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Personal Attributes Essays and homework, Research Papers. ?Christian Allen Positive Attributes Paper Team # 6 2/14/15 After getting feedback from twelve people about my positive . attributes , I found patterns in how friends, family, and classmates thought I brought value. The positive attribute that was brought up the most out paper mla of the twelve people was my attentiveness to others. I was described as being an individual who cares about others and is concerned about others wellbeing. The next attribute that I picked out help website of the respondents was my hard work. Attribute , Interpersonal relationship , Me One 1331 Words | 2 Pages. The Original Fishbein Attitude Model. Ao = biei where, Ao = Attitude toward the groupthink object (brand) bi = belief about the brand’s possession of the homework help website attribute ei = . evaluation of the college essays attribute as being good or bad n = there are a limited number (n) of attributes which the person will consider The following asks a consumer to homework website, evaluate these attributes for luxury cars: Attribute : Sporty Styling Good Handling/Ride High Cost Great Acceleration Low Repair Frequency Use the numbers from the letter doctor following. Attribute , Characteristic , English-language films 354 Words | 3 Pages.
notes that “A fresh look is being taken at the issues of homework, power and authority, and people are beginning to john cheever essay, learn, however haltingly, to relate to one another . in less coercive and homework help website, more creatively supporting ways (1970). Servant-leadership utilizes personal , rather than position power, to influence followers and achieve organizational objectives. Essay! 6. Conceptualization – The servant-leader can conceive solutions to problems that do not currently exist (Greenleaf, 1970). 7. Foresight – “Prescience. According to Jim , Attribute , Characteristic 1076 Words | 4 Pages. Questionnair for Brand Preference in help Bajaj Two Wheelers. * Mileage | * Power | * Price | * Resale Value | * Safety | * Service | * Style | 3. Select the source which plays a major . role in obtaining information about the brand. Formatting Paper Mla! Source | | * Select one from each | Personal Source | Family | | | Friends | | | Neighbors | | | Acquaintances | | Commercial Source | Advertisement | | | Sales People | | | Dealers | | | Displays | | Experimental Source | Handling | | | Examining | | |.
Attribute , Choice , Decision making 497 Words | 4 Pages. Developing Management Skills: What Did I Learn. do better I ended up settling on homework help website the following as my top three goals. First goal was to develop a better focus and ability to john cheever reunion essay, communicate to homework, those around . me. This is essays on corporate social and disclosure one that I can not only use in the workplace I can also carry this over into my personal life. My second goal was one that I knew I needed to be more focused on at work and that is eliminating my time stressors through better time management of my projects. I know with my job I can become overloaded with projects that all need done. Attribute , Communication , Employment 2588 Words | 6 Pages. posed to homework help website, the consumer was mostly about why they think these attributes are important when buying a house from a real estate agency and by paper mla this . sequence of in-depth probes, thus identifies one or more ladders for each consumer by revealing what those attributes mean to the them in terms of consequences and values. After analysing the results by reducing data originated from interviews, we conceived almost each and every possible attributes which consumers could relate to the benefits and values which. Attribute , Cognition , Consumer protection 1238 Words | 6 Pages.
Does It Take To Enable It? Grant Transaction Type Access to Users AME restricts access to transaction types using Data Security. Homework Help! Grant users access to . the transaction types using the Grants page. Set up user access as follows: 1. Navigate to the Personal Home Page. 2. Select Functional Administrator Responsibility 3. From the john reunion essay Grants page, press on the Create Grant button 4. Create a grant with the following information: · Name · Grantee Type = Specific User · Grantee = · Object = AME. Attribute , Hierarchical query , Purchase requisition 1394 Words | 6 Pages. list created by O’Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell, (1991), and describe experiences that are consistent with those profile elements, as well as describe how we . Help! believe individuals in the organization played a role in doctor c.v the development of those cultural attributes . Person-Organization Fit and Sense-Making To define person-organization fit can be complex, as per my understanding of help website, O’Reilly et al’s article (1991), though I might resolve to use one basic explanation from the article for the basis of. Attribute , Characteristic , Goal 1510 Words | 5 Pages.
of Enterprise Non-profits, analyze you in light of 2-3 of the following characteristics:According to our text Enterprising Nonprofits by J. Gregory Dees, Jed . Emerson and Peter Economy they have outlined Entrepreneurs as possessing the following attributes . John Cheever Reunion! They are Innovative, Opportunity Oriented, Resourceful, Value Creating, and Change Agents. In accordance to our assignment I have decided to analyze myself by comparison towards the below entrepreneurial characteristics listed below: | | . Attribute , Characteristic , Creativity 818 Words | 3 Pages. psycho-physical phenomenon, should be systemized or classified accordance with the sense by help which the various attributes of quality are . perceived by the consumer. The following attributes are used to my family, determine and measure the homework quality of a product: appearance, taste, texture and aroma. As positioned by the author appearance includes factors such as size, shape, color, and external attributes such as the john cheever attractiveness of the help icon or logo. Size and shapes are measurements often used as grade standards. Attribute , Diffusion of innovations , Food 781 Words | 3 Pages. Acct1014 Management Accounting Systems. measures (and targets) which Brookline Ceramics could possibly use to formatting a research mla, evaluate Allin’s performance. List A |Performance Measure . Homework Help! |Target |Performance Measure Attribute | |Divisional controllable costs |All costs within 5% of budget | | |Divisional sales revenue |Meet or exceed budget . Attribute , Ceramic , Costs 477 Words | 5 Pages. Brand Extension: Using an essays social and disclosure, Established Brand Name to Introduce a New Product.
Introduction: “A brand extension occurs when a firm uses an established brand name to introduce a new product” (Keller, 2008, pg 491). Paragraph 2 350 . words Pg. 514 How relevant the extension evidence is help about the attribute or benefit for the parent brand- Relevance- Any brand extension needs to enhance its parent brand. If there is no connection, or ‘relevance’ it potentially won’t provide feedback benefits to paper mla, the parent brand. * Volckner and homework help, Sattler (2006) found that fit between. Attribute , Brand , Brand architecture 554 Words | 3 Pages. further support to for medical doctor, the theory that enhanced job characteristics result in higher intrinsic rewards and eventually improving job performance. Nevertheless, . one cannot ignore the fact that all these studies only examined the attributes of the whole job but neglect the distinct attributes of various roles or tasks performed within a job. A jobholder carries out different roles, duties and responsibilities that require different types of characteristics. The characteristics can be measured in terms of skill. Attribute , Gender role , Job satisfaction 1000 Words | 4 Pages.
Attribution and homework, Interpersonal Perception. Attribution and Interpersonal Perception It is said that we often attribute our own and others' behaviour to personal . dispositions when the behaviour was in fact caused by the situation. Why and when is groupthink this so? Refer to the function of homework website, attributions; attribution errors; interpersonal perceptions and cover, interactions. You may use personal examples to homework help, illustrate these biases. 1 Background 2 2 Introduction 2 3 Attributional Theories 2 3.1 Correspondent Inference 3 3.2 Causal Attributions 3 3. Adaptive expertise , Attribute , Attribution theory 1658 Words | 5 Pages.
following situations (if you believe that you need to make additional assumptions, clearly state them for each situation): a. A hospital has a large number . of registered physicians. Attributes of PHYSICIAN include Physician_ID (the identifier) and Specialty. Patients are admitted to the hospital by john essay physicians. Homework Website! Attributes of PATIENT include Patient__ID (the identifier) and Patient_Name. Any patient who is admitted must have exactly one admitting physician. A physician may optionally admit any number. Attribute , Entity-relationship model , Hospital 761 Words | 3 Pages. Mate Selection Criteria for formatting paper mla Marital Success: Is It Possible? Liberty University Abstract For decades researches have been attempting to help, indentify some key characteristics or personal . qualities that could be formulated in my family essay french such a way as to predict the probability of marital success between two parties. Homework Help! If indeed some formula could be implemented that would take into account what characteristics and/or personal qualities must be present for two people to enter into a marital agreement with a higher than average success rate; mate selection could.
Attribute , Courtship , Friendship 1057 Words | 7 Pages. in a printed pallid format. Reunion! The undergraduates received information about a new personal computer with a summary of homework, features that were held . constant throughout the experiment. Theory! In the positive valence conditions, that attributes were described favorably such as; the 640-KB memory, high quality color monitor, separate cursor control, and website, function keys on the keyboard. Whereas in negative-valence conditions, attributes were described less favorable with lower memory capacity, low quality monitor, and. Attribute , Computer , Information theory 1006 Words | 3 Pages.
quality of being sociable. 2. Essays On Corporate And Disclosure! An instance of being sociable. Website! By http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sociability Characteristics of Sociable Persons and Non . Sociable Persons Social Attributes The Social Attributes of our personality are formed by our interaction with other people over our lifetime. An Individual Attribute , such as anger, might be displayed as aggression in a social context. Essays On Corporate Responsibility! If we are punished or suffer bad consequences from our aggression, we may change our social behavior in the future. Attribute , Economics , Human 2723 Words | 7 Pages. characteristics of medication communication.
Manias names and website, explains six attributes . First, there is a speaker and the others linked to groupthink theory essay, the . encounter. Sometimes, however, the patient or the others involved choose to homework website, remain silent during the encounter; this is the essay french language second attribute . The third attribute concerns what is being said to inform and educate the patient with regards to the medication. The actual words that are used is another attribute ; the health care worker may use technical jargon or may instead. Attribute , Clinical officer , Health care 993 Words | 3 Pages. From that, we could analyze the means-end chain. The first thing that comes to mind is help website that the essay attributes are all around fees and . acceptability. Indeed, in table 3, we can see that the homework help major part of the people interview got for essays on corporate responsibility and disclosure attribute either fees (annual, or interest rate) or acceptability. Homework Website! The other interviews don’t let us know more in detail with attribute are the less important though. Cover For Medical Doctor C.v! Those attributes lead to some consequences/benefits.
After giving a glance at table 3, we could easily says that. American Express , Attribute , Bank 1045 Words | 3 Pages. performing leadership team. Homework Website! High performing leadership teams have clear guidelines and my family essay french, expectation all times, these guidelines is what allows them to homework help, be . high performing. Let’s take the “16 attributes of high performing teams” (Bb) and apply them to the 4 hour house video, in order to see if all attributes were in place. 1. Need to have clear goals.
In this case the clear goal was to build a 3 bedroom, 2 bathrooms and have it in ready to groupthink theory essay, move-in conditions in under 4 hours. 2. Goals are known. Attribute , Build-A-Bear Workshop , Building 915 Words | 3 Pages. sisterName) [pic] 4. Consider a relation representing the homework help website present position of molecules in a closed container. Letter For Medical Doctor C.v! The attributes are an ID . for help website the molecule, the x, y, and z coordinates of the molecule, and formatting, its velocity in homework help website the x, y, and z dimensions. What FD’s would you expect to hold? What are the keys? Solution: Surely ID is a key by formatting itself. However, we think that the attributes x, y, and website, z together form another key. The reason is that at no time can two molecules occupy the same point.
Consider. Attribute , Database normalization , Decomposition 1441 Words | 6 Pages. Product Differentiation Definition: Development or incorporation of attributes (such as benefits, price, quality, styling, service, etc.) . that a product's intended customers perceive to be different and desirable. Advertising and promotion of a product is based on its differentiating characteristics. Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/product-differentiation.html Today, the market is crowded with similar brands, clamoring for the attention of customers. In order for their. Advertising , Attribute , Brand 882 Words | 3 Pages.
?Activity 4.4 - Case Study - Measurement of Variables - Operational Definitions I Measurement is the paper assignment of homework help, numbers to characteristics (or . My Family Essay! attributes ) of objects according to a pre-specified set of help website, rules. Describe the john reunion essay object and characteristics of Syafiq’s study. The object of the website study is to help the Standard Asian Merchant Banks SP department understand how, and to what extent, the customers use the groupthink essay website and homework, how it can be simplified in essay order to homework help website, reduce the number of. Attribute , Characteristic , Information 1033 Words | 4 Pages. Competency 1. Which key attributes of the diversity competency are illustrated in this case? Give a specific example of college essays argumentative mla, each . attributes identified. The key attributes of the diversity competency that were illustrated in this case are embracing and homework help website, developing personal team or organizational tendencies and learning from cheever essay, individuals, teams, or organizations with different characteristics, experiences, perspectives, and backgrounds. Accenture incorporated these attributes by introducing Back-up. Attribute , Characteristic , Future 319 Words | 2 Pages. Relationship Between Website Attribute and Customer Satisfaction.
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT Capstone Project TITLE:“Relationship Between Website Attribute and homework website, Customer . Satisfaction” SUBMITTED TO LOVELY PROFESSIONALUNIVERSITY In partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Degree of “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” SUBMITTED BY: Kuldeep Tiwari Ambar Singh Archit Sharma Ankur Sood Reg no : 10809869 10804683 10800482 10800039 DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY JALANDHAR NEW DELHI GT ROAD PHAGWARA PUNJAB . Attribute , Customer relationship management , Customer satisfaction 6172 Words | 28 Pages. Personal Responsibility Essay One’s chances of succeeding in college are highly dependent on their ability to demonstrate their . personal responsibility. By doing so, one will be set for success not only in college, but also in paper mla life. Personal responsibility is also seen by many as a way to homework website, determine one’s character. Instead of giving up on one’s desires in life through the use of poor personal responsibility, they should push themselves to their greatest potential. There are many definitions. Failure , Individual responsibility , Personal 793 Words | 3 Pages. further explanation or discussion.
I’m here to help. Argumentative Mla! Thomas Uskali Written Assignment Grading Form for Personal Responsibility Essay . Homework Help Website! Statement, Due Week Five Content and formatting a research, Development 6 Points | Points Earned 5.2/6 | | Additional Comments: | All key elements of the assignment described below are covered in a substantive way. Homework Help Website! | | Write a 1,050- to 1,100-word paper expanding your Personal Responsibility Essay by incorporating feedback from your facilitator and teammates, and cheever reunion essay, including the. Education , Educational psychology , Ice cream 2023 Words | 6 Pages. of the Beers Q1: what attributes are the most important in determining beer purchasing decisions? How does this vary by market segemts? The . various attributes are Aroma Appearance Taste Aftertaste or finish Aroma A beer’s aroma is extremely important to its overall taste.
The aroma determines the purchase decision of a beer. Help! The market segments that use this attribute to purchase a beer are mostly experienced. The experience and essay language, the age determine the attribute . Homework Help! Appearance: The process. Advertising , Aesthetics , Alcoholic beverage 532 Words | 2 Pages. How Consumers Perceive Product Appearance: the essays on corporate Identification of Three Product Appearance Attributes. 9/9/13 How Consumers Perceive Product Appearance: The Identification of Three Product Appearance Attributes HOME A BOUT LOG IN . REGISTER ONLINE SUBMISSIONS CURRENT A RCHIVES A NNOUNCEMENTS Home Vol 3, No 3 (2009) Blijlevens IJDesign Vol 3, No 3 (2009) How Consumers Perceive Product Appearance: The Identification of Three Product Appearance Attributes Janneke Blijlevens *, Marielle E. H. Creusen, and Jan P. L. Schoormans Department of Product Innovation Management. Attribute , Design , Industrial design 4185 Words | 14 Pages. The Importance of Personal Responsibility.
The Importance of Personal Responsibility GEN/200 As an homework, adult you are responsible for every action that you take, but before that action . are a series of thoughts that lead you to taking that action. John Essay! Your personal responsibility starts at a young age, you are either taught personal responsibility as you grow into an adult by being held accountable of help, your own actions or the responsibility is taken from you. Depending on how you were brought up your transition into becoming an adult can either. Full-time , Hold , Holding 875 Words | 3 Pages. | What do you do if your personal values are in conflict with organizational/interpersonal business protocols? | Reaction Paper – Week 2 | . Professional Development MBA-525-MBOL5 | Kelly M. Mistretta | 7/15/2012 | | Values are a part of theory, each of us.
Our value system is influenced from birth by family members. As we grow, our values continue to be shaped by our family, in homework addition to outside influences such as teachers, friends and other mentors. In our professional life, we will. Code of conduct , Conflict , Conscience 823 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Assistants Behind every great manager, director or CEO you’ll normally find a hard-working, super-efficient personal . John Cheever Reunion! assistant planning their life effortlessly. Take a look behind closed doors and see what life as a PA is like. So, what will I actually be doing? As a personal assistant you'll be helping out your boss with whatever they need, from managing a diary to typing up reports or planning meetings.
Basically, you help organise their life so they'll always know where. Civil engineering , Executive assistant , Management 1222 Words | 5 Pages. of mankind. One of the ways that I want to help the world is by starting a chain of workout facilities for underprivileged athletes, and with all the homework help money I . make from that God will use me to bless others who do not make as much income. College Essays Argumentative! Another attribute to my worldview is trying to not judge people. It’s a shame that people judge others when they could just change that person’s life. This is my worldview and help website, how it is inconsistent with what the test told me. In the relationship section I say’s.
Attribute , Emotion , Person 667 Words | 2 Pages. Economics of milk production -A case study of Avnoor panchayath. location, wide range of products and low prices 5INTERPRETATION Store timings are convenient attribute is ranked as . John Cheever Reunion! first by homework website considering cumulative score. John Reunion Essay! Most of the homework help website respondents rated strongly agree by cheever reunion 69 respondents and agree by 31 respondents. This indicates that customers are very much satisfied about time convenience of shopping. Ambience attribute is rated as second. Most of the respondents rated strongly agree by 66 respondents and 31 of them rated agree. Store need. Attribute , Brand , Customer 1842 Words | 11 Pages. room demand only website, rest and sleep from a marketer.
2. French! Basic Product A version of the product containing only help website, those attributes or . characteristics absolutely necessary for it to function. Example 1: Brand of the car, looks and design of the car etc. Example 2: customer need basic things like bed, bathroom, chair, fan etc. 3. Essays Responsibility And Disclosure! Expected Product The set of homework, attributes or characteristics that buyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase a product. Letter For Medical C.v! Example 1: Decent mileage. Attribute , Automobile , Bed 271 Words | 2 Pages. Personal Responsibility GEN/200 Melissa Caviness University of homework help website, Phoenix 2014 Essay Personal responsibility is essay one’s . accountability towards his or her actions and doings, and accepting the help website consequences that can take place because of my family essay, those doings. Homework Help Website! It is one’s own concern and cover letter c.v, commitment to deal with his or her surroundings effectively.
In other words, personal responsibility is being responsible for homework help one’s activities at his or her individual level to explore and on corporate social and disclosure, manage ways to make life better. Individual responsibility , Maslow's hierarchy of needs , Person 948 Words | 2 Pages. Consumer Perception Towards Cosmetic Industry. |Annexure |34-36 | OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To study the . consumer perception on the basis of attribute based perceptual map using discriminant analysis. To find the Servqual score towards different attributes of fairness cream in homework accordance to kano’s model. To determine the characteristics of targeted population which affect their choice of brand through Factor Analysis. To determine the statistical. Attribute , Brand , Cream 4745 Words | 19 Pages. information is generated. Data are raw facts or observations typically about physical phenomena or business transactions. It appears in groupthink essay the form of text, . number, figures or any combination of these.
More specifically data are objective measurements of the attributes (the characteristics) of help, entities (such as people, places, things and events) According to formatting a research paper mla, Loudon and Loudon- “Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized. Attribute , Data , Decision making 1538 Words | 8 Pages. own values and personal life styles, advertisements that portray the homework website job in a way that the on corporate social responsibility organization “thinks that job applicants want to . hear” are probably dangerous from a legal point-of-view, and wasteful in terms of the poor hires that result from such an approach. The best advertisement will use professional marketing techniques in writing ad copy so that the following occur: 1. the ad presents the positive attributes of the job in homework help an attractive way; 2. negative attributes appear later in. Attribute , Employment , Job description 2628 Words | 10 Pages. ?Setting a benchmark Name: Lina Sharfi What personal attributes matter to you? Explain why you think they are important. . Attributes that matter to me I respect people with this attribute because.
Intelligence We use personal intelligence to solve problems about ourselves and others, including our loved ones. So using your intelligence to help the people you care about is a research very appreciative and respected. Help Website! Enthusiasm People with enthusiasm are infectious, it’s a very contagious body language. College Essays Argumentative! Can. Attribute , Help me , Learning 2610 Words | 11 Pages. What You Can Learn from an Elephant. has big ears because they listen more than they speak.
As well as informing others about their dangerous encounters towards the homework path of enlightenment. The . most interesting part of this whole meaning of formatting a research mla, one huge animal along with many other animals, personal just minds blows me because I think I’m an elephant on homework help website many leaves as weird as that could sound to french, many people. Although it really shouldn’t for the simple reason that if people thought of all the homework multiple characteristics that they identify with. Attribute , Characteristic , Hearing 730 Words | 2 Pages. Conjoint Analysis in Market Research.
product attributes . Groupthink! For each of the attributes from responses is website important. In addition, each individual attributes . in segregation are detect dissimilarly than in letter for medical doctor c.v the combinations discover in a product. It is homework help website hard for essays an investigation respondent to take a list of attributes and homework, psychically institute the theory prior combinations of homework website, them. If the respondent rendered the combination of attributes is in direct viewing as different product sacrificed, then the task will be easier. Whereas, the attributes have respective. Attribute , Combination , Marketing 459 Words | 2 Pages. you wanted to essays on corporate responsibility, produce a listing by city? How would you solve this problem by website alerting the file structure? We can notice the city existed as one of the . Cover For Medical Doctor C.v! attribute in MANAGER_ADDRESS, in website order to get the string (city), the theory essay problem is website we need to decompose and the character (MANAGER_ADDRESS) and do the search.
I prefer to city name as a separate attribute . 3. If you wanted to produce a listing of the file contents by last name, area code, city, state, or zip code, how would you alter the file structure. Attribute , Field , Given name 715 Words | 3 Pages. Personal and professional developme Understanding how self-managed learning can work Evaluate the learning approaches to self-managed . learning The ways which a lifelong learning in personal and professional could be encouraged Benefit of self-managed learning to the individual and groupthink theory, organisation (outcome) (s) Learning through research is an help, important part of modern independent learning.ability to use the cheever reunion internet can provide up to the minute data from homework help, a range of my family essay french, sources. Career , Learning , Management 899 Words | 4 Pages. Hispanic Perceptions of the Hiring Decision. different traits when hiring, the purpose of this research was to homework, determine if there were culture-related differences in the importance placed on 26 job . applicant attributes by Hispanics and non-Hispanics who were involved in hiring. Design/methodology/approach – This study compares the importance ratings of 26 job selection attributes by Hispanic and non-Hispanic respondents to determine the college essays argumentative mla hiring criteria that are important to help, each group, and to see if differences are statistically signi?cant.
Attribute , Diversity , Employment 5125 Words | 16 Pages. to satisfactorily perform the job.” (State of essay french language, Colorado, 2002, http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/dhr/select/docs/jobanal.pdf). Homework Help! B. “a wide variety of systematic . procedures for examining, documenting, and drawing inferences about a research paper mla, work activities, worker attributes , and homework, work context.” (Sackett Laczo, 2003, p. 21). C. Groupthink Essay! methods for learning about the tasks involved in homework help website doing a job and/or the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) that a worker needs to have to do the job (or, to essays responsibility and disclosure, do it. Analysis , Attribute , Human resource management 3887 Words | 17 Pages. consumers in homework website a geographic area through the use of one marketing System? 9. This is a new idea that developed through a list of related issues or . suggestions?
10. On Corporate Social Responsibility! It is an homework website, idea-finding technique that requires the entrepreneur to list the attribute of an item or problem and then look at each from letter doctor, a variety of new points. TRUE or FALSE 11. Parameter Analysis is used to come up with a new idea requires that he entrepreneur dream about the problem and help website, its solution, in other words, thinking-big. Attribute , Creativity , Diffusion of innovations 389 Words | 2 Pages.
Outline what is and disclosure meant by the terms 'conformtiy' and 'obedience' with references to the public services. Obedience and Conformity are both highly looked upon in the public service sector, this is because to website, be a successful team in public services you have to be . John Reunion! able to work together successfully as a team and obedience and conformity both are a desired attribute when the public service department are recruiting. Homework Website! Conformity- when you change your behaviour or actions to fit in with people around you, people will tend to college argumentative, do anything for a person working in the public service department as long as they have. Attribute , Behavior , Employment 454 Words | 2 Pages. Finny and Gene Comparison in help website A Separate Peace. so on. Nothing would be different, would it?
It is okay to have certain attributes alike with other people or things, but after a while someone . will want to search for something- anything- that would make them stand out my family essay french language from the others. While Gene and Finny were both students at the Devon school, they individually had differences from website, personal interests to physical attributes that made them unique. Gene’s physical attributes did not reflect the stereotypical boy that the reader might picture, knowing. Attribute , Envy , Interpersonal relationship 678 Words | 2 Pages. or somoene we're connected to groupthink essay, spritually. Homework! There are lots of people that can share common interests with someone. Essay French Language! For example, they may like the same music, . have the same hobbies, or they may have the same sense of help website, humor. A soul mate has all these attributes , but represents a deeper, more spiritual connection. A soul mate is essays someone that can give true passion, who is help compatible, and for medical doctor c.v, someone who stays loyal. When someone is with their soul mate there should be a special passion that feels like no one.
1996 albums , 2005 singles , Attribute 418 Words | 2 Pages. requires empty ALT (sample). Homework Website! It is especially important to groupthink theory essay, provide ALT and/or title attributes to clickable objects with explanation of help website, . on-click action result. Evaluated website extensively uses images to convey text information. Lets consider this webpage for for medical example: http://home.ingdirect.com/products/products.asp?s=OrangeInvestmentAccount. Left navigation menu items implemented using images without ALT attributes . A user of assistive technologies has no chance to understand where a menu link leads.
Alt attribute , HTML , Section 508 Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 1584 Words | 6 Pages. 000 job applicants over a 30-year period by asking them to “decide which of the following [job attributes ] is help most important to you” (p. 268). . Based on these direct responses, males reported pay to essays social responsibility, be only the fifth most important factor, while women reported it to be even lower (seventh; see Table I). However, when Jurgensen asked the same men and women to rank the homework importance of the same ten attributes to “someone just like 384 • HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, Winter 2004 The systematic. Attribute , Employment , Employment compensation 9177 Words | 28 Pages. themselves. There are several attributes that make a monster what they are.
You can tell they are monsters from their origins. For example, . Grendel’s mother was some kind of demon-witch who slept with Cain and essays social responsibility and disclosure, gave birth to help, a “demon opponent” (Beowulf 53). And Caliban who was “got by the devil himself” (The Tempest 119), Prospero claims that he is the son of the devil. We don’t know how accurate this is, but it says a lot about his appearance and appearance is another attribute we can analyze to college argumentative mla, determine. Attribute , Caliban , Grendel's mother 767 Words | 2 Pages. Shell Dimension Adding the Time Calculation Dimension to the Cube Adding the website Time Calculations to the Cube Verifying the Prior Year Calculation Verifying the . Year to my family essay french language, Date Calculations Adding a Different Type of User Defined Hierarchy Adding the Attributes to the Dimension Adding the Calculations Conclusion Introduction AS2K5 offers developers a built-in wizard which will automatically add global time calculations to SSAS cubes. These built-in MDX scripts are very limited in their calculation.
Attribute , Dimension , Dimension table 5033 Words | 18 Pages. Means End Chain Model Relating to Samsung. network between concrete and abstract product attributes , functional and psychosocial consequences linked with product use and finally . consumers’ instrumental and help, terminal values. Product Attributes expresses the impressions or characteristics of a product or service. Concrete attributes refer to the physical characteristics. They have a tangible reality where the consumer can experience directly.
Abstract Attributes are non material product characteristics. Abstraction , Attribute , Consumer protection 374 Words | 2 Pages. represent the paper purpose of a non-text element.” (United States Access Board 2001) The HTML alt attribute needs to be added to homework help website, all images. For . example, the Library search results page indicates the item’s media type using a picture of a book, CD, DVD, or similar graphic. Because no text equivalent is provided, visually impaired users are not able to distinguish between audio and formatting a research, printed books. When alt attributes are provided, reader software can ‘read’ the alternate text for homework these graphics. My Family! 2 IMPROVE. Accessibility , Alt attribute , Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 569 Words | 3 Pages.
Personal Strengths and Weaknesses A reason that this country works well is that everyone has diverse abilities which can contribute to . everyday life. Help! Some people let those abilities shine at work, in their personal life or both. As people have their strengths, they also have their weaknesses. There is a problem to improve those weaknesses when the weakness is not identified. Once the weak point is identified it needs to be resolved. A plan of action for improvement helps in solving the situation. Better , Improve , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 971 Words | 3 Pages. Management is a unique firm, which dedicates itself to essays responsibility and disclosure, providing managerial counsel, healthy career decisions, and financial security to professional . Homework Help Website! athletes; while respecting the principles of integrity. List of Core Values 1. Dedication- Embrace personal relationships as a key component to the way we do business. 2. Virtue- Encourage working towards worthy respectable goals. 3. Give back- Recognize the importance of contributing back to the community.
4. Greater good in mind- Dedicate ourselves. Attribute , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 319 Words | 2 Pages. (K. Paul Yoon and Ching?Lai Hwang, “Multiple Attribute Decision Making: An Introduction”, Sage Publications, USA, 1995). Essays On Corporate Social! Decision Analysis . 2009 Fall ? Dr.
Bahar Sennaroglu The steps of TOPSIS method (1/6) • Step 1. Calculate the normalized decision matrix R = ? rij ? mxn . The normalized value rij is ? ? calculated as rij = xij 2 xij ? i =1 m i = 1, 2. m; j = 1, 2. n The Th number of alternatives b f lt ti The Th number of attributes b f tt ib t • Th normalization i d The li. Attribute , Decision making , Decision making software 1213 Words | 8 Pages.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. Website! How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only letter for medical doctor c.v, about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the website, thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into groupthink essay Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list.
So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the homework website, benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the cheever reunion, overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to homework help website two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by groupthink theory essay, lowering the website, font size or crowding your design by theory, tightening up the homework website, spacing. French! This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in help website England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by john cheever, the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at help a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design.
You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of cheever reunion a suite of homework website typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Theory Essay! These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and homework help website Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is cheever reunion, still not used as often as Arial, which landed on help, our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for my family essay french language, it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces.
It’s also suitable for website, use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for essay, when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and homework help website hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is groupthink theory essay, sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for homework website, resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at formatting paper mla small sizes. Homework Help! It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is on corporate social responsibility and disclosure, a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). Website! This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. My Family Language! However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy.
Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by homework website, many designers and paper mla typographers to be the king of homework help website fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica.
It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to cover letter for medical c.v differentiate the various sections and features of homework website your resume, but you should probably avoid the essay language, “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to help website read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo.
Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is john essay, using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Website! Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in theory Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and homework round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for theory essay, text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is website, Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume.
Plus, Arial is basically an argumentative adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on homework website, a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of john your resume in help a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and cheever reunion nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts).
Unless you’ve been living under a rock for homework website, the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. On Corporate Social! It was created in help 1994 to replicate the look of john cheever essay comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. Homework Help! The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from on corporate social responsibility, any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the help, thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes.
There’s really no good reason anyone should want to college essays argumentative mla use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. Website! So if you’re tempted to college mla give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to homework help website make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. John Cheever Essay! Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Help Website! Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on theory essay, your resume. That’s because the homework help, typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume.
So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to essay language the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is website, standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the groupthink, document’s appearance and help formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for essays argumentative mla, resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to homework your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.
After college, she built on college essays, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the help, craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the groupthink theory, digital possibilities of graphic design. Homework Website! Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. College Argumentative Mla! 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . Homework Website! 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for my family french language, Contemporary Desi. Help! 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs.
50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there!
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essay augustus show An Online Encyclopedia of homework help, Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. Cheever Reunion! His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Website! Nevertheless, his broad disregard for a research paper mla tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for homework several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by essays on corporate social responsibility the conspirators at homework help website a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the social responsibility, gratitude of the homework website, liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in theory essay the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and website decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power).
It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and john essay the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to homework help its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and essay french the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to homework be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by formatting mla Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the homework website, civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the social responsibility, dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . Website! 8.1) presents a more likely series of events.
In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in cheever reunion essay the procession and help website was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in cover letter doctor c.v future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in homework website Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign.
His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. Essays Social And Disclosure! He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in help website southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at paper mla least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of homework website, politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the essay language, leaders of the Liberators.
Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of homework help, April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and doctor arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on homework help, the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to my family the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by help website the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in a research paper June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul.
Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to website assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in essays November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to homework help website undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to john Italy from Macedonia. Homework Website! Antony went to cover c.v Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from homework help among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the for medical, name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to homework the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Cheever Reunion Essay! Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic.
The senate, led by help Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and formatting paper mla Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to help Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the reunion essay, republic, led his force into homework help website, the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to essays argumentative mla distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at help website such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in college essays mla requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the homework help website, face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the theory, city with eight legions. Homework! Three legions brought from cover letter for medical doctor c.v outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to homework help website replace the deceased consuls of essays social, 43 BC. Help Website! He now carried the long-delayed ratification of formatting, his adoption, paid out the help website, remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and theory essay tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day. Homework! Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the cover for medical, Adriatic, Cassius and website Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. []
These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of formatting a research paper, deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and homework help therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. Language! His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and homework only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and essays social responsibility and disclosure decisiveness when he had to. In the homework website, autumn of john reunion essay, 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the homework website, property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the a research paper mla, terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to homework help root out my family essay french all opposition to the triumvirs in homework help website Italy.
Our sources preserve, in my family essay excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the homework help, first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in john cheever the chaos and homework mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by groupthink theory Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in homework website the summer and autumn of that same year.
The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in essays on corporate and disclosure Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Homework! Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to formatting paper Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of homework, paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by french its redistribution as individual plots among the homework help website, ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and college essays mla regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of help website, Mark Antony.
Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. Cover For Medical Doctor! The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and homework help L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to theory essay supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to homework help website confront him. The triumvirate appeared to on corporate be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for homework help website war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the french, Pact of Brundisium.
By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to help website Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Formatting Mla! Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to homework Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution.
Surviving the john reunion, Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the homework, triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the groupthink, proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. Homework Website! He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for cheever reunion essay some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of homework help website, Brundisium and my family french was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and website placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC.
This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and on corporate responsibility Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in help triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to essays on corporate social Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of help, followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Theory Essay! Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at homework website Cumae and reunion essay much of his fleet in homework help website a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at responsibility Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC.
Aside from help Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the paper mla, meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on help website, 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to college essays defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south.
Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of help, Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Formatting Paper Mla! Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power.
Finding himself in help control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for formatting a research paper good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an homework, embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and formatting a research paper confined him to house arrest at homework the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the cheever essay, Roman West.
In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of help, Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about john cheever reunion essay, consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. Homework Website! He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. Formatting A Research Paper! But Antony's behavior in homework website the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and a research paper mla it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to homework website have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to formatting a research paper become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to website political leadership. Cheever Reunion! In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by homework help website having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and paper the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. Homework Website! The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by john essay these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on help, the road to war. In the college argumentative mla, first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is homework, interesting to my family language observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at help Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the cover, Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the homework help website, proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and essays on corporate and disclosure his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the homework help, Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra.
It seemed to argumentative many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an homework help, oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra.
It was not a legal position, but it was an formatting a research paper, unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the homework help, last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and for medical doctor converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. Homework! The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to mla Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. Homework Help! In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to college essays argumentative mla Octavian en masse.
Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. Homework Help! [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Essays Social Responsibility And Disclosure! Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Help! Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the john cheever reunion essay, very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC).
Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of help, romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and my family language he annexed Egypt as a province of homework help, Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for cover letter doctor himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to homework be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the for medical, most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected.
Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Website! Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by french Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to website embrace the entire empire and all its armies.
Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of essays on corporate, affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in homework help website his claim to cover letter universal consent, to help be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the language, old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and help above established norms. His position at essay the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of help, brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite.
In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the for medical c.v, state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to website administer regions on argumentative, his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by help website virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in john reunion the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to homework help website appear to essays be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at help website a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance.
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the college essays argumentative, corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in help the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and cover letter for medical Spain. Homework Help Website! The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root.
While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and on corporate two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated?
In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for homework help website the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of letter, proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of homework, this province. Cheever! The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Help Website! Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in essays and disclosure 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of homework help website, any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and john cheever essay privileges within the city of Rome and homework help website its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in my family french language every wing of domestic and foreign administration. Homework Help! These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the french, bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for website the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to cheever reunion refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the homework website, Second Settlement the essay language, year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to homework oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. John! When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to help see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of essays on corporate, a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything.
In addition, there was his membership of all the homework website, colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and my family essay french the matter of auctoritas . Homework! This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and cheever reunion essay political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the help website, people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and reunion essay success of homework help, his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. My Family Language! No wonder he was proud to homework help website boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him.
He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for my family language renewal is entirely beside the homework help, point: there was the illusion of a research paper, choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and homework help website we have in Augustus one of the mla, greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and homework The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to theory essay show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by homework his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. Paper Mla! In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in website Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise.
Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. []
The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. My Family Essay French Language! His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the homework help website, senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in letter doctor 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to homework him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit.
Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and groupthink Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to help pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to my family language Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year.
Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from help his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of letter doctor c.v, tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of homework, these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over mla the reins of help, government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by essay a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. Homework Help Website! In this way, Agrippa was to essay succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events).
Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to homework help website Tiberius the following year. Reunion! Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and homework the most senior and for medical experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in help website AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in letter for medical AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is help website, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by john cheever reunion essay Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to website draw candidates, with Tiberius as the formatting paper, favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Help! The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and french the move may have been intended only to help secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by paper Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. []
The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the help, various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and essays responsibility her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and homework website banished to cheever essay the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the homework, Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Cheever Reunion! Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. Homework! The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. College Essays Argumentative! For, in homework the Augustan system, an essay, imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and homework help website who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in french language political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. Homework Help Website! The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the cover letter for medical, details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.
Despite the homework help website, internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to essay present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in homework January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. Language! For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and help the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and my family essay french the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of homework help, 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in groupthink essay AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of help website, cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by cheever a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). Homework! For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). College Essays Mla! These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of help, cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and my family terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to homework channel the doctor c.v, loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to help website him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. Cover Doctor C.v! In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the homework help website, Danube and essays on corporate social responsibility Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over help local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the essays social and disclosure, frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to homework help website happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in formatting mla the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the homework, empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on letter doctor, anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. Homework Website! One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in formatting mla society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to homework help website the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is for medical doctor c.v, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the homework website, claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the essays social responsibility, workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Homework! Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC).
Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of college mla, republican precedent but had failed utterly to homework help website appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to essay be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to homework help website him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the french, Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor.
From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and homework help website those that were retained by essay french the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to homework website Augutus: A New Order Established). When the essays social, disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on website, Augustus's death in a research AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the homework help, public ones by essay a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in help website service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on essays, Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by homework website Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. Language! The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and homework help website propraetors had used to paper bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on homework, victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor.
Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in argumentative the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. Help! This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of groupthink theory, Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. Website! We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the cover letter for medical doctor c.v, rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of homework, all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in theory by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at homework help website my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the formatting paper mla, old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and homework website adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of groupthink theory essay, legislation is illustrated by homework website the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to college the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of homework help, sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the groupthink, Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. Website! In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the reunion, turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. Website! [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of essays on corporate and disclosure, a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and homework help two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and groupthink Augustus and to website Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Language! Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to homework help website direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the groupthink essay, era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose.
Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in website the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by my family essay french language heart. Help Website! This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in cheever abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in help 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to my family which the political and help website cultural sentiments expressed by a research paper mla these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of homework, a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. Cover For Medical Doctor C.v! In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of homework help website, peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of french, it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the help, RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to essays on corporate social and disclosure the Roman world, its longevity ought not to homework website be overlooked as a key factor in its success. My Family French! People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of homework website, government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on my family essay french language, the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and homework help his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of social responsibility, a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the website, capital at the emperor's expense.
Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the essays on corporate responsibility, system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the homework website, Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to groupthink theory Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of homework help, Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and theory Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992).
Gray, E.W., The Imperium of homework website, M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of essays on corporate social and disclosure, Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and homework help website Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998).
Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Theory Essay! Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38.
Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Homework Website! Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66.
________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in college essays the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984).
Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Help! Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. Letter For Medical C.v! The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at help website Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. For Medical Doctor C.v! History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________.
The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'?
Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Homework Help Website! Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca.
20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the essays on corporate social, years down to homework website 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of c.v, Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). Help Website! There are also innumerable references to letter doctor him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of help, iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and college mla Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the help website, Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and mla M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Homework Website! Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom.
Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to cover letter this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Homework Help! Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62.
Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of john reunion essay, Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to homework help website have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. Reunion Essay! See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . Homework Help! 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on essays responsibility, his early life. A note on homework website, names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Groupthink! Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC.
Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in website Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Formatting A Research Paper Mla! Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to help Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by mla the elite; see Cic. Homework! Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App.
B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . Cover Letter Doctor C.v! 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of homework, his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by my family essay french language the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the homework website, Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and formatting a research July 43 BC). Homework Website! In contrast, L. On Corporate Responsibility And Disclosure! Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in homework website letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the on corporate responsibility and disclosure, name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on help, 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on on corporate responsibility and disclosure, events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to help website the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . Paper Mla! 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful.
[] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at homework help website Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC).
Needless to groupthink say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and homework their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Mla! Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy).
[] App. Help! B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to responsibility and disclosure and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for homework the consulship appears to have begun in essays and disclosure June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. Website! On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . Paper! 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App.
B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and homework website formation of the letter for medical doctor, triumvirate: App. B. Website! Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. My Family Essay French Language! Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic.
46-49. Homework Website! Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the john reunion, moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by homework website his compliance in theory Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for homework help some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . Essay French Language! 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the website, proscriptions mainly on essays argumentative, Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for website revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of a research, Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . Homework! 4.5) as 300 senators and essays on corporate and disclosure 2,000 Knights. Homework! Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in college argumentative arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. Homework Help! B. And Disclosure! Civ . 4.53-56.
Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Help Website! B. My Family French! Civ . Homework! 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the john, depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. Homework Website! On the methods and impact of a research, veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for homework help website their wealth and fine lands and houses).
It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the my family essay language, territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App.
B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Homework Help Website! Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Theory Essay! Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of website, appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App.
B. John Reunion Essay! Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the homework help website, meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on groupthink essay, a platform built over the sea close to help website the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of cover doctor, water separated the two platforms. Website! Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached.
On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. A Research Paper Mla! Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an homework help website, overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of groupthink theory, Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Homework Help Website! 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at theory essay Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on homework, the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. John Reunion! In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in homework help the actual operation of its power; see below, n. C.v! 29. Homework! On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . Formatting A Research! 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. Homework Help! B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by mla a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service.
Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on help, the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the theory essay, honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the homework help, tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. On Corporate Responsibility! Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Help! Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132.
[] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . College Essays! 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Homework Help! Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and groupthink munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . Homework! 29.4-5; Vell.
Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to john essay contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of help website, Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Letter Doctor! Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of website, these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy.
So too now, with Octavian. Theory! Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of homework help, Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in social the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and help appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . Essays On Corporate Social Responsibility! 58.3-4.
Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and homework help website Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of for medical c.v, war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the homework website, oath riveted the shackles of essay, [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of website, Actium . College! The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . Homework Help! 61). For the college essays mla, later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut.
Ant . 68.4-86. Help Website! Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an theory, asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet.
Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of help website, Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. Theory! On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the homework, Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is cover doctor, meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to homework website a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to groupthink his position and help acted accordingly.
That attitude, in college essays mla fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Help! Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of paper mla, a patient and careful planner. Help! Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the groupthink theory, triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and homework help website exemplary (Dio 53.1-2).
A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the college essays, Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of homework help website, Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . Groupthink! 313-30.
[] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Help Website! Epist . Cover Letter For Medical C.v! 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Help! Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. For Medical! 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Help! For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5.
Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the college argumentative mla, names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing.
Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on homework help website, the terminology of power Augustus uses to groupthink describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and homework help website then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Formatting A Research! Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in homework help power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1.
Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Formatting A Research Paper Mla! Aug . 28.1. Death and help website burial of french, Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in help website Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . Essays On Corporate Social Responsibility! 66.3, Tib . Homework! 10.3.
Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos.
407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . Essay! 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Website! Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is cover for medical doctor, no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to homework share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful.
That Augustus was blind to essays responsibility and disclosure the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. Homework Help! For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. On Corporate Social And Disclosure! Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5.
For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . Help Website! 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and my family language Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16.
On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the homework, Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the reactive nature of letter for medical doctor c.v, ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Website! Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. My Family Essay Language! The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Homework! Cornelius Gallus, son of my family essay, Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of help, their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by theory essay the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and homework received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and formatting paper Drusus on homework website, the Rhine and Danube in groupthink 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to homework his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of theory, Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the help, Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28.
On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. College Essays Argumentative Mla! Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet.
Aug . 37. On the help website, equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . Formatting Paper Mla! The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of homework, gratitude toward the imperial regime on for medical, the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the homework help, empire's territories on french, Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions.
Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. Help Website! (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Cover Letter C.v! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat.
Aug. Website! (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the cover letter for medical doctor, Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. Homework Help! pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. On Corporate Social! - Noricum Imperial equest. Website! pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. Theory! (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. Website! - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. Theory Essay! pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. Website! pref pro letter for medical legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. Help Website! In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of reunion essay, your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut.
Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. Help! On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the college essays argumentative, standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of help website, his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at and disclosure spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95.
Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the help website, still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On Corporate Social And Disclosure! On the growth of the cult in help Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. My Family Essay French Language! On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Help Website! Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4.
A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in cover Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. Homework! On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. For Medical Doctor! Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in website Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and my family essay french language Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. Homework Help! 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for french praising Brutus and Cassius in his history).
[] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Homework Help! Tib . Doctor! 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Homework Website! Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4.
[] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and essay french language this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below.
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