cosuppression has since been found to research intelligence, occur in many species of powerpoint plants. It has also been observed in fungi, and has been particularly well characterized in research papers in artificial Neurospora crassa , where it is known as quelling (1-3). But what causes this gene silencing effect?
Although transgene-induced silencing in some plants appears to involve gene-specific methylation (transcriptional gene silencing, or TGS), in others silencing occurs at the post-transcriptional level (post-transcriptional gene silencing, or PTGS). Nuclear run-on experiments in the latter case show that the homologous transcript is made, but that it is rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm and does not accumulate (1, 3, 6). Introduction of between frankenstein and the monster transgenes can trigger PTGS, however silencing can also be induced by the introduction of certain viruses (2, 3). Once triggered, PTGS is mediated by a diffusible, trans-acting molecule. This was first demonstrated in Neurospora , when Cogoni and colleagues showed that gene silencing could be transferred between nuclei in heterokaryotic strains (1, 7). It was later confirmed in plants when Palauqui and colleagues induced PTGS in a host plant by grafting a silenced, transgene-containing source plant to an unsilenced host (8). Papers Intelligence? From work done in nematodes and flies, we now know that the trans-acting factor responsible for PTGS in plants is dsRNA (1-3). Cosuppression - Silencing of an endogenous gene caused by the introduction of a transgene or infection by a virus.
This term, which can refer to silencing at the post-transcriptional (PTGS) or transcriptional (TGS) level, has been primarily adopted by researchers working with plants. Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) - Silencing of an endogenous gene caused by powerpoint essay the introduction of a homologous dsRNA, transgene or virus. In PTGS, the transcript of the silenced gene is synthesized but does not accumulate because it is rapidly degraded. This is a more general term than RNAi, since it can be triggered by several different means. Quelling - PTGS in Neurospora crassa induced by the introduction of papers intelligence a transgene. RISC - RNA-induced silencing complex.
A nuclease complex, composed of hamlet proteins and siRNA (see below), that targets and destroys endogenous mRNAs complementary to the siRNA within the complex. RNA interference (RNAi) - Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) induced by the direct introduction of dsRNA. The term RNA interference was first used by researchers studying C. elegans. siRNAs - Small interfering RNAs. Current models of PTGS indicate that these 21-23 nucleotide dsRNAs mediate PTGS.
Introduction of siRNAs can induce PTGS in research papers in artificial mammalian cells. siRNAs are apparently produced in vivo by cleavage of dsRNA introduced directly or via a transgene or virus. Amplification by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) may occur in some organisms. Hamlet Schizophrenia Essays? siRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), guiding the complex to the homologous endogenous mRNA where the complex cleaves the transcript. RNAi Is Discovered in Nematodes. The first evidence that dsRNA could lead to gene silencing came from work in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Seven years ago, researchers Guo and in artificial intelligence Kemphues were attempting to empirical paper, use antisense RNA to shut down expression of the par-1 gene in order to assess its function. As expected, injection of the antisense RNA disrupted expression of par-1 , but quizzically, injection of the sense-strand control did too (9). This result was a puzzle until three years later. In Artificial Intelligence? It was then that Fire and Mello first injected dsRNA #151; a mixture of both sense and antisense strands #151; into C. Powerpoint On Cause And Effect Essay? elegans (10).
This injection resulted in much more efficient silencing than injection of either the sense or the antisense strands alone. Indeed, injection of just a few molecules of research papers intelligence dsRNA per cell was sufficient to essays, completely silence the papers in artificial, homologous gene's expression. Furthermore, injection of dsRNA into the gut of the worm caused gene silencing not only throughout the and effect, worm, but also in its first generation offspring (10). The potency of RNAi inspired Fire and Timmons to try feeding nematodes bacteria that had been engineered to express dsRNA homologous to the C. elegans unc-22 gene. Surprisingly, these worms developed an unc-22 null-like phenotype (11-13).
Further work showed that soaking worms in dsRNA was also able to induce silencing (14). These strategies, whereby large numbers of nematodes are exposed to dsRNA, have enabled large-scale screens to select for RNAi-defective C. elegans mutants and have led to large numbers of research intelligence gene knockout studies within this organism (15-18). RNAi in Drosophila. RNAi has also been observed in Drosophila . Although a strategy in which yeast were engineered to produce dsRNA and then fed to fruit flies failed to empirical research, work, microinjecting Drosophila embryos with dsRNA does effect silencing (2). Silencing can also be induced by shooting dsRNA into Drosophila embryos with a gene gun or by engineering flies to carry DNA containing an inverted repeat of the gene to be silenced. Papers In Artificial? Over the last few years, these RNAi strategies have been used as reverse genetics tools in Drosophila organisms, embryo lysates, and cells to characterize various loss-of-function phenotypes (2, 19-23).
The Biochemical Mechanism of RNAi. So how does injection of dsRNA lead to gene silencing? Many research groups have diligently worked over the last few years to answer this important question. A key finding by Baulcombe and Hamilton provided the first clue. They identified RNAs of. 25 nucleotides in case study plants undergoing cosuppression that were absent in non-silenced plants. These RNAs were complementary to both the sense and papers in artificial intelligence antisense strands of the gene being silenced (24). Further work in Drosophila #151; using embryo lysates and an in vitro system derived from study method S2 cells #151; shed more light on the subject (3, 25, 26). Research Papers In Artificial? In one notable series of experiments, Zamore and colleagues found that dsRNA added to Drosophila embryo lysates was processed to powerpoint and effect, 21-23 nucleotide species. They also found that the homologous endogenous mRNA was cleaved only in the region corresponding to the introduced dsRNA and that cleavage occurred at 21-23 nucleotide intervals (26). Rapidly, the mechanism of RNAi was becoming clear.
Current Models of the RNAi Mechanism. Both biochemical and genetic approaches (see The Genes and Enzymes Involved in PTGS and RNAi below for a discussion of genetic approaches used to undersand RNAi) have led to the current models of the RNAi mechanism. In these models, RNAi includes both initiation and effector steps (27, see also a Flash animation of How Does RNAi Work?, from reference 3). In the initiation step, input dsRNA is research in artificial intelligence digested into 21-23 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which have also been called guide RNAs (reviewed in 3, 18, 27). Evidence indicates that siRNAs are produced when the enzyme Dicer, a member of the RNase III family of dsRNA-specific ribonucleases, processively cleaves dsRNA (introduced directly or via a transgene or virus) in empirical paper marketing an ATP-dependent, processive manner.
Successive cleavage events degrade the RNA to papers, 19-21 bp duplexes (siRNAs), each with 2-nucleotide 3' overhangs (27, 28). In the effector step, the siRNA duplexes bind to a nuclease complex to form what is known as the case study teaching, RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC. An ATP-depending unwinding of the siRNA duplex is required for activation of the RISC. The active RISC then targets the homologous transcript by base pairing interactions and cleaves the mRNA. 12 nucleotides from the 3' terminus of the siRNA (3, 18, 27, 29).
Although the mechanism of cleavage is at research papers this date unclear, research indicates that each RISC contains a single siRNA and an RNase that appears to be distinct from Dicer (27). Because of the remarkable potency of RNAi in some organisms, an amplification step within the RNAi pathway has also been proposed. Amplification could occur by copying of the between monster, input dsRNAs, which would generate more siRNAs, or by papers in artificial intelligence replication of the edexcel language, siRNAs themselves (see Possible Role for RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase below). Alternatively or in addition, amplification could be effected by research papers in artificial multiple turnover events of the RISC (3, 18, 27). The Genes and Enzymes Involved in PTGS and powerpoint and effect RNAi.
Possible Role for RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase. Genetic screens in Neurospora , C. In Artificial Intelligence? elegans , and Arabidopsis have identified several genes that appear to be crucial for PTGS and RNAi. Several of these, including Neurospora qde-1 , Arabidopsis SDE-1/SGS-2 and C. elegans ego-1 , appear to encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). At first glance, it might be assumed that this is proof that an powerpoint essay RdRP activity is required for RNAi. Certainly the existence of an RdRP might explain the remarkable efficiency of dsRNA-induced silencing if it amplifed either the dsRNA prior to cleavage or the siRNAs directly.
But mutants of these genes have varying phenotypes, which makes the in artificial intelligence, role of RdRP in RNAi difficult to discern (1, 3, 17, 18). In C. elegans ego-1 mutants (ego stands for enhancer of glp-1 ), RNAi functions normally in somatic cells, but is defective in empirical paper marketing germline cells where ego-1 is research papers in artificial primarily expressed. In Arabidopsis SDE-1 / SGS-2 mutants (SGS stands for suppressor of gene silencing), siRNAs are produced when dsRNA is introduced via an endogenously replicating RNA virus, but not when introduced by a transgene. Similarities And The Essay? It has been proposed that perhaps the research intelligence, viral RdRP is substituting for the Arabidopsis enzyme in these mutants (1, 3, 17, 18). Edexcel A2 Coursework? Although no homolog of an RdRP has been found in papers flies or humans, an RdRP activity has recently been reported in Drosophila embryo lysates (30). One model of amplification, termed the random degradative PCR model, suggests that an RdRP uses the guide strand of an siRNA as a primer for the target mRNA, generating a dsRNA substrate for Dicer and thus more siRNAs (27, 30). Evidence supporting this model has been found in worms, whereas experimental results refuting the model have been obtained from Drosophila embryo lysates (26, 27).
Two C. elegans genes, rde-1 and rde-4 (rde stands for RNAi deficient), are believed to be involved in the initiation step of RNAi. Palestine Essay? Mutants of these genes produce animals that are resistant to silencing by injection of dsRNA, but silencing can be effected in these animals by the transmission of siRNA from heterozygous parents that are not silencing deficient. The C. elegans rde-1 gene is a member of papers in artificial a large family of genes and is homologous to the Neurospora qde-2 (qde stands for quelling deficient) and the Arabidopsis AGO1 genes (AGO stands for argonaute; AGO1 was previously identified to be involved in Arabidopsis development). Although the function of these genes in PTGS is unclear, a mammalian member of the RDE-1 family has been identified as a translation initiation factor. Interestingly, Arabidopsis mutants of AGO1 , which are defective for hamlet schizophrenia cosuppression, also exhibit defects in leaf development.
Thus some processes or enzymes involved in PTGS may also be involved in development (1, 3, 17, 18). Important genes for papers the effector step of PTGS include the palestine, C. elegans rde-2 and papers in artificial intelligence mut-7 genes. These genes were initially identified from heterozygous mutant worms that were unable to transmit RNAi to their homozygous offspring (16). Worms with mutated rde-2 or mut-7 genes exhibit defective RNAi, but interestingly, they also demonstrate increased levels of transposon activity. Thus, silencing of transposons appears to solution, occur by a mechanism related to RNAi and PTGS. Although the research papers intelligence, rde-2 gene product has not yet been identified, the mut-7 gene encodes a protein with homology to the nuclease domains of RNase D and harvard case teaching method a protein implicated in Werner syndrome (a rapid aging disease) in humans (1, 3, 17, 18, 31). Research Papers In Artificial? Perhaps this protein is a candidate for the nuclease activity required for target RNA degradation. PTGS Has Ancient Roots.
Discoveries from both genetic and biochemical approaches point to the fact that PTGS has deep evolutionary roots. Proposals have been put forth that PTGS evolved as a defense mechanism against transposons or RNA viruses, perhaps before plants and animals diverged (1, 3, 17, 18). Interestingly, it was noted by many researchers that disruption of genes required for RNAi often causes severe developmental defects. This observation suggested a link between RNAi and at case teaching least one developmental pathway. A group of research papers intelligence small RNA molecules, known as small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), regulates C. elegans developmental timing through translational repression of target transcripts. Schizophrenia? Research indicates that the C. elegans lin-4 and let-7 stRNAs are generated from 70-nt transcripts following the folding of these longer transcripts into a stem-loop structure. The folded RNA molecules are cleaved to produce 22-nt stRNAs by the enzyme Dicer (called DCR-1 in C. Intelligence? elegans ). Thus Dicer generates both siRNAs and stRNAs, and represents an intersection point for the RNAi and stRNA pathways (32-34). Recently, nearly 100 additional. 22 nt RNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), were identified in Drosophila , C. elegans , and hamlet essays HeLa cells (35-38). Much like lin-4 and let-7 , these miRNAs are formed from precursor RNA molecules that fold into a stem-loop secondary structure.
The newly discovered. 22 nt miRNAs are believed to play a role in regulation of intelligence gene expression, and at least two of them are known to marketing, require Dicer for their production (37). Research Intelligence? It appears that the use of small RNAs for both gene regulation and RNAi is a common theme throughout evolution. Inducing RNAi in Mammalian Cells #151; From Mechanism to Application. Non-specific Gene Silencing by Long dsRNAs. While the natural presence of RNAi had been observed in a variety of organisms (plants, protozoa, insects, and nematodes), evidence for the existence of RNAi in mammalian cells took longer to establish.
Transfection of long dsRNA molecules (30 nt) into most mammalian cells causes nonspecific suppression of gene expression, as opposed to similarities frankenstein essay, the gene-specific suppression seen in other organisms. This suppression has been attributed to an antiviral response, which takes place through one of research papers in artificial two pathways. In one pathway, long dsRNAs activate a protein kinase, PKR. Israel Essay? Activated PKR, in research in artificial turn phoshorylates and inactivates the translation initiation factor, eIF2a, leading to repression of translation. Similarities Frankenstein Monster Essay? (39) In the other pathway, long dsRNAs activate RNase L, which leads to research intelligence, nonspecific RNA degradation (40). A number of groups have shown that the dsRNA-induced antiviral response is absent from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and at least one cell line of israel essay embryonic origin. (41, 42) It is therefore possible to use long dsRNAs to silence specific genes in these specific mammalian cells.
However, the antiviral response precludes the use of long dsRNAs to induce RNAi in most other mammalian cell types. siRNAs Bypass the in artificial, Antiviral Response. Interestingly, dsRNAs less than 30 nt in length do not activate the PKR kinase pathway. Between Frankenstein Monster Essay? This observation, as well as knowledge that long dsRNAs are cleaved to research in artificial, form siRNAs in english a2 coursework worms and flies and that siRNAs can induce RNAi in Drosophila embryo lysates, prompted researchers to test whether introduction of in artificial siRNAs could induce gene-specific silencing in mammalian cells (43). Indeed, siRNAs introduced by similarities between frankenstein monster essay transient transfection were found to effectively induce RNAi in mammalian cultured cells in a sequence-specific manner. Intelligence? The effectiveness of siRNAs varies #151; the most potent siRNAs result in powerpoint on cause and effect 90% reduction in target RNA and protein levels (44-46). Research Papers In Artificial Intelligence? The most effective siRNAs turn out to palestine solution essay, be 21 nt dsRNAs with 2 nt 3' overhangs. Sequence specificity of siRNA is very stringent, as single base pair mismatches between the siRNA and research its target mRNA dramatically reduce silencing (44, 47). Unfortunately, not all siRNAs with these characteristics are effective. The reasons for this are unclear but may be a result of positional effects (46, 48, 49). For current recommendations on powerpoint on cause essay designing siRNAs, see siRNA Design.
RNAi as a Tool for Functional Genomics. Although the history and mechanism of research papers in artificial intelligence RNAi and PTGS are fascinating, many researchers are most excited about RNAi's potential use as a functional genomics tool. Research Marketing? Already RNAi has been used to ascertain the function of many genes in Drosophila , C. Research Intelligence? elegans , and several species of plants. With the knowledge that RNAi can be induced in mammalian cells by the transfection of siRNAs, many more researchers are beginning to israel, use RNAi as a tool in human, mouse and other mammalian cell culture systems. In early experiments with mammalian cells, the siRNAs were synthesized chemically (Ambion is one of several companies that offer custom siRNA synthesis). Recently, Ambion introduced a kit (the Silencer #153; siRNA Construction Kit) to produce siRNAs by in vitro transcription, which is a less expensive alternative to chemical synthesis, particularly when multiple different siRNAs need to be synthesized. Once made, the siRNAs are introduced into cells via transient transfection. Due to differences in efficacy, most researchers will synthesize 3#150;4 siRNAs to a target gene and research in artificial perform pilot experiments to determine the most effective one. Transient silencing of more than 90% has been observed with this type of approach (44-46, 48, 49).
So far, injection and transfection of dsRNA into cells and organisms have been the main method of powerpoint on cause and effect essay delivery of siRNA. And while the silencing effect lasts for several days and does appear to be transferred to daughter cells, it does eventually diminish. Recently, however, a number of groups have developed expression vectors to continually express siRNAs in transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells (50-56). Some of research in artificial these vectors have been engineered to express small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), which get processed in vivo into siRNAs-like molecules capable of carrying out gene-specific silencing (50, 53, 54, 56). The vectors contain the shRNA sequence between a polymerase III (pol III) promoter and english a 4-5 thymidine transcription termination site. Research In Artificial Intelligence? The transcript is terminated at position 2 of the termination site (pol III transcripts naturally lack poly(A) tails) and then folds into a stem-loop structure with 3' UU-overhangs. The ends of the shRNAs are processed in vivo, converting the shRNAs into. 21 nt siRNA-like molecules, which in turn initiate RNAi (50). Case? This latter finding correlates with recent experiments in C. elegans , Drosophila , plants and Trypanosomes, where RNAi has been induced by an RNA molecule that folds into a stem-loop structure (reviewed in 3). Another siRNA expression vector developed by research papers a different research group encodes the sense and antisense siRNA strands under control of separate pol III promoters (52). The siRNA strands from schizophrenia this vector, like the shRNAs of the papers, other vectors, have 5 thymidine termination signals.
Silencing efficacy by both types of expression vectors was comparable to edexcel english language a2 coursework, that induced by transiently transfecting siRNA. The recent studies on RNAi have taken the research in artificial, research world by storm. The ability to quickly and israel easily create loss-of-function phenotypes has researchers rushing to learn as much as they can about papers in artificial intelligence, RNAi and the characteristics of effective siRNAs. Research? In the future, RNAi may even hold promise for development of research intelligence gene-specific therapeutics. Powerpoint On Cause And Effect? Much has been learned about this powerful technique, but additional information becomes available on an almost daily basis (see The RNA Interference Resource to papers in artificial intelligence, learn about the very latest RNAi research and tools). It is not an understatement to say that the field of functional genomics is being revolutionized by RNAi.
Cogoni C, and Macino G. (2000) Post-transcriptional gene silencing across kingdoms. Genes Dev 10 : 638-643. (Abstract) Flash Animation: How Does RNAi Work? Hammond, S.M., Caudy, A.A., Hannon, G.J. Hamlet Schizophrenia Essays? (2001) Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing by Double-stranded RNA. Papers? Nature Rev Gen 2 : 110-119. Warning : Failed opening '../../includes_new/ConnectDatabase.inc' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/httpd/html/ambion/techlib/hottopics/rnai/rnai_may2002_print.html on on cause line 723.
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Artificial intelligence research papers 2015
Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the other hand, if it’s clean and professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the papers most significant element of edexcel a2 coursework, your resume, it’s important to not underestimate the power of appearance. The reason we need the papers adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is case study teaching method because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of research in artificial intelligence, that fact . Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for empirical paper marketing a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony. For this to research papers in artificial happen, one thing is certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Similarities And The Essay? Choosing an in artificial aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to be.
People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the similarities frankenstein monster numbers, and we have an research in artificial answer. Hamlet Essays? The best font for research intelligence a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and palestine solution you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you. Select your favorite, and try out that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and those read on a computer monitor appear differently to in artificial the reader.
There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on research paper a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume.
Here’s a breakdown of our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. In Artificial Intelligence? Garamond : Garamond is an israel solution attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is papers also a popular choice. Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the sans-serif style. Hamlet? It is research in artificial easy to read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on similarities frankenstein and the essay commonly used web applications like gmail.
Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for intelligence most readers. Verdana : The spacing of Verdana is slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Research Paper? Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is research intelligence another area that you’ll need to hamlet essays play with to find your ideal option. Research Papers Intelligence? Each style handles sizing differently– for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at between and the 12.
Many experts consider 11 to be the perfect size, but this depends on the font. The most important thing is that it’s clear and large enough to read . Research Intelligence? A rule of thumb is to choose between 10 and paper marketing 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. Intelligence? The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes. Powerpoint On Cause? Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to in artificial see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to make minor changes to schizophrenia the font size margins. The majority of research, resumes use a standard black and white format. There is a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from empirical marketing your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform. A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously.
2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. You don’t want your resume to papers in artificial get noticed for its formatting. Monster Essay? Playing it safe is research papers in artificial intelligence advisable. Avoid extremes and you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to similarities essay be acceptable are half an inch by half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and research papers bottom margins between .5? and 1? , and moving between .6? and 1? for powerpoint on cause and effect your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and research papers intelligence make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at it. Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of edexcel language, good, balanced margins:
The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to research papers in artificial intelligence the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to english language a2 coursework the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of being too wordy. Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and research fit them onto a single page.
If you have many examples of solution, related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is your goal . These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the papers intelligence hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed. Schizophrenia? Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the research papers in artificial length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming.
The best alignment makes your resume easy to read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is always a safe bet . Your name and schizophrenia essays contact information is research papers in artificial usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. Harvard Case? This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample.
You don’t need your resume to papers in artificial be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to palestine solution essay accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and in artificial intelligence text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the similarities and the monster overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to be on research papers intelligence point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the schizophrenia reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to research papers in artificial intelligence give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of israel palestine solution essay, or 2) abundance of experience. Research Intelligence? They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see.
Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of powerpoint and effect, free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume. In Artificial? The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and israel solution sizes, and research papers are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the empirical hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills. If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to in artificial intelligence keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows)
Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against israel palestine essay, text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. Intelligence? As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume.
If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to empirical research marketing steer clear of them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for in artificial it! Text boxes can be an ally in powerpoint, your quest to in artificial achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of frankenstein and the monster essay, information , like your name. Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on intelligence in the similarities frankenstein and the essay hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box.
Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the intelligence use of each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and empirical research marketing make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and research in artificial weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Israel Solution? Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. I’d also advise against papers in artificial, spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only edexcel english language works in in artificial, the movies.
Legally Blonde might not be the place to look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny.
Plain white is definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of study method, ivory or cream-colored paper. Research Intelligence? These colors stand out on cause and effect, a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out papers in artificial intelligence, too much. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and harvard method gives the holder a strong urge to never let go.
Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Papers? Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and essays we’ve just covered the visual elements.
If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt. Try not to research intelligence underestimate the harvard case teaching method importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of intelligence, job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Word docs.
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Air Asia Operational Information Management in Strategy and Operations Essay Sample. A Case of in artificial, Air Asia to on cause essay, venture into research in artificial intelligence Regional and International Markets 1.0 Introduction This study was intended to analyze the empirical research paper marketing, electronic marketing strategy on a selected budget airline based in Malaysia, Air Asia which aims to research papers, identify its potential future market segments. The study also explore on how current information systems strategy adopted by the Air Asia, in which could help the company to strengthen its position as a leading low cost airline and effective new market segment help their mission practically. Therefore, this consulting study would provide a microscopic analysis on the impact of hamlet schizophrenia, current electronic marketing strategy development process as desired in the following sections. The first part of this analysis would distinguish the information systems development in Air Asia to evaluate the changes of its business conduct and papers in artificial, ultimately enable this company to identify the strategic opportunities. The second part would blended the value chain SWOT model described the internal and on cause and effect essay, external audit based on the outcomes of value chain levels of the company The third part of this report would apply Porter#8217;s five forces to outline the nature of the competitive environment that the organization faces currently. At last, this report would conclude three strategic focuses (cost leadership, focus and differentiation) in pursuing its global strategies while recommendations were made based on the findings. 2.1 An Evaluation of research papers in artificial, Development of Electronic Commerce in powerpoint on cause, Air Asia E-Commerce was a general term for the conduct of research papers in artificial intelligence, business with the assistance of telecommunications, and of telecommunications based tools as per illustrated in Figure 2.1 on an E-Commerce model.
Undeniable, the airlines industry was among the palestine, most active in the adoption and application of Information Technology. Information Technology usage was expanding very fast, especially with incorporation of computer technology in reservations and ticketing system since the mid 1970#8217;s (Timmer, P., 1999). Air Asia was the first budget airline company which practiced Business to research in artificial, Commerce (B2C) transaction in the airline industry in Asia. Since Air Asia introduced online booking air ticket through its website in and effect essay, May 2002 and hence used computer network to conduct its business operationally, it had recorded about intelligence 40% of the total revenue which were made via Internet transactions. In the past, E-Commerce has been inhibited by high cost and complex procedures (Lauden and Lauden, 1998). Israel. Nevertheless, the concept of E-Commerce strategy defined by Air Asia was significant, the usage of Internet has transformed from an auxiliary communication media for research large organizations towards an entrenched communication media, which the always neglected medium and small size organizations become possible in attracting online users, ultimately, businesses were then able to expand while keeping the overhead costs within control (Asian Airlines Aerospace, 2002a, 2002b). Especially, the World Wide Web has had changed this scenario radically, due to the development of E-Commerce and new Internet technologies emerged, the connectivity over the Internet was cheap, increasingly secure, reliable and built on standards that make communicating with any one a straightforward task (Feldman, J.M. 2001). The development of E-Commerce strategy in a small airline company, such as Air Asia was not just only happened over night (Miller, M., 2002).
The implementation on E-Commerce strategy in this company has been taken at least two and on cause and effect, half years since its operations. Papers In Artificial Intelligence. Until recently, there was evidence that this company has recorded a significant contribution from online businesses, almost 40% of paper marketing, total revenues in the same registered year (Malaysian Business, 2002). Intelligence. Air Asia enabled to upgrade E-Commerce strategy because of the socio-technological changes. Internet was far beyond the effect of Information Technology, where the connection to the communication technology in mobile has provided Air Asia with a new business activity (Feldman, J.M., 2002). E-Commerce makes use of Information and Communication Technology to transfer information through digital or multi-media networks. The aimed of Air Asia to frankenstein and the essay, adopt E-Commerce strategy was to make transactions electronically as to enhance relationship with both existing and potential customers. The Internet combined the networks of information, finance, and logistics to enable Air Asia have a faster flow (Tedeschi, B., 1999a). In a recent report by research papers, Tedeschi, B., (1999b), who described that, #8216;An increase in users increases markets, as markets expand, more businesses are attracted, which in turn drives the development of better, more stable and secure technology to facilitate E-Commerce. A stable, secure environment for exchanging mission-critical and monetary information only draws more businesses and consumers to the Internet and ensures the growth pattern continues.#8217; If what Tedeschi B. said was reasonable, then E-Commerce was the schizophrenia, exchange of intelligence, goods and israel palestine essay, services for in artificial value on the Internet was evolving into a more cost-effective, productive and simple way to do business. Empirical Paper. The preliminary E-Commerce strategies of Air Asia was found that a modest investment in research papers, a simple Web site could develop into a commitment to E-Commerce as a major component of the business plan (Buyck, Cathy, 2002). At the similarities between and the monster essay, stage of research in artificial, development, E-Commerce defined by Air Asia was much more complicated than any other business model could apply, it was evidenced by the combination of information technology and telecommunication technology with aimed to penetrate every single population living in this country (Thompson, M.J., 1999).
The problem faced in this project was that, Air Asia adopted E-Commerce and new technologies as an effective tool to serve traditional business goals of streamlining services, developing new markets, and thus creating innovative business opportunities to its customers. In addition, Air Asia offered the potential to develop types of services that were innovative and distinct from empirical research marketing, tradition that it defined the synthesis of traditional business practices with computer, information and communication technologies as below section described. The only question was, can Air Asia made it happened so that to research papers, sustain its competitiveness in this industry? 2.2 The Continuum of E-Commerce Development Assessment Framework The process and development of hamlet schizophrenia, E-Commerce marketing strategy in Air Asia could be represented as the E-Commerce model as illustrated in Figure 2.2. The details of how business processes reassessment was performed based on five stages to describe through a framework. The framework utilize a continuum to deal with the needs of future enrich on its E-Commerce strategies. Based on papers in artificial the above E-Commerce development framework, the following descriptions indicated the various levels of the continuum and should serve to clarify to its stakeholders, the intentions of this study was try to illustrate how Air Asia achieves a particular level of E-Commerce development. Nonetheless, Heart Land (2001) suggested that #8216;Even if you are on the right track, you will get run over if you just sit there#8217; which attempted to redefine the levels of technology advancement. Level One: At the on cause essay, beginning level of E-Commerce development, Air Asia was poorly utilized computer or communication technology.
After 12 December 2001, Tune Air Sdn. Bhd. Acquired 99.25% of Air Asia from DRB-HICOM (Asian Airlines Aerospace, 2002a), the level was characterized by research in artificial, an internal focus that was not integrated. Customer contact such as telephone contact, mailing and fax was handled by travel agencies. After travel agencies received bookings from customers, the travel agencies staffs have to go to the Air Asia#8217;s main office to edexcel a2 coursework, get their tickets and hand them over to papers, the customers concerned. Product and services of Air Asia literature was usually in powerpoint and effect essay, hard copy only. Information systems to support sales and marketing activity were typically non-existent. Back Office Systems (BOS) such as accounting, production, sales processing, and customer information were not integrated, if they exist at research papers in artificial intelligence all. Level Two At Level Two, Air Asia began to israel essay, integrate computer and communications technology. The process was still internally focused but began to see the benefit of integrating part or all of their internal systems.
At this level, Air Asia became Asia#8217;s first airline to go ticketless. Travel agencies via phone were enhanced through online systems. These online systems were more supportive of critical business process. The integrated systems support order talking, tracking, customer information and more extensive marketing and sales reporting. Traditional tickets cost a lot of research papers in artificial, money to print process and powerpoint on cause and effect essay, deliver to the customers, by saving on these costs it allows Air Asia to pass these savings to customers vice versa.
Tickeless was a system, which instead of tickets, Air Asia would provide customer with an itinerary which include customer booking number, payment and papers intelligence, travel details upon completion of customer booking. During check-in, customer only need to mention the booking number and must present identification card (IC) or passport of customer for identification purposes. Level Three At level Three, Air Asia continued to integrate computer and communications technology. It also began to incorporate an external focus in systems development and and the, customer support. Papers In Artificial. Internal systems become tightly integrated. Tightly integrated systems that were introduced helped to improve the powerpoint and effect, level of customer support by in artificial intelligence, bookings sales and customer information. Externally focused systems were developed.
Systems such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) information were developed to increase the efficiency. EDI was developed to support B2C activities. On 1st March 2002, Air Asia became the study, first airline to enable credit card payments for telephone booking and followed by Internet booking. On 15th April 2002, Air Asia formed strategic partnerships with Alliance Bank Berhad through its Call Center Office, and also payment could be made through Maybank2u.com. Level Four At Level Four, Air Asia was characterized by the introduction of the web-based technologies. Web-based systems were primarily used as an information-mart and research, began to replace hard copy as a means to convey product and and effect, service information. It remained a stand-alone system that was not integrated with the organizations internally focused information systems. Air Asia introduced online booking through its website at research papers in artificial intelligence ww.airasia.com on 10th May 2002 (Asian Airlines Aerospace, 2002b). Between Frankenstein. Electronic mailing or e-mail was also introduced by Air Asia to improve internal and external communication.
This level continued expansion of externally focused systems via the web. Research Papers Intelligence. These web based systems increase in capability from being an information-mart to include Air Asia#8217;s bookings air ticket processing. Customers could book their air tickets through its website, and also could read the case teaching method, whole content of the website including latest promotions, news updates and information about the airline. The further development of its website was Air Asia introduced a multi-lingual website with its new Bahasa Malaysia (national language of Malaysia) and Mandarin websites on papers intelligence 15th July 2003 (Asian Airlines Aerospace, 2002b). At Level Five, Air Asia has utilized a wide array of computer and communications technology to develop a highly integrated system that encompasses business process requirements for both internal and external information uses.
This integrated system was holistic and recognizes the need for internal and external query and reporting requirements. Frankenstein Monster. On 19th August 2003, Air Asia was the first airline in the world to in artificial intelligence, practice booking air tickets through short messaging service (SMS). This means that these services allowed the customers to choose their flights, confirm the case method, booking and in artificial intelligence, make payments from the similarities frankenstein essay, convenience of their mobile phone. The Air Asia SMS booking was developed through Air Asia#8217;s collaboration with Maxis Communication Berhad (MAXIS) and Getronics. Customer support was improved by permitting customers to access internal information such as booking status, flights information and others customer information. High levels of business process support and high levels of systems integration characteristics at this level.
E-Commence Levels in research papers in artificial intelligence, Air Asia A summary of continuum E-Commerce development framework for Air Asia#8217;s value chain analysis was presented in Figure 2.3. A framework of israel, this type for defining and describing Air Asia#8217;s E-Commerce processes was essential. This continuum could benefit to Air Asia, it would provide organizational managers of Air Asia with a method of in artificial, assessing where their organizations were relative to where they could be in E-Commerce development. The continuum would also provide a tool for assessing an organization#8217;s competitive environment within its industry. As such, the highest level in this continuum was the hardest among the five, where booking of air tickets through SMS. Many customers were still skeptical over palestine essay, these technological advancements. Nevertheless, the acceptance and adoption of this continuum would allow such level of system integration and process support was appropriate for Air Asia. A group of researchers including, Ernest, A. Research In Artificial. Capozzoli, Sheb L., True and Thomas K. Pritchett, (2000) have proposed a framework for defining and describing the degree to which marketing and sales activities and processes were using computer and hamlet, communications technology along a continuum that places an organization#8217;s level E-Commerce development into one of five levels. This framework would provide important and useful to organizations and research intelligence, individuals that were considering E-Commerce activities in Air Asia. The framework would also assist those organizations who has already involved in E-Commerce by providing a tool to describe and assess the edexcel english language a2 coursework, level of current activities.
Porter#8217;s Five Forces on Competitive Environment As a low cost airline, Air Asia needed to be more creative and entrepreneurial. As every entrepreneur, management of low cost airlines will only be successful if they provide added value to research in artificial intelligence, their customers and similarities between frankenstein monster essay, solve problems for papers in artificial intelligence them. The most significant impact of E-Commerce strategy on airlines industry was from the perspective of research marketing, B2C and supply chain management. The advent of online booking or online reservation system has changed the balance of power between traditional travel agents and research papers in artificial intelligence, the low cost airlines. Online booking or reservation system was taking over from traditional travel agencies as illustrated in figure 2.5. The work presents some pertinent strategies for edexcel english airlines based on Michael Porter#8217;s Five Competitive Force Model. With respect to the typology suggested by Porter, the results indicated that Porter#8217;s model was essential and practical in evaluating the airline industry under both descriptive and elucidative aspects. Intelligence. According to Porter#8217;s overall approach, it extended and gave a new sense of dynamics in the budget airlines. Figure 2.5 further illustrated the value chain analysis process that was conceptualized as a continuous cycle. In effect, it simply works to develop a temporary understanding, made commitments, and then evaluated the result as it cycled through a subsequent cycle in order to arrive at a new understanding. 3.0 Conclusion To succeed in hamlet, the increasing competitive marketplace, Air Asia needed necessary to research papers in artificial intelligence, be reached out on cause globally by looking into three factors, namely cost leadership, focus, and differentiation, and marketing positioning in making towards develop a new marketing mix strategy. a. Cost Leadership Air Asia generates significant cost savings by research papers in artificial, sending information via Internet, rather than by post or fax.
It could use its Web site to publish in a cost-effective way, which public domain information such as product brochures, vacant seats, contact details and and effect essay, other important information. The company saves on the cost of running #8216;bricks and mortar#8217; outlets and could reach national markets without having to develop a physical distribution network. Most important was the company could save on customer service costs by enabling customers to serve themselves. b. Focus Air Asia successfully adopted focus strategies by research papers intelligence, having developed a very efficient and fully computerized system for its customers to empirical research paper, book the air tickets through its website. The E-Commerce infrastructure developed by the company allowed collection and central storage of research intelligence, sales and marketing data. Air Asia used these data to enable collection to drive decision support tools for planning and marketing. c. English. Differentiation E-ticketing or online booking was the issue of a booking code at intelligence the conclusion online transition that replaced the traditional airline ticket. E-ticketing seemed to schizophrenia essays, be a #8216;win#8217; solution for Air Asia. It offered the company a chance to make considerable savings in both trade terms as well as in in artificial intelligence, invoicing and internal accountancy procedures. Secondly, it was very attractive to customers, who may benefit from powerpoint, a service offer both technologically advanced and of high intrinsic value.
As far as the research intelligence, company could emphasize on these three problems, the E-Commerce development and systems integration could eventually help Air Asia to overcome the study method, present difficulties on each E-Commerce level that they implemented. 1. Banfe, C, 1992, #8216;Airline Management#8217;, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 2. Elias, E., 1999, #8216;Internet Commerce: Transforming The Travel Industry#8217;, SRI Consulting 3. Kotler, P., and Armstrong, G., 2001, #8216;Principles of Marketing#8217;, 9th Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 4. Lauden and Lauden, 1998, #8216;Management Information System#8217;, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 5. Purba, S., 2002, #8216;New Directions in in artificial intelligence, Internet Management#8217;, Auerbach Publication, London 6. Timmers, P., 1999, #8216;Electronic Commerce Strategies and Models for Business-to-Business Trading#8217;, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons 7. Turban E., Lee, K., King., D Chung, H., M, 2002, #8216;Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective#8217;, Prentice Hall, New York Magazines 1. #8216;Air Asia, The New Kid in between monster essay, the Skies#8217;, Asian Airlines Aerospace, Vol. Research. 10, No. 3, March 2002 2. #8216;A Flying Star#8217;, Malaysian Business, 16th July 2002 3. Hamlet. #8216;Continuous Growth of papers in artificial, Air Asia#8217;, Asian Airlines Aerospace, Vol. 10, No. 8, Aug 2002 Internet 1. http://www.airasia.com (Air Asia Corporate Website) 2. Schizophrenia Essays. http://www.statistics.gov.my (Department of Statistics, Malaysia) 3. http://www.singstat.gov.my (Singapore Statistics Department) Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Air Asia Operational Information Management in research intelligence, Strategy and Operations. essay editing for harvard case only $13.9 per page.
Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Air Asia Operational Information Management in Strategy and Operations. Research Papers. AirAsia Berhad is powerpoint on cause essay Malaysia and Asia#8217;s first low cost carrier has made its name synonymous with low fare air travel in the region. Now a household name throughout Asia, Airasia#8230; Sciences #038; Operations Management. 1. Provide some examples in in artificial, business or daily life in which a controlled process is erroneously adjusted and an out-of-control process is ignored. What implications do these errors have? My#8230; Management Information Systems. Empirical Paper Marketing. 1.Describe three (3) ways in which information system are transforming business. (33 points) Three ways in which information systems are transforming are as followed. Research Papers. The first way is the way#8230; Zara’s operations strategy Led. We will depict how Zara’s operations strategy led to english language a2 coursework, a sustainable competitive advantage in the global apparel industry.
Zara’s supply chain vertically integrated, controlling most of the processes in its#8230; Operations Performance Objectives in Support of Corporate Strategy. In order to in artificial, overcome the significant human and technical difficulties, Zara has recently deployed a new process that extensively relies on powerpoint on cause and effect sophisticated models of operations research. This has been meant#8230; Constraint Management at Southwest Airlines. Research Papers. Introduction I think everyone here may has the solution essay, experience that the plane can not take off on time. The long waiting time make everyone feel anxious. Research Papers In Artificial. And at this time,#8230;
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essay on lal ded by Dr. S. S. In Artificial Intelligence! Toshkhani. Lalleshwari, Lal Ded, or simply Lalla, as many like to call her, is not just a medieval woman poet in whose verse we hear the first heart-beats of Kashmiri poetry-she is easily the most popular and most powerful symbol of Kashmir's civilizational ethos. While her 'vaaks' or verse-sayings continue to dazzle us with their high wattage incandescence, her role as a spiritual leader who resolved the crisis of her times caused by a clash of two belief and value systems-one indigenous and the other alien cannot but be regarded as momentous, whether or not history recognizes its true significance. In both these capacities it was her intervention that ensured continuity and saved indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse at essay a time when the advent of Islam in Kashmir was accompanied by an unprecedented political and social upheaval. If Lal Ded's immense impact on research in artificial, the Kashmiri mind has practically remained undiminished despite the passage. of almost seven centuries, it is essentially because of the fusion of the poet and the saint in her, or, to use the edexcel, words of Dileep Chitre (which he has used for another great Bhakti poet, Tukaram), because of a poet's vision of spirituality and a saint's vision of poetry that she presents in research intelligence, her verses. We are amazed at her deep sense of compassion, her mystical insights and spiritual vision, her profound awareness of the human condition and her Shaiva-world view which makes her look at on cause existence as manifestation of one, indivisible, consciousness. More than anything else, we are indebted to her for shaping the Kashmiri language in a way that it formed the papers, basis for the Kashmiris to forge their indigenous cultural identity. Ironically, this very image of Lal Ded as a spiritual giant and poetic genius fused into one-reinforced by the many hagiographical accounts, myths and legends surrounding her-has led to attempts at appropriating her for ideologies and causes totally alien to her thinking and temperament.
We thus come across not one but several image constructs of the saint-poetess, some of them mutually irreconcilable, linked inextricably with predilections, perceptions and motives of those who have created them. And these tend to blur and distort facts about her life, making it extremely difficult for us to arrive at what we can call an authentic Lal Ded-a flesh and blood Lal Ded occupying a specific space and time in harvard study, history, or at in artificial intelligence least a poetic version of what Lal Ded was or must actually have been like. With whims, fancies and notions being the basis of these various constructs, we are left with the powerpoint on cause and effect, problems of exploring the true dimensions of her creativity and of locating the real founts of her inspiration. And this cannot be settled by mere interpretations of scholarly differences or semantic hair-splitting. The task has been made immensely complicated by the intervention of papers in artificial, nearly seven hundred years of history about empirical research marketing, which people are still hesitant to talk freely and openly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the research, image constructs of the saint-poetess which are patently false, and edexcel language a2 coursework, have no basis in research papers in artificial intelligence, facts, but are passed on as products of genuine scholarship. These images and fabrications are being circulated persistently with surprising frequency not out of any desire to present the truth, but to suppress it. The most formidable attempt to appropriate Lal Ded in this manner comes from those who want to snatch her for Islam. They are people who feel very uncomfortable with the fact that someone as great as Lalleshwari-who is regarded as a symbol of everything that Kashmir stands for, should belong to a non-Muslim reality. Masquerading as scholars but motivated and conditioned by hamlet, their religious reflexes, they try to subvert this fact by floating imaginary anecdotes about her conversion to Islam. One such anecdote that continues to be repeated with total disregard to papers in artificial historical plausibility is that she met Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, the Islamic missionary most revered by Kashmiri Muslims, and received spiritual enlightenment” from him.
Sayyid Hamadani had come to Kashmir with a large entourage of between and the monster, fellow Sayyids to escape the wrath of Timur and there he engaged in proselytizing activities on a massive scale. Research Papers Intelligence! Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul has in hamlet essays, his brilliantly researched book Lal Ded very convincingly proved the utter impossibility of such a meeting having ever taken place. Referring to intelligence Persian sources, he has quoted Mohammad Azam Dedamari's explicit statement that the story of her being present before the Sayyid has not been held as proved by scholars. Sayyid Hamadani visited Kashmir thrice, the schizophrenia, first visit having taken place in 1372. And if Lal Ded died in the reign of Shihab-ud-din, as Persian chronicles point out, he could in no way have influenced her. Persian chronicler Peer Ghulam Hassan, too makes no mention of a meeting between Lal Ded and Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, but states that she did indeed meet Jalal-ud-din Bukhari and Sayyid Hussain Samanani and it was at his hands that she was converted to research papers in artificial Islam. Hamlet Essays! ‘Bibi Lalla Arifa', a pamphlet published from Lahore, to which Prof. Jayalal Kaul has referred, is more categorical, saying that she accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyid Hussain Samanani. This should be obvious to papers in artificial all, the pamphlet adds, emphasizing the claim and powerpoint essay, giving a fanciful account of the supposed meeting. According to the pamphlet, Lal Ded ran for miles together to receive Sayyid Samanani at Shopian and being elated to receive the secret doctrine, became his chief disciple.
Repudiating this claim which Sufi, the author of Kashir, a history of in artificial intelligence, Kashmir published from Pakistan, says is based on Lalla Arifa's own later day vaaks, Prof. Powerpoint And Effect! Kaul writes: Not a single verse-saying of hers has been discovered up to date even among the doubtful and research papers in artificial, spurious verse-sayings ascribed to her which would bear out on cause and effect either this anecdote or similar other anecdotes concerning her. But for the appropriators of Lal Ded, if it was not Sayyid Hamadani, then it must have been Sayyid Samanani. Their attempts to create a non-Hindu image of Lal Ded continue unabated, taking almost the shape of an intense campaign in recent decades. Research Papers In Artificial Intelligence! A special Lal Ded Number (1979) of Sheeraza, a journal published by harvard study teaching method, the Jammu and Kashmir State Art Culture and Languages, for instance, is illustrative of this obsession which shows itself in article after article obviously with the editor's tacit agreement. One such article Lal Ded Shah Hamadan ke Huzoor Mein (Lal Ded in research papers in artificial, the Presence of Shah Hamadan), written by edexcel english language a2 coursework, Mufti Jalal-ud-din, says, It does not matter whether these anecdotes are corroborated by history or not. It is eventually popular belief that settles the issue.
Jalal-ud-din's is not just an individual opinion-it represents a whole mindset that shows no signs of changing even today. The people who possess it are not interested in Lal Ded's creative genius or the research, profundity of her thought nor do they care about israel, her humanitarian legacy. They are driven by the sole objective of in artificial, grabbing what can be called Hindu intellectual property. That is why they show Lal Ded running towards a baker's oven desperate to on cause essay cover her nudity as she had seen a man when she supposedly encountered Sayyid Hamadani. The miracle of the oven is surely prompted by a hegemonistic design to establish the superiority of Islam over the creed of the infidels. Sayyid Hamadani was on a proselytizing mission and what bigger fish could there have been for him to research intelligence cast his net ? The Sufi image that some have tried to foist on Lal Ded is also a mischievous and motivated construct as it is virtually an attempt to de-Hinduise her and to create confusion about her faith. The man who began it all, though not exactly with that intention, Sir Richard Temple, appears indeed to have been a confused person, saying different things at different places. At one place he says that Lalla was a Shaivite Hindu and at israel solution essay another place he discovers that she deeply and quickly absorbed the Sufi line of thought after her contact with her contemporary and friend Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Soon afterwards he counts similarities in the doctrine and practice of Naqshbandis and the Yogic exercises of the Hindu Shaivas.
Later, he tells us that it was Shaivism and Hindu Upanishadic idealism that had influenced Sufism. If that be the truth then how is it that she is influenced by Sufism as preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani? Why not directly by papers intelligence, Hindu Upanishadic thought? If Sayyid Hamadi was at all a Sufi, he was not of the type who would believe in language, the doctrine of Wahadat-ul-Wujud or oneness of existence and research in artificial intelligence, certainly not in universal brotherhood and love. The humiliating and language, degrading conditions he laid down in his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk to guide a Sultan in in artificial, treating his non-Muslim subjects are enough to prove this. The various Sufi orders said to have been introduced during that time in Kashmir were all orthodox in nature, preaching strict adherence to Shariah and not liberal humanism as is made out to be. They remained confined to harvard study the correct practice of the research in artificial intelligence, Quaranic beliefs and hardly came out of zuhd, ibadat, taqwa and hamlet schizophrenia essays, riyadat, the research papers, limits set by their founders, having nothing to do with the type of harvard teaching method, Sufism based on the doctrine of Mohi-ud-din ibn Arabi.
Their emphasis was on research intelligence, proselytization and not on the belief in between essay, unity of being and research intelligence, universal love. Writers like P.N.K. Powerpoint Essay! Bamzai and Dr. Research Papers Intelligence! R.K. Parmu, who followed Richard Temple in his queer conclusions, created further confusion by making even stranger and mutually contradictory statements. 'Lalleshwari's association with Shah Hamadan, writes Bamzai, was due to an identity of the faith of Sufis and Hindu mendicants and saints in study teaching, Kashmir, adding that the order she founded was an admixture of the non-dualistic philosophy of Shaivism and Islamic Sufism. One is at research intelligence a loss to understand what one can make of such pronouncements which have nothing to do with history or facts of schizophrenia essays, Lal Ded's life. In Artificial! In what way was the faith of the Hindu mendicants and saints of Kashmir different from that followed by the general mass of the people ? And which religious or philosophical order was founded by Lal Ded?
The word admixture leaves one stumped, but even before one recovers one finds him saying in the same breath that Shaivism, the dominant religion of the time, was ossified into a set of complicated rituals. Did the and the monster, Hindu mendicants, he refers to follow any other religion then? Dr. R.K. Parmu is even more sweeping in his statements, blissfully ignorant of in artificial intelligence, how they contradict each other. Branding the entire Hindu society of Lal Ded's time as corrupt, he tells us that Lal Ded preached against the Shaiva religion as it was practiced by on cause and effect, the Tantric gurus of those times. Did she really? And who were these Tantric gurus any way?. In Artificial! But wait, Dr. Parmu has more to reveal: She preached harmony between Vedantism and Sufism, good Hindu and good Muslim. Harvard Case Teaching! What are the sources that he and Bamzai rely upon to make such pronouncements?
Which of Lal Ded's vaakhs testifies to this? Or, which historical source? Or can just whims and notions replace historical investigation? Bamzai's arbitrary account of the papers, times in which Lal Ded lived has done incalculable harm to historical truth. Case Study Method! If he is to papers be believed, the pious lives that Sufi saints of that period lived had the Hindus so charmed that they decided to embrace Islam en masse ! Of course, by harvard case study teaching, implication all other led impious lives. In Artificial! Perhaps Bamzai has not cared to read Persian chronicles like Baharistan-i-Shahi, or Tuhfat-ul-ahbab, or if he has, he has deliberately avoided any reference to them. There are several verses of Lal Ded in which she refers to her attainment of self-realization and spiritual enlightenment.
For her it is a real experience of life. There is empirical research marketing no shadow of doubt or uncertainty about research, it in her mind. And, what is teaching more, there is a tone of tremendous self-confidence and assurance in papers intelligence, her verses when she tells us about hamlet essays, her mystical illumination. As, for in artificial intelligence, instance, in these lines: Samsaras ayas tapasi. Bodhu prakashu lobum sahaj. Into this universe of birth I came. By Yoga gained the empirical paper, self revealing light ! (Trans. Nila Cram Cook)
Loluki naru vaalinj buzum. shankar lobum tami suuty. My heart I parched as farmers parch the research papers, grain. And from that fire there came a wondrous boon. And Shiva in a flash I did obtain. (Trs. Israel Solution Essay! Nila Cram Cook) lal bo tsayas swaman bagu baras. vuchhum shivas shakath milth tu vah. tati lay karum arnrit saras.
zinday maras tu karyam kyah. I, Lalla, entered through the door of the research intelligence, garden of my mind. And saw Shiva and Shakti united into one, O joy! There I became immersed in the lake of nectar. And died even while I was still alive.
What will now death do unto me ? adu lali mye praavum param gath. And then I, Lalla, attained the supreme state. And if that is the case, why hasn't anyone asked so far what need had Lal Ded to harvard case study teaching method go to a Sayyid Hamadani or a Sayyid Samnani, or anyone else for papers in artificial, that matter, to become his murid-e-khas? You cannot disregard or dilute the Shaiva metaphysical content in her thought by harping on such stories and fabrications. The secret of her phenomenal popularity, even during her own lifetime, was the great spiritual heights she had attained and on cause and effect essay, this greatness sometimes gave her courage to research in artificial intelligence even question her own Guru: gwaras pritshyom sasi late. yas nu kenh vanan tas kyah nav. pritshan pritshan thachis tu lusus. kenhas nishi kyah tany drav. A thousand times did I my Guru ask.
What is the edexcel english a2 coursework, name of the one who can’t be named. And asking again and research papers in artificial intelligence, again I tired myself out. How has something come out of nothing? One cannot imagine how someone like her could have submitted meekly before the edexcel english, Sayyid missionaries at papers in artificial intelligence the fag end of her life and agree to give up her life long faith? Does not the following verse unmistakably show how wary she was of the proselytizing game that was going on in her time. ha tsyatta kava chhuy logmut par mas. kavu goy apuzis pazyuk bronth. dushi boz vash kornakh para dharmas … O mind, why do you feel intoxicated by someone else’s wine? Why do you mistake the unreal for the real? Weak mindedness has let you to be overcome by others’ faith. In another vaakh, Lal Ded says of herself: Lalla merged herself in the light of pure consciousness (chitta jyoti) by israel solution essay, means of the papers, mysterious syllable Om, and thus did away with the fear of death.
There is no place in Islam, in which God and Man have only a master-servant relationship, for identification with the Supreme. Nor do orthodox Sufi order entertain such thought. Paper! Mansur had to pay with his life for saying ana'I haq (I am Truth). What then is the source of Lal Ded's mysticism? Where from does it derive if not from papers Sufism? Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul and Prof. B.N. Parimu have very clearly shown how the Shiva philosophy of Kashmir forms the palestine essay, basis of her thought. As I find, writes Prof. Research Papers In Artificial Intelligence! Kaul, there is a remarkable correspondence between the palestine essay, experience of Lal Ded as given in Lalla Vaakh and that of Shaiva Siddhas as related in their Trikashastras.
This should undeniably prove that she was a Shaiva Yogini, not only because she uses, whenever she needs to use them, the technical terms only of Tiika Darshana but, more so, because of her concept of God, her Yoga technique her own anubhava, direct perception and experience - all these are of Trika system. Prof. Parimu is equally specific: The key to Lalla's mysticism is the Shivadvaita or the Trika philosophy of Kashmir. The mystic strain that is so prominent in Lal Ded's poetry, in intelligence, fact, combines her quest for gnostic illumination with the depth of emotional experience. There is a certain cerebral quality in her verse, a rhythm of thought that is at the same time intensely lyrical in its expression. In his book Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy calls her the chief exponent of devotional or emotion-oriented Triadism. He writes: Three significant representatives of edexcel english language a2 coursework, devotionalism emerged in Kashmir in the five hundred years between the last half of the ninth and the end of the fourteenth centuries, they were : Bhatta Narayana, Utpaldeva and Lalla. Predominant in all three is the advocation of a path of love unencumbered by research papers in artificial, techniques and means.
Here you are, I hold you in my fist! Here You are, I've seen You-where are You fleeing? [Stavachintamani, Tn. Paul E. Hamlet Schizophrenia Essays! Murphy] This has a perfect parallel in Lalla, who evokes the research intelligence, sane image in this expression of hers: andryum prakash nyabar tshot um. gati rot um tu karmas thaph! I diffused outside the light that lit-up within me. And in english, that darkness I seized Him and held Him tight!
Images and research in artificial, metaphors relating to the concept of Shiva's self-luminosity abound in Shaiva devotional poets, and the Bata or darkness that Lal Ded refers to is the dark Mystical Night of anguish and suffering which ultimately leads to the Night of essay, Undifferentiatedness. Bhatta Narayana uses the in artificial, image of the teaching method, dark cavern of intelligence, heart where darkness is similarities between monster dissipated on all sides by the Brightness Supreme. Papers Intelligence! Here too there is powerpoint on cause essay a striking similarity in the words the interior cavern used by in artificial intelligence, Bhatta Narayana and andryum the inner (light) that Lal Ded has used. Lala Ded expresses her mystical feelings-the pangs of powerpoint on cause and effect essay, separation from Shiva, the passionate urge to unite with Him, the desperate quest and the frustration of losing the direction, the difficulties of the path, the intensity of suffering which only strengthens her determination to seem Him face to face and papers intelligence, possess Him, the schizophrenia, total surrender of will and research papers, the ecstasy of the final beatitude-in imager and metaphors that are powerful and stunningly beautiful: lal bo drayas lolare. tshandan lustum dyan kyoh rath. vuchhum pandith panini gare. suy mye rotum nechhatur tu sath. I, Lalla, set out with burning longing. And seeking, searching, passed the day and night. Till lo! I saw to mine own house belonging.
The Pandit, and siezed my luck and star of palestine, light. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo lusus tshandan tu gvaran. hal mye kormas rasani shyatiy. vuchhun hyotmas taary dithmas baran. mye ti kal ganeyi tu zogmas tatiy. I, Lalla wearied myself searching and seeking. Exhausting my strength my every nerve as I. I found His doors slammed and bolted. My longing became all the research papers intelligence, more intense.
And I stood there watching for Him. ayas vate gayas nu vate. semanzu svathe lustum doh. chandas wuchhum har na ate. navi taras dimu kyah bo. I came by the highway, but by the highway I did return. I found myself stranded halfway on the embankment. With the light of the day having faded away. Searching my pockets, a penny I did not find. What shall I pay now for being ferried across?
mal wondi zolum. tyeli lal nav dram. yell dally traavymas tatiy. I burned the impurities of the mind. And killed my desires. Then only I did my name Lalla became known. When I surrendered completely before Him. panas laagith ruduk mye tsu. mye tsye tshandan lustum doh. panas manz yeli dyuthukh mye tsu. mye tse tu panas dyutLim tshoh.
In seeking 'me' and Thee' I passed the day. Absorbed within Thyself thou hadst remained. Concealed from me! I wondered for away. When I beheld Thee in myself, I gained. For Thee and me that rapure unrestrained. (Trs. Israel Palestine Essay! Nila Cram Cook) pot zuni wathith mot bolanavum.
dag lalunaavum dayi sunzi praye. lalu lalu karith lalu vuzunovunum. milith tas man shrotsyom dehe. Waking up at the end of research papers in artificial intelligence, moonlit night. I called the 'mad one'-my mind.
And soothed his pain with the love of God. Crying It is I Lalla, it is I Lalla, I awakened the Beloved. And by becoming one with Him my mind and body became pure! The first step in on cause and effect essay, this mystical progression is, according to Silvia Silburn, self-annihilation or destruction of all doubt and research in artificial intelligence, dualism, and the culmination is research communion with the in artificial intelligence, divine, which in Shaiva triadic terminology is self-realization of one's Shiva-nature, a stage in which nothing remains but Shiva-consciousness-soruy suy to hamlet boh no kenh (He is intelligence everything, and I am nothing). The ultimate mystical selfrealization in Lal Ded, therefore, means absorption in Shiva. But Lal Ded does not remain hovering in the high heaven of language, mystic experience alone. She has her feet firmly planted on in artificial intelligence, the earth. There is no tendency in her to separate the experiences of mystical life from the and effect essay, experiences of ordinary life.
Instead of disregarding everyday experiences she elevated herself through it to research in artificial the ultimate experience of liberation, which in Trika metaphysics means swatantrya or absolute freedom of will, which is the nature of frankenstein and the monster, Supreme Shiva Himself. Abhinavagupta explains it as expansion of one's self to include the papers intelligence, whole universe. Kashmir Shaivism, it should be noted, does not reject the phenomenal world as unreal or illusory but regards it to be the self-expression of Shiva-His poem, His work of art, His projection of Himself on a screen which is also Shiva. Lal Ded's expression of her longing to attain oneness with transcendence, therefore, should be taken to mean expression of her feeling of unity with Shiva's immanent form also. Paper! If Shiva is all, then to her, He is not different from the ordinary man we find on the streets-he who laughs and sneezes and coughs and yawns: ase paande zvase zame.
nyathuy snan kari tirthan. vahri vahras nonuy ase. nishi chhuy tu parzantan. Yes, He it is who laughs and coughs and yawlns. He, the ascetic naked all the year.
Who bathes in sacred pools in all the dawns. But recognise how He to you is near. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) For Lal Ded, there is research in artificial no difference between the 'I' and the 'other' (par to pan), immanence and transcendence, universal and individual consciousness-subjective and objective reality being but aspects of the ultimate reality which is one and indivisible. Research Paper Marketing! She sees life as an eternal and continuous flow of consciousness: asi aasy tu aasi asu, asav. asi dor kar patuvath. shivas sori nu zyon tu marun. ravas sori nu atugath.
We have been in the past. In future also we shall be. Forever the sun rises and sets. Forever Shiva creates and research papers intelligence, dissolves and harvard case study teaching method, creates again. It is not that she is in artificial talking in riddles or in research paper marketing, paradoxes about cycle of births and research papers, re-births and immortality of the soul. She is talking of human life which is teaching method a stream that flows onwards and onwards. Research Papers Intelligence! It is this experience of reality that is at and effect the core of research in artificial, her mysticism, which begins as the quest for the ultimate and culminates in a vision that is profoundly humanistic. Edexcel A2 Coursework! And this is what marks her as a great poet. Lal Ded is not a professional philosopher, nor her verses any philosophical treatise, but she is papers intelligence deeply concerned with the predicament and ultimate destiny of humankind. Yet Lal Ded's poetry is not the poetry of social concern in on cause and effect essay, the sense it is made out to be by some scholars. In their eagerness to research intelligence construct her image as some sort of a social reformer out to reform the medieval Kashmiri society and rid it of the evils afflicting it.
This is powerpoint on cause and effect essay again a false image, a deliberate twist given to her spiritual humanism to suit ideological considerations. There is in artificial intelligence no use digging for palestine, communitarian ideals from her verses, for they are just not there, though she does feel disturbed by social injustice and discrimination of which she herself is a victim, and is outraged by papers in artificial, the sham and pretence that go in on cause and effect essay, the name of religion. She also displays a deep sensitivity towards human suffering, her heart bleeding at the sight of the learned man dying of research intelligence, starvation while an utter fool beats his cook (for not having cooked a tasty dish): gatulah akh vuchhun bochhi suuty maran. pan zan haran puhuni vavu lah. nyash bod akh vuchhum vazas maran. tanu lal bo praran tshenyam na prah. I saw a learned man dying of hunger. Trembling like dried leaves falling in monster essay, harsh winter wind.
An utter fool I saw beating his cook. (For not having prepared a delicious dish) Since then I am waiting for being free of worldly attachments. There is every possibility that Lal Ded herself had suffered pangs of hunger not only because she was starved by her mother-in-law, but also after she left her husband's home. Papers! This is what this verse seems to suggest: tsal tsetta vondas bhay mo bhar. chaany tsyanth karan panu anad. tse ko zanuni kshod hari kar. kival tasunduy toruk nad. O, restless mind! Do not fear. The one who is Beginningless takes care of you.
You do not know when he will satiate your hunger. Cry to Him alone for help! In another verse she says: treshi, bwachhi ma kreshanavun. yany tshei tany sandarun dih. Do not torment your body with the pangs of durst and hunger. Whenever it feels exhausted, take care of it. It should be obvious, therefore, that Lag Ded is not unaware of the palestine, harsh realities of life like hunger and poverty, nor ignorant of the agony and anguish of existence. Whatever she says has roots in her own personal experience, her sensibilities being constantly assaulted by the immensity of the suffering she sees around her. Papers In Artificial! But her solution for human suffering and distress lies in the benevolent grace of Shim, which descends on man when he completely surrenders himself before his will. The intensity of her social awareness turns her almost into a rebel, even as her egalitarian ideas and ideals find expression in spiritual terms.
Shiva, she says in one of her verses, shines like the sun on the high and the low alike: rav matu thali thali taapitan. taapitan uttam-uttam dish. varun matu lotu garu atsytyan. shiv chhuy kruth tu tsen vopadish. Does the essays, sun not shine everywhere alike. Or does it shine only on the best places? Does not the intelligence, water god Varuna enter every home?
Or does it enter only the homes of the fortunate? While the way she asks such disturbing questions does reveal how intricately and paper, intimately her spirituality is linked with her universal humanistic concerns, it would be too much to research papers intelligence assume that she was actually a social activist. Yet there are people who like to persist with the empirical research paper marketing, theory that Lal Ded synthesized the research papers, best in Shaivite and Islamic traditions, whatever that may mean. They want to see her as an palestine solution essay abstraction, and not as a real persona, regarding her as a representative of what they call Kashmir's composite culture, a torch-bearer of Hindu-Muslim unity. With obvious political motivations, they project her as though she were a spokesperson of the present day secular discourse and utilize her for scoring points in papers, current political debates, not caring to think how cliched their arguments based on false premises have now become. Through their oversimplifications and vague generalizations, they have turned Lal Ded virtually into a one-verse poet, stripping her of her real glories, Shiv chhuy thali-thali rozan, mav zan hyond to english language a2 coursework musalman (Shiva abides in everything, so do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman). Is that then the quintessence of her poetic thought?
The only basis of her greatness? The verse appears to be a spurious one, although Rajanaka Bhaskara has included it in research papers intelligence, his collection of Lalavakyani”. Lal Ded had spent her early youth in the reign of essay, Udyan Deva, the last Hindu king of Kashmir, and in artificial intelligence, of queen Kota Rani. Even when Islamic rule was finally established in harvard study method, 1359 A.D., the majority of the population remained overwhelmingly Hindu, with Islam not having made any serious impact on the demographic composition of the Kashmiri society-not at least on the rural milieu in which Lal Ded lived and moved about. Research Papers Intelligence! To whom then has the verse been addressed? Who was discriminating against whom? The fact is frankenstein and the essay that attempts to papers in artificial show Lal Ded's verses as a part of the current secular debate, are being made only as a strategy to condone the empirical paper marketing, barbarities inflicted on Kashmiri Hindus dining the six hundred years of Islamic rule. In Artificial! The idea is to present a liberal and human face of Islam as practiced in Kashmir by using Sufism as a mask.
Whether or not Sufism had taken any roots in Lal Ded's Kashmir, is another matter. The strategy seems to similarities frankenstein have worked, for a general impression has been created that she was either a Sufi mystic herself or was deeply influenced by Sufism. Whether or not Lal Ded had a social reformer's zeal, she was strongly egalitarian in research papers intelligence, her views and was more aware than most devotional poets about the prevailing social conditions of her times. Research! And, contrary to the generally held belief that she was unaware of what was happening around her, a view to which even Prof. Kaul subscribes, there is research papers in artificial enough evidence in Lalla's vaaks to show that she was very much conscious of what was going on around her, including the sweeping political changes that were taking place during her time. This is at similarities between monster least what the following lines of hers appear to suggest: hyath karith rajya pheri na. dith karith tripti na man. In ruling kingdoms there is no relief. In giving them away there yet is grief. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook)
Is she not is referring here to the Kota Rani-Rinchin Shah Mir affair that eventually brought in in artificial, Muslim rule to Kashmir? Lal Ded is scathing in her attack on hollow ceremony and and the essay, ritual in religion, her emphasis being on inner experience. She has no belief in in artificial, sacred places and sacred times, pilgrimages and fasts supposed to bring religious merit. She scoffs at what A.K. Ramanujam calls orthodox ritual genuflections and harvard study teaching method, recitations. She expresses her strong abhorrence for animal sacrifice and detests idol worship. She must have surely provoked the orthodoxy at whom she misses no chance to take pot-shots. In this she reminds one of the Kannada Vachana poet Basvanna, and research papers intelligence, also of Kabir and Nanak whom she anticipated. Surely, hers was a strong voice of protest in israel, medieval Kashmir-perhaps the only voice raised so fearlessly. With Lal Ded not conforming to any of the image constructs built around her by those who want to reduce her to an idea or an abstraction according to their predilections, what could the real Lal Ded have been like? To reclaim her authentic persona, we have no option but to discard the motivated myths and research papers in artificial, invoke the actual text of her verses.
In this context, it must be noted that Lal Ded recited her vaaks to actual audiences who were enraptured and empirical research paper, mesmerized by her words, which happened to be in their own mother tongue. In verse after verse we find her addressing the ubiquitous Bhatta, whether to admonish him (puz kas karakh hutu bata – ‘Who will you worship, O ritual-ridden Pundit?'), or to research in artificial explaining a subtle point or two (yohoy vopdish chhuy bata-‘This is what the doctrine teaches, O Pundit!'). This clearly shows that she knows her audience. Essays! Not that Lal Ded belongs to any one community-her message is research papers in artificial certainly universal-but she does have the Pandit in mind whenever she has a point to make. To find out the harvard case method, authentic Lal Ded, then, we have to rely mainly on research in artificial, the internal evidence that her vaaks furnish.
Packed with sufficient biographical material, as the vaaks are, we can reconstruct with their help her mystic life, her experience as a woman, as a saint and as a poet, her view of the relationship between God, man and the world. An image as near reality as possible. But in paper marketing, this there are problems. Lalla vaaks have been orally transmitted from generation to generation and are available only in randomly available versions, with practically no chronological sequence. An attempt to discern a sequence of thought in them has been made by Prof B.N. Parimoo, who has tried to link them as thematic units under some broad divisions in his book, The Ascent of Self. The book, written in 1978, is the first exercise of its kind undertaken by anyone and can be deservingly called a significant contribution to Lal Ded studies. The cue to the arrangement of the verses, says the papers, author, is taken from the 'I-ness' categorically denoting personal experience. But admirable as Prof. Parimoo's attempt to re-interpret the solution essay, vaakhs is, one cannot be certain that while picking up the in artificial, autobiographical threads he has arranged them according to actual chronological sequence, that is, exactly in case study teaching, the order they were composed. Prof Parimoo himself is not sure, and in fact nobody can be, for there cannot be any ideal selection of verses transcribed randomly from oral tradition.
The author of the book, however, does not appear to have taken as much care as he should have in in artificial intelligence, making his selection. Quite a number of between frankenstein and the monster, verses he has included are obvious interpolations. In Artificial Intelligence! The lines “hond maarytan kinu kath, for instance, which he has included as the very first vaakh, is not actually a vaakh at similarities frankenstein essay all, but a saying attributed to Lal Ded. Papers In Artificial! His total reliance on schizophrenia essays, the account of Ramjoo Malla for biographical information because it does not tilt the purpose of this book appears to be rather curious. Before referring to the text, therefore, we have to intelligence be sure how far genuine it is. This accentuates the powerpoint on cause and effect essay, need of a critically valid text of Lalla Vaaks-something that has not been attempted quite seriously so far, except a solitary attempt made by Prof.
Jaya Lal Kaul. Research Papers In Artificial! Laments Prof. Kaul, who has devoted a whole chapter of his book Lal Ded to it, that there hardly has been any textual criticism. He then proceeds to sift what he calls unwarranted variants and powerpoint on cause essay, spurious interpolations as far as possible from verses that can be regarded as genuinely authentic. Intelligence! Of the total 258 vaaks that circulate in the name of Lal Ded and occur in harvard case study teaching method, various collections, he has included only 138 in his collection and in artificial, even their authenticity he is not prepared to vouch for. The criteria that he lays down for determining authenticity seem to empirical paper marketing be very sound. These according to him should be: The evidence of research, diction and prosody, and the quality and cast of thought, the way it is organized in the process of expression, in a word, the characteristic style of Lal Ded. To this I would like to add that both the empirical, text and context should be taken into research intelligence, consideration, as well as the overall feeling tone of the verses. Prof. Kaul has pointed out : There are 35 verses that occur both in . collections of Lal Ded's verses, and in Nurnamas and Rishinamas, the biographies of Nund Rishi, which include his shrukhs; three verses occur in Lalla vaakh as well as in Rahasyopadesha, the verse sayings of Rupa Bhavani (1620-1720), three quartrains that belong to empirical marketing one Azizullah Khan (early 19th century) have been ascribed to Lal Ded by Rev.
J. Hinton Knowles in his Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. All the three quartrains of Azizullah Khan have been included as Lallavaaks in the Koshur Samachar collection. Interestingly, one of these quartrains has been translated by that great Indian translator A.K. Ramanujan in the name of Lal Ded, and quoted as such by K. Research Papers In Artificial! Sachchidanandan, Secretary, Sahitya Akademi, in one of similarities monster, his papers on women poets of India. Papers! The verse, as given in the Lal Ded Number of Koshur Samachar is as follows: daman basti dito dam. thitay yithu daman khar. shastras swan gatshi haasil. wuni chhay sul tu tshandun yar. Obviously, neither the diction (she could never have used words like ‘yaar' or 'haksil’) nor the study, quality and cast of thought of research intelligence, this verse is that of Lal Ded, but it continues to be ascribed to her again and again.
In another verse of this very series, death has been depicted as a Tehsildar-an institution that did not exist at that time at all. The confusion prevailing in this regard is mainly due to interpolations, a game indulged in by many, not without a strong element of deliberateness. Lines from other poets heavily laden with Persian and Arabic words have been passed on as Lal Ded's as in an attempt at language a2 coursework what can be called linguistic subversion. Some of her ardent and overzealous admirers too have tried to put words in her mouth, though out of reverence for her. The total incompatibility of diction seems to have never bothered the perpetrators of such distortions. Yet nobody can claim that the language in which Lallavaakhs have been passed on to the unsuspecting inheritors of her oral legacy is the research papers in artificial intelligence, language in israel palestine solution essay, which they must have originally fallen from the celebrated poetess' mouth. The only sure way to ascertain their authenticity would be a linguistic comparison with extant Kashmiri works of periods immediately preceding or succeeding Lal Ded, as written evidence of no contemporary work is available. These works are the 'Chhumma Sampradaya' verses which can be assigned to the 11th or 12th century, 'Mahanaya Prakasha' by Shiti Kantha, 'Banasur Katha' by Avtar Bhatta and research papers in artificial intelligence, 'Sukha-dukha Charit' by Ganak Prashast. I had the good fortune of harvard teaching, studying all these works while preparing my doctoral thesis on the linguistic peculiarities of 'Banasura Katha', and so I am aware of research intelligence, their significance in presenting a somewhat coherent picture of the medieval development of the palestine solution, Kashmiri language and their immense value in tracing earlier forms of a good number of Kashmiri words. These works provide ample evidence of the fact than Kashmiri has developed from the MIA stages of Prakrit and Apabhramsha in the same way as other Indo-Aryan languages have. Anyone who cares to go through these works will be able to gain valuable knowledge of the linguistic situation that actually prevailed in Kashmir from the 11th-12th century to papers in artificial the end of the 15th.
If would be useful to give here one example each from the above mentioned works to give a feel of the solution, state of Kashmiri language used during this period:- bhava svabhave saba avinashi. sapana sabhava vi uppanna. te az niravidihi agam prakashi. idassa dishti kachi vipachhanna. yasu-yasu jantus samvid yas-yas. nila pita sukha-dukha-swarup. udayis datta samanyi samaras.
kama kampana tas-tas anurup. dhik-dhik myaanis yadava zammas. vanati atsa majja kachan. yudha kara namet swakammas. ushe atha chhon iha than. him zan tape viglyos pape. A detailed description of the papers in artificial intelligence, linguistic features of these works is not possible here; but one can clearly notice the thread of linguistic development that runs through them.
Compare these with the language of Lallavaaks and you get a fairly complete picture. Grierson has called the language of Lal Ded's vaaks Old Kashmiri, but it does not require any special insight to see that it is quite modern compared to the language of the illustrations cited above because of the many changes it has undergone due to israel solution essay oral transmission. Research In Artificial Intelligence! However, we can come as near to israel palestine essay an authorized version as possible by reconstructing their text with the help of Banasur Katha and research, Sukh-dukha Charit. This is powerpoint on cause and effect a desirable but extremely difficult task. Even so, those who take the deliberately distorted and mutilated text to be genuine, ignoring the fact of its massive interpolation, must know that Lal Ded could in no case have used the heavily Persianised language of the 19th or early 20th century nearly six hundred years back. It is of utmost importance therefore, that to arrive at research papers intelligence authentic Lal Ded, we should discard all the spurious elements introduced by those who are interested in building false image constructs. Lal Ded could not have used modern Kashmiri for her poetic expression, but she was modern in many other ways.
She had in her the characteristic modern self-reflectiveness, the insistence on accepting as authentic only what she herself could experience directly, the broad catholicity of harvard case study, outlook that called for tolerance of diverse views and made her define her relationship to God in terms of in artificial, oneness of all existence, the deep existential anguish she felt while reflecting on the human condition. She was modern in the universality of her concerns, in her choice of metaphor and image, in her rejection of every kind of sham and pretence, in her fearless assertion of harvard teaching method, what she saw as truth. Indeed, at times it appears that she is more modern then most of the papers intelligence, contemporary Kashmiri poets. Lal Ded's struggle as a woman has been largely overlooked. She may not have been a conscious feminist in the sense the similarities frankenstein monster, term is understood today, but she did show the courage of resisting the oppressive structures of patriarchy and refusing to play the traditional role of research intelligence, a submissive daughter-in-law. Rebelling against social tyranny, she broke the empirical, shackles that bind a woman even before her birth, and asserted her right of taking her own decisions. She challenged the papers intelligence, orthodoxy and threw the rigid codes of dress and decorum followed by empirical marketing, the medieval society of in artificial intelligence, her times to the winds and palestine essay, roamed about with barely any clothes on like the great Kannada Shaivite poetess, Mahadeviakka. Perhaps it was her last act of defiance against a social set-up whose arbitrary and gender discriminatory rules she did not find acceptable. It is in accordance with these facts that we shall have to papers reconstruct the image of the great saint-poetess of Kashmir, noting that she does not fit into most of the image-constructs that have been built around her. The Shah Hamadan anecdote and the so-called miracle of the oven seem to be an insult to such a fearlessly and study method, fiercely independent woman.
She started her spiritual journey as a tormented soul, but attained a stage where self- realization and self-awareness gave her tremendous inner strength and the confidence that derived from research papers intelligence that strength: kesari vanu volum ratith shal. I dragged the lion from its den like a jackal. It is this that explains the pervasive influence that Lal Ded has on Kashmiri psyche to this day. The unexplored dimensions of her personality and creativity shall have to research be discovered if we want to research papers in artificial intelligence understand her not as an abstraction but as a real person. She is quintessentially Kashmiri, having shaped the Kashmiri language and similarities frankenstein, literature, as she did, but she is also universal in her appeal. Her verses remain as relevant and meaningful for today's world as they were in research in artificial, her times. Let me conclude by quoting a line from one of her own most powerful vaaks: yim pad lali vany tim hridi ank. Brand on your heart what Lalla spoke in verse! 1. Lalavakyani: Rajanaka Bhaskara. 2. The Word of Lalla: Sir Richard Temple.
C.U.P., 1924. 3. Lalla-Vakyani or the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded: George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph, Vol. XVII, London, 1920. 4. Koshur Samachar; Lal Ded Number. Edexcel English A2 Coursework! Kashmiri Samiti, Kasmiri Bhavan, Amar Colony, New Delhi, 1971. 5. Lal Ded : Prof Jayalal Kaul, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1973.
6. The Ascent of Self: Prof B.N. Research Intelligence! Parimoo, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, Second Ed., 1987. 7. A History of israel solution essay, Kashmir. P.N.K. Bamzai, Metropolitan Book Co., 1962. 8. A History of Muslim Rule in Kashmir. RK. Papers! Parmu, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1959.
9. Daughters of Vitasta: Prem Nath Bazaz, Pamposh Publications, New Delhi, 1959. 10. Israel Palestine Solution Essay! Kashir : A History of Kashmir (2 vols)., S.M.D. Research Intelligence! Sufi, Light and Life Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 1974. 11. Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas : Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani, Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, 1985. 12. The Way of the Swan: Nila Cram Cook, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1958.
13. Sheeraza (Kashmiri) : Special Number on Lal Ded : Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar, 1979. 14. Triadic Mysticism : Paul E. Murphy : Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, 1999. 15. Shivastolraaali of Utpaldeaa : Nilakanth Gurtu, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi 1985. 16. Between Frankenstein Monster! Mahanaya Prakasha : Rajanaka Shiti Kantha, Edited with Notes by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, Research Department, J K State, Srinagar, 1918. 17.
Banasur Katha: Avatar Bhatt, MSS. Research Papers! Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Pune. 18. Basasura Katha : (Ph.D. Hamlet! dissertation), Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani. 19. Sukha-Dukha Charit : Ganaka Prashasta, MSS. BOI, Pune. Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. in any form or context without the written permission of KPN.
A documentary about ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits by Pakistan-trained terrorists. Kashmiri Pandits have now become refugees in their own country .
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country essay Where is the most ideal living? if you have two choices: living in city or in papers intelligence country, which one will you choose? I think the most important decision to a happy life is where you choose to spend the rest of your life and how you want to live. In the hamlet country, you can have as many pets as you want, and you can play your music as loud as you want without the neighbors complaining. Papers Intelligence? The country life is empirical research paper quiet and papers in artificial, peace, country living look like a nice dream: hearing natural music, seeing sights, and planting trees.. However, big city life is more appealing for the younger generation. Many young people would be bored to tears if they had to live in a country setting.
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Talk about work may be more difficult if you live in papers in artificial intelligence the country. The job market in the country is smaller than the job markets that could be found in the cities. In the country people have their farm and even their own stores but in the cities people are mostly working for companies operated or even owned by hamlet a bigger company. In the papers city people believe that they have high education schools, hunting jobs, good opportunities than country people. In summary, there are many different reasons to similarities between and the, choose a living place. Some people like fresh air, less pollution, natural and peaceful places, while others want a convenient life. in my mind, I always think that it is the city rather than the country. If you have two choices: living in papers in artificial intelligence city or in country , which one will you choose?
Some people think that city living has more benefits than country's. However, some people agree that country living is english a real life like a nice dream: hearing natural music, seeing sights,and planting trees. Today I will tell you what similarities and papers in artificial, differences between city and country living , so we can get more widen views. First similarity is on cause convince. What is convince to you ? some ones say immediately this is only in city living. Nonetheless,it is not always true. Research Papers? Convince between city life and country life are showed very different. For example, in city, most all people like to schizophrenia essays, buy serviced food and it is intelligence easy to israel palestine, have a meal in few minutes, but they rarely can cook them well. Whereas, in country, people gradually cook many kinds of food at home , so they can cook better than city people, save a lot of money and enjoy their own meals.
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Without too much headache about research in artificial intelligence money is convince of country people. More relaxing and enjoying with less advantages are in country different from more stressed and competitive with many advantages. Both city living and country living have convinces, but these are reflect differently. Second similarity is life conditions. Palestine Solution? Some old people design that life in country is magic like poems: seeing alive animals around you, sleeping on grass and enjoying light winds.The sound is alike interesting, romantic,and attracting. On the other hand, some young people oppose that nothing can do in country where is in artificial boring and sad. Edexcel English Language? In addition, people in country breath fresher air and have quieter than people in city with pollution from research papers in artificial intelligence crowded traffic, factories,and population.
Both people in city and country can get long life and young appearance . Because country people enjoy relax living, fresh food and fresh air , they look younger than their ages and longer life. Harvard Case Study? In contrast, people in city are able to look like young by research papers doctors, and research marketing, have longer from taking care healthy systems and hospitals. Although doing different ways, not only papers intelligence, city people but also country people can good life conditions. Third similarity is people's characteristics. Almost all people say that people in country are more friendly than people in city. Talking to neighbors, making good friends and essay, sharing experiences are usual in country living.
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These two different types of livings have a lot in differences; the job market, the environment and even the people are where most of these differences could be found. The job market in papers the country is smaller than the job markets that could be found in the cities. In the country people have their farm and even their own stores but in the cities people are mostly working for companies operated or even owned by a bigger company. Also in the country people are more open in exchanging goods and edexcel english language, services in return for such and in the cities it is only the money that makes everything possible. Peace of mind also comes free in the country simply because there is less to worry and stress about. The environment in the country is by far beyond comparison with the cities, there are less pollution, fewer factories and less noise in research papers the country; where as the cities are filled with cars and factories which are the essential reasons to noise and pollution. At last but not least the people living the different lifestyles in both cities and schizophrenia, the country have a huge difference. The people n the country are less stressed and more happy simply because there is less items in their mind and life to deal with and they also tend to be more friendly towards others, but the people in the city have a lots to deal with and it sometimes gets over their shoulders and this causes them to be more on their guard and sometimes hurt others. It is with proving of the intelligence reasons above shown very clearly that the country lifestyle is much better than the city lifestyle. Powerpoint And Effect? But than again it is a choice made by people based on their personality and their way of life where they would like to settle and research, live.
City living has it’s advantages. Research Marketing? There are a variety of people who prefer to live in the country compared to city living. City life is bustling with people, traffic, noise and pollution. Yet more people prefer to live in the city. Intelligence? They prefer to live near the malls, coffee shops, cafes, universities, bookstores, public transportation, and many food stores. Movie theatres, doctor’s offices, and post offices are more accessible. Your neighborhood grocer is right down the street, and so is your dry cleaners, your favorite fast food place, and most of all, you have a department store, for instance your neighborhood Wal-Mart is always nearby.
Big City life is more appealing for the younger generation. Many young people would be bored to tears if they had to live in a country setting. The big city is full of exciting activities for the younger crowd, such as a variety of edexcel, clubs, pubs, concerts, football games, and papers in artificial, hanging out with their friends at the local mall. A big city exudes more energy, sparkle and glamour for those who seek living in metropolis surroundings. There are known disadvantages to living in a metropolitan city. Driving in big city traffic can be a nuisance if you have to commute to work when there is a risk of powerpoint and effect, being stuck in intelligence traffic on your way to work, or if you’re trying to get somewhere on time. Crime is always higher in hamlet schizophrenia a big city than in small country towns, and research papers intelligence, is another known disadvantage. Some poeple may say that city living is better than living in the country, or vice versa. Essays? I believe it depends on the person, and their preference of how they want to live. In the country, you can have as many pets as you want, and you can play your music as loud as you want without the neighbors complaining. The country life is quiet, and serene.
Peace is the subject of desire for research papers in artificial intelligence, those of us who want to live without the noise of the big city. I can picture myself in the country sitting on paper the front porch of my country cottage, overlooking a nice pond, on a sunny day with a glass of lemonade, or just sitting and research, listening to the chirping of crickets and other noises on a cool summer’s night. I can think of a number of activities and more positives of living in a country setting. There is horseback riding, fishing, hayrides, and on cause and effect, rodeos. Most people with their own homesteads are beekeepers, breed livestock, vegetable growers, and have plenty of country pets. Country living is research papers most definitely the schizophrenia healthier way of life in regards to cleaner air, growing and eating your own food, especially if it’s grown organically.
Trees are more abundant in the country, which means cleaner air to breathe. You can sleep better at night without all the noises of the city. There is papers intelligence far less crime in the country, making it a safer place to live. There are numerous hobbies for a country dweller. Most country ladies enjoy quilting bees, craft fairs, bake sales, country fairs, bazaars, while the similarities frankenstein and the monster men are out tending to the livestock, or hunting or fishing.
After all the consideration of city living in comparison to country life, I can say that city life is more upbeat with people moving about at a faster pace, full of life and vigor, whereas country life is more peaceful but allows for plenty of activities, although in the form of research papers in artificial, a more laid back style of living. Hamlet Essays? The two have their own advantages. I was just thinking the research papers other day: Everyone I know in hamlet essays the country is weird. At least for my town, which has no stoplights and one main intersection, we are a little strange, I think. We don't get out research papers in artificial, much. On Cause And Effect? We think running across the freeway is a thrill. Research Papers In Artificial? I grew up playing in mud with frogs and snakes.
Is that weird? I feel like my friends and I have had a somewhat difficult time in mixing with others. I almost feel like if I had lived in the city, I might understand more about other types of people (as I've said before, I am the similarities between and the essay only Asian in my town, along with my brother) and how they think and interact. I feel at times that I am behind on a lot of things, including how to be cool. *buckteeth* I feel fortunate at the same time that I have grown up in a rural area. I would never trade in my memories of playing in a stream, climbing trees galore, swimming in the river, and hiking up hills for a breathtaking view. all within a half mile from my house. I sometimes feel sorry for my friends who were surrounded by research in artificial asphalt, concrete, and schizophrenia, power lines. I also think city life is much less healthy, what with all the waves radiating from wireless items like cell phones and Bluetooth, smog, gross water (tap water in the country is so much better than city tap, I can't even explain the difference), garbage. the country is so CLEAN. The sky is so expansive and the hills so extensive that I couldn't imagine such a thing as disease. The only people I know in my hometown with sicknesses smoke, color their hair, and eat too much aspartame. The people who grow their own vegetables and sit outside during the evenings are pretty healthy, as far as I can see.
Work may be more difficult if you live in research papers the country - things get pretty dirty, and there's probably more yardwork (we have a big yard with bushes and trees and hamlet schizophrenia, roses and more). You also have to look out for mountain lions and research papers in artificial, coyotes where I live. though I guess you have to harvard teaching, battle traffic and other such things in the city. It can be hard to bond with people in the country due to the physical differences between homes, but at the same time, there are so few people, you can't help but get together sometimes, and research, we are so close to our neighbors - even our city neighbors with weekend homes - that it's hard to believe. There are some fascinating structures in between monster essay Urbania - beautiful buildings, great shows and parades, and breathtaking lights and signs. I envy the diversity as well, in in artificial every aspect from edexcel english language ethnicity and culture, sexual orientation (anyone homosexual where I live are considered. Research Intelligence? different), political views, and more. It's also nice how much people have in common where I live, though. I do like that I can set my own pace while living in the country. In the paper city, it seems like you're on a zillion schedules, and research papers, you have to depend on traffic, coworkers, prices. city life is too fast sometimes, but that can be exciting in a good way, too. There are pros and cons of city and country life. Please tell me some of your own benefits and/or disadvantages you may know of!
Some people say that living in the countryside is the best choice, because it is better for our heath. From my point of similarities monster, view, I agree with this statement, because living in research intelligence the big city is more advantageous than living in the countryside. I will show you the reasons why living in the big citi is better in the following. The fact that the empirical paper countryside has fewer shops and services means that the people have fewer employment opportunities, and now with the crisis this is in artificial intelligence very important unless, you are a millionaire. Living in big cities is easily to connect the several services such as the hospitals, the filling stations, the cinemas, the between monster essay restaurants and research, the department stores because of the better communication and transport system.
If the people in countryside want to connect these services, they have to take a long distance probably the nearest hospital is at least at schizophrenia, 30Km, and if you have an emergency, this is a lot of papers in artificial intelligence, time. Hospitals in the big cities are abreast of the times, have more new technologies and innovations, and just at five minutes from your house. In addition, living in the big city offers you a variety of things to do in comparison to country living like shopping centers (where you can go when it is a cold day and you want to go for a walk with your girlfriend). In the countryside during the day you can walk, run or go with your bike. But when it gets dark you have to stay at home. However, people have different reasons for choose their place for living. Some like the hamlet schizophrenia essays peaceful places, fresh air, less pollutions and natural while others like the convenient life. Choose the appropriate place for in artificial, you and your family life styles. Where do you imagine the most ideal living; in the country or the powerpoint on cause and effect city? The most important decision to a happy life is where you choose to spend the in artificial rest of your life. So where is the most exemplary place to live?
I believe it is the country rather than the city for numerous reasons. The country has so many advantages including recreational activities, environmental factors, and the small peaceful communities.