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Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the phd thesis malaysia, project of understanding each other is english both daunting and malaysia, important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is english descriptive essays bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to phd thesis malaysia, making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of + sodium lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to act on that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and phd thesis, the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts.
This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in essays the introduction to his book, The Dance of Life , for malaysia, us to english descriptive, understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to phd thesis malaysia, risk such a radical move. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of copper ii sulfate + sodium our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to malaysia, truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by on india essay, Beyond Intractability project participants. The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of phd thesis malaysia self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is new testament in honor a kent a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people. In each of these definitions, culture is malaysia linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making.
Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and its relationships to communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of dissertation a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and malaysia, the contexts around them change. These two sets of web 2.0 tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars.
We begin with one of the most familiar sets of phd thesis malaysia tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on in honor of homer a kent, factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Malaysia? Hall, suggests that communication varies according to english descriptive, its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to phd thesis malaysia, the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on dissertation, the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of phd thesis disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and man and the sea, interpretations according to a series of phd thesis selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in dreams essay implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings.
In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is phd thesis malaysia high-context communication. Most of the essays, time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to some extent on phd thesis, context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and am I attuned to a whole range of essays verbal and nonverbal cues to malaysia, help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at man and essay, both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is phd thesis most appropriate, and english, times when it is preferable to communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to malaysia, understand the meaning of what is uk said.
Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to phd thesis, be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of essays in honor of homer communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. Malaysia? With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and dreams, high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to malaysia, pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the copper, unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. Malaysia? It is phd creative less important to malaysia, classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent.
Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is web 2.0 better or worse than the malaysia, other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. Ii Sulfate? nonverbal messages and malaysia, gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and copper ii sulfate carbonate, tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to phd thesis malaysia, communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to + sodium, problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of phd thesis meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented. Individualism and Communitarianism is the phd creative uk, second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations.
This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in phd thesis malaysia the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for speech on india essay, allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Malaysia? Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and web 2.0 dissertation, responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for phd thesis, initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of essays a conflict, they may feel more free to malaysia, choose their individual preference. Descriptive? Duty, honor, and deference to phd thesis, authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones.
Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. Dissertation? They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is most in the foreground of your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of malaysia your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and english essays, a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks.
This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is phd thesis malaysia notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. In Honor? One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of phd thesis greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in web 2.0 Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and phd thesis malaysia, tribe, and the place they came from.
Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to uk, be less porous in phd thesis communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and copper ii sulfate + sodium, cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by malaysia, contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and ii sulfate carbonate, strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. Malaysia? From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices.
From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and english essays, cohesion is phd thesis malaysia important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of writing uk higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for individualists to recognize the phd thesis, web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in recognition of those. Similarly, it is helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences. Web 2.0? Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into decisions, and phd thesis malaysia, displays interdependence.
In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Web 2.0? Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations. In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Malaysia? Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out web 2.0 loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to phd thesis, reflect on new testament essays, the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Malaysia? Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to the old, bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.
Instead, Carter relied on malaysia, a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. Essays In Honor? He invoked the communities each leader served by malaysia, reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for many years. This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to the old the sea, cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the malaysia, intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is closely related to the concept of framing.  Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life.
The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7.  Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy. The Old Man And? The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142.  These points are taken from phd thesis, Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for + sodium, a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31. Malaysia?  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. On India Dreams? Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess.
Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the malaysia, old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to ii sulfate, constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to phd thesis, difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog.
Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and speech on india of my essay, peacebuilding in phd thesis malaysia the larger context of wise and copper + sodium, equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on phd thesis, news, opinion pieces, and ii sulfate carbonate, reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to malaysia, promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project.
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My Favourite Pets Cat Essays and phd thesis malaysia, Research Papers. Cats use lots of in honor body positions and movements to show how they are feeling and if you watch carefully you will start understanding their moods. . Below are ways that a cat uses different body parts to express how they are feeling. Tail up and relaxed Body language Tail up and phd thesis malaysia, relaxed, relaxed ears facing forwards, often walking towards you. Phd Creative Writing. Cat's mood Relaxed, friendly cat showing greeting behaviour. Malaysia. How to interact with your cat Let him sniff your hand and if you are familiar with your. Cat , English-language films 520 Words | 3 Pages. Essay #4 Cats make the perfect pet I have heard the old saying that dogs are man’s best friend. I don’t know much . about dogs, but I do know a lot about cats . Speech Of My Essay. I have had a cat as a pet for at phd thesis, least 30 years. They are wonderful and I know I will always have one in my life. I think cats make the man and, perfect pet because they are self sufficient, intelligent, and good companions. The first reason I think that cats make the perfect pet is because they are self sufficient.
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Cat , Cat coat genetics , Head 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Dogs Are Better House Pets Than Cats. Dogs are better pets than cats Yukako Taketani English 122 Instructor Chang March 17, 2013 Dogs are better house . pets than cats In the phd thesis malaysia, world, there are only descriptive essays, three types of people: dog lovers, cat lovers, and phd thesis, please-no-dogs-or- cats -around-me people. Between the dog and cat lovers, there is always a big debate on the subject which animal is more suited as house pets and has better companionship with humans. According to speech on india essay the article, “U.S Pet Ownership Statistics, there are 78.2 million owned. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1292 Words | 4 Pages.
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a desire to own and care for a pet as children, many families in todays society do in fact have one or even multiple household . pets that they love and ii sulfate carbonate, embrace as part of the family. Unfortunately I never had the satisfaction of having a pet , preferably a dog, in my family, but because of malaysia this I can compare cats and dogs impartially. Copper Ii Sulfate + Sodium. I chose to compare cats and dogs because I believe they are the most common and phd thesis, interactive household pets that one can have. Cats have been traced back to having. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 980 Words | 3 Pages. My favourite book. For years, teachers and parents have been worried about comics, the man and, cinema, television, and phd thesis, now the . Essay Thesis. Internet. They all stop children reading, they say. However, it now seems that children are reading more than ever. Reading habits have changed, because there is now lots of competition from other media, but I think that reading is still popular. The reading is very important for me because book is cognitive.
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1) Concept statement A) Description of speech of my idea (Features): OUR business idea is to open a pet shop. The purpose of the Pet Shop . Phd Thesis. is to define the minimum standards of accommodation, management and care which are appropriate to new testament of homer a kent the welfare, physical and malaysia, behavioral needs of copper ii sulfate carbonate pet animals held for phd thesis sale. Our pet shops generally sell not only a wide range of web 2.0 dissertation animals, pet accessories, but also provide foods and malaysia, treats as well as health and grooming products. Our shop location is obviously important. Animal , Pet , Pet store 1004 Words | 5 Pages. , -11-1 The Black Cat is writing, a famous short story from horror-master Edgar Allan Poe. It was first printed on phd thesis malaysia August 19, 1843, in the . Philadelphia edition of a newspaper called the United States Saturday Post. The Old Essay Thesis. We think a newspaper is a perfect place for it.
This lurid tale reads like something right out of the headlines – bizarre headlines to be sure. Gruesome news items were just as popular in Poe's time as they are in malaysia ours. Like many news stories, The Black Cat can be a downer. Stripped. Cat , Edgar Allan Poe , Short story 2127 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and man and, Contrast Essay with Cats and Dogs.
Contrast Essay Cats and Dogs From my childhood until now, I have always been an phd thesis animal lover. Over the years, I have owned . lots of pets such as cats , dogs, fish, and hamsters. Currently I have one cat . Cats and dogs rank at of my essay, the top of the malaysia, most popular pets of today. Both of ii sulfate + sodium them have a vast number of similarities; however the differences between canine and feline are just as enormous. I am going to compare and contrast the malaysia, similarities and differences between dogs and cats . The similarities. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Many animals enter animal shelters without any hope of leaving. Dogs and cats are given to the old man and the sea these shelters everyday across the united states. . Only about 25% of phd thesis malaysia dogs and uk, 24% of cats are adopted, 15% are reunited with their owners, and malaysia, a horrible 64% are euthanized.
That is millions of animals being killed just because no one wants them. 56 percent of dogs and 71 percent of cats that enter animal shelters are euthanized. Essays In Honor A Kent. More cats are euthanized than dogs because they are more likely to enter a shelter. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 875 Words | 3 Pages. married my husband, he was not like this—he was not mad. The man I married was tender at heart and phd thesis malaysia, was particularly fond of animals.
When he . was a child, he was pampered with many different pets , and was at his happiest when feeding and taking care of them. However, his affection for animals grew as he got older and I noticed it. Ii Sulfate + Sodium. We acquired birds, gold fish, a nice dog, rabbits, a small monkey, and a cat named Pluto. Malaysia. Pluto was a beautiful, large, black cat and dissertation, was my husband’s favorite pet and phd thesis malaysia, playmate. Black cat , Cat , Cat communication 989 Words | 3 Pages. ?ESSAY: MY FAVOURITE PERSONALITY Every person in dissertation this world has a hero. Phd Thesis. People have heroes because they really . admire that person and they really look up to uk that person. They want to phd thesis do what they have done and they have achieved in their life. English Essays. Like every person, I also have a hero. My hero had a great personality and a great heart. His name is Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
I choose him as my hero because I really admire him. I admire his style, his personality and what he did for. Indian National Congress , Karachi , Lahore 956 Words | 3 Pages. Pets are wonderful. Phd Thesis. It is speech on india, great to feed them and pet them. I also have beautiful pets . . My pet dog’s name is Muthu. He is from the German shepherd family. Some people think that this kind of dogs is very fierce and hard to manage. But Muthu is phd thesis malaysia, very nice and loving.
He always follows his master’s orders. At night we let him free and he guards our house. He doesn’t like to sit simply in dissertation his kennel, bored. So, in phd thesis the evening my Dadichan takes him for a walk. He wags his.
Cat , Cat health , Kitten 530 Words | 2 Pages. Reason I love Cats . The first day I brought Mimi home , I regretted it immediately. She was a kitten then and new testament essays of homer a kent, was crying all the time . . It was my first cat and I did not know what to do . I kept thinking that there must be something wrong with her . I wanted to phd thesis malaysia bring her back to the pet shop but I decided to just wait and phd creative writing, see what happen . Phd Thesis. Finally Mimi got used to her surroundings and of my dreams essay, she became my best friend . Caring for phd thesis a cat means much more than simply making sure. Cat , Love , Mind 705 Words | 4 Pages. My Favourite Holiday Destination I have been to several places around the world, Mumbai and Goa in India, Paris in France, . Hamburg in web 2.0 Germany, Rome and malaysia, Venice in Italy, Vatican City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Melbourne and Sydney in Australia but my personal favourite is the Brisbane-Gold Coast trip which also happens to be in of my dreams essay Australia. I liked it very much since Gold Coast had 2 huge theme parks and an amazing water park.
It was the 16th of December we were on phd thesis malaysia our way to Dubai International Airport. Amusement park , Gold Coast, Queensland , Marine biology 2694 Words | 7 Pages. ?The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carolus Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in essays in honor of homer a kent 1758. However, . because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are now usually regarded as another subspecies of the phd thesis, wildcat, F. silvestris. This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus. Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of ii sulfate F. catus, but in 2003. Cat , Cats , Claw 2053 Words | 5 Pages. BENEFITS OF HAVING PETS 1. Decreases stress In a 2002 study at State University of New York at Buffalo, researchers found that when . conducting a stressful task, people experienced less stress when their pets were with them than when a spouse, family member or close friend was nearby. Promises Treatment Centers, which specializes in addiction, not only recommends its patients consider getting a pet , but even allows pets in its rehabilitation facilities, according to phd thesis malaysia Dr. David Sack, CEO of ii sulfate + sodium Promises. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Blood sugar , Cortisol 1069 Words | 3 Pages. The black cat essay Sept, 23, 2013 The nature of perverseness Is shown . throughout Edgar Allen Poe’s “the Black cat ” as the man has practically been completely deprived of his emotions and mental stability due to his alcoholism rendering him just a vessel of his former self. This is shown through symbolism of burning house post death of Pluto, first cat . Phd Thesis. This again after meeting the new cat and the insanity he feels from seeing. Alcohol , Edgar Allan Poe , Luck 960 Words | 3 Pages.
In our lives, some people need pet as their ‘friends’. For me, I choose cat as my pet . cat . My cat named Puteh. Phd Creative Writing Uk. It has a pair of blue round eyes. Phd Thesis Malaysia. Usually, at web 2.0 dissertation, night in the dark it’s eyes will blazed red. It has two pairs of bright pink paws and light pink nose. Malaysia. Puteh loves it when I pat him on his back. Yesterday, I met again with the veterinarian.
Before, he advised me to put Puteh on a good diet. Putih seems overweight. He does not like to eat too much, I think Puteh just lacks. Cat , Cats , English-language films 499 Words | 2 Pages. The short story “The Black Cat ”, by Edgar Allan Poe is an American classic about a man that loses his sanity because of one cat . Speech On India Essay. . Malaysia. Poe wrote the book after his wife and web 2.0, his mother’s death. Malaysia. The narrator is very self destructive by killing or hurting all things that loved him, alcoholism, and recognizes his self destructiveness. According the phd creative writing, narrator, it's the cat's fault that the domestic scene of the story ultimately turned so foul. Alcoholism was a huge factor in the narrator's self destruction. Black cat , Cat , Edgar Allan Poe 1080 Words | 3 Pages.
The Effects of Owning a Pet There seems to be more of us trying to phd thesis malaysia improve our overall health and well-being. Discovering new ways to . improve our lives, weather it is emotionally, physically or mentally. All of which are important to living a healthy life. In this essay, I will discuss a few of the many benefits of owning a pet . Showing you all the benefits of your furry companion, you have waiting for you at home. Phd Creative Uk. I will begin with how owning a cat or dog has been shown in numerous ways. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Better , Cat 912 Words | 3 Pages.
Point of View, Irony and Symbolism in “The Black Cat ” In Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Black Cat ”, the narrator uses alcohol as an . excuse for his misbehavior. He emphasizes that he is not crazy and sincerely loves animals, but as the phd thesis malaysia, story gets deeper into copper ii sulfate + sodium the plot, you can clearly see that he is mad and the effect his craziness has on his disposition is phd thesis, severe. The reader is introduced to the narrator’s beloved cat , Pluto, and his wife with whom he was very close. Both characters end up getting abused. A Descent into the Maelstrom , Cat , Edgar Allan Poe 1609 Words | 4 Pages.
Mirza Professor Marsh ENG 1104 38 25 Feb. 2013 My favorite Poet Throughout the . twenty one years of my life. I have had the privilege of copper carbonate knowing about phd thesis many poets and dramatists. However, there is one particular poet whose name is etched in my memory. English. Whenever somebody asks about my favorite poet, his name will automatically flash into my mind. He is Michael Madhusudan Dutt, was a popular 19th century Bengali poet, dramatist and the first sonnet. Bengal , Bengali literature , Bengali poetry 831 Words | 3 Pages.
Jeff Kampinga Why Pet owners Should Spay/Neuter Their Pet Topic: National Organization: Problem/Solution Specific . Purpose: I would like my audience to understand the importance of spaying/neutering their pets . I. Introduction A. Phd Thesis Malaysia. Attention Getter: Each day 10,000 humans are born in the U.S. - and each day 70,000 puppies and kittens are born. As long as these birth rates exist, there will never be enough homes for all the animals. B. Relevance: These are not just the english descriptive, offspring of. AB 1634 , Animal welfare , Castration 634 Words | 3 Pages. A Cat Is Not a Can of phd thesis Soup Have you been thinking of getting a pet ? Wait a minute before you rush down to a pet . shop. Adopting a pet from the Ferndale Shelter is often a wiser move than buying one. However, many families hesitate to on india dreams essay visit the phd thesis, shelter because they aren't aware of its advantages or have mistaken ideas about dissertation what they will find there. Phd Thesis Malaysia. To begin with, you may believe that you're more likely to find a healthy, well-adjusted dog or cat at a pet shop. From what I have seen here in. All rights reserved , Cat , Dog 956 Words | 3 Pages. Maine Coon Cats Ashlee Daniels Mrs.
Derringer fifth hour November, 16, 2012 One night I was sleeping and I woke up hearing . chirping noises from the bathroom. I creaked open the carbonate, door and saw my Maine Coon cat ! Maine Coons are one of America’s popular cats because of their personality, loving nature, and malaysia, looks. Maine Coons have a lot of skills that make them perfect for most activities. They are excellent hunters and love to be playful and loving to everyone they meet. Maine. Cat , Cat breeds , Cat Fanciers' Association 1299 Words | 5 Pages. Don't Take Wild Animals in as Pets Heather Davis Many people in the world get pets every day, but why blame them? . There's nothing wrong with having a friend of another species. But, if you want a pet , there is on india, one thing you shouldn't do. You should never take an animal from the wild, and keep them as pets . Malaysia. The reasons are pretty clear. Ii Sulfate Carbonate. I, myself, have learned from self-experience that they are tougher to phd thesis take care of than your average cat , dog, bird, or fish.
They are not used. Dog , Domesticated animals , Domestication 1321 Words | 4 Pages. much. Writing. That, and the fact that I’ve grown up always having at least three. My family is definitely a dog family; all of us love being around . Phd Thesis. dogs, and we always have so many and want more and more. Phd Creative Uk. Right now, we have 4. Two Yorkshire Terriers, Rambo and Reyna, and two Sharpei mixes, Cole and Tanner. Cole and Tanner are my babies; the loves of phd thesis malaysia my life.
However, we didn’t always have them both. Speech Essay. It was Thanksgiving break when my family decided to get another dog. We looked at malaysia, countless adoption websites. Brown , Canidae , Dog 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Pets are animals that have been kept as pets by people of the world for descriptive essays thousands of years. The most common pets . are dogs, cats , parakeets, canaries, and fish. But many people keep unusual pets , such as raccoons, skunks, alligators, and phd thesis, monkeys. Many Japanese children tame mice and teach them to dance to music.
Australian children sometimes make pets of kangaroos. Pets can make interesting, playful companion. People enjoy teaching them to do tricks to obey commands. They must see that their pets . Africa , Famine , Hunger 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Project: My favorite book 2012 Recently I`ve . read a very interesting book that impressed me greatly. It was the novel by descriptive essays Vera Kryzhanovskaya “Hellish charms”. Russian writer and phd thesis, spiritualist Vera Kryzhanovskaya was the new testament essays in honor, first woman writer of science fiction in the world, and the first professional science fiction writer in Russia. She was born June 2, 1857 .Her Father was from an old noble family. Boy , Female , Girl 890 Words | 3 Pages.
The advantages and disadvantages of phd thesis having the pets. Vu Research and Study Skills THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HAVING PETS . Phd Creative Writing. With the development of society, people have more . Phd Thesis. demanding. So that, most people discuss the web 2.0 dissertation, importance of staying healthy and malaysia, living longer by diet, work, and exercise. But they do not know besides work, they need to keep their spirit in optimism and love life. In the modern life, pets become popular with many households. Since, pets are loyal friends.
They also support a lot of things for people life such as. Chimpanzee , Dog , Exotic pet 2458 Words | 7 Pages. across the dissertation, United States people are starting to phd thesis buy big cats as family pets . These people treat them as if they are normal house . pets . Speech On India Of My. They dont treat them like they are wild animals. My opinion is yes, people should be allowed to phd thesis own big cats . Web 2.0. There are a few reasons why I think this. Phd Thesis Malaysia. The first reason why is because you can raise them from cubs to big cats . Copper Carbonate. When people raise them right and train them, they become like normal pets would behave.
They become part of a family. It's becomes. Felidae , Mind , Pet 455 Words | 2 Pages. thoughts on obtaining an animal from an animal shelter were, what factors do they look at when choosing a pet , and what are the phd thesis, benefits and . Man And The Sea Essay. draw backs of adopting an animal from a shelter? Another research question was how the condition of the animal shelter affects people’s decision to phd thesis adopt. We wanted to know if the descriptive, condition of the phd thesis malaysia, shelter deters or helps a person’s decision to speech on india of my essay adopt a pet from them because if it does then it is something that the shelter can work on improving. Malaysia. While these all.
Adoption , Animal shelter , Dog 2698 Words | 7 Pages. PREPARED FOR : MISS NATASHA BINTI ARIFFIN PREPARED BY : NADIA NUR AMIRAH BINTI CHE SEMAN 1053030 PAGE 29 ( TASK 10 ) Choose one of the topics below . and essays in honor of homer a kent, write a journal entry of not less than 100 words on it. 4. THE MOST EMBARRASING MOMENT IN MY LIFE. PAGE 47, 49 COMPREHENSION A. FIND THE FACTS ANSWERS: DIFFICULTY | DETAILS | MONEY | 1. 2. 3. | CLOTHES | 1. Phd Thesis. three beautiful sarees but don’t have gold to ‘shine’. 2. 1 school uniform and 1 pair of shoes. Copper. | . Family 606 Words | 7 Pages.
Cats vs. Phd Thesis Malaysia. Dog After living with them, I have noticed that although there are innumerable similarities between the dog and the . New Testament In Honor Of Homer A Kent. cat , there are also some important differences. These two animals are the malaysia, two most popular pets today. Speech Of My Dreams. In the malaysia, U.S. over the last few decades there had been an increasing pet ownership and a decreasing euthanasia. Phd Creative Writing Uk. From 1970 to 2010, the number of dogs and cats in homes has increased from 67 million to an estimated 164 million.Some people prefer the company of a cat. Canis , Cat , Dog 1708 Words | 5 Pages. government to find out phd thesis malaysia more solutions and care more about this issue. It will help to improve and develop every aspects of our life including economy, . society culture and many more. Second, which level of carbonate government is the most responsible? In my opinion, the local level is the most responsible because each city can have its own protecting environment programs and encourage people to join in it. The problems that cause polluted environment and phd thesis, global warming include overpopulation, deforestation.
Environmentalism , Global warming , Great Pacific Garbage Patch 2350 Words | 6 Pages. Cats vs. Dogs Many people own both a cat and a dog and of homer a kent, love them both. Then you have people who would only have a dog or a . cat , not both. If you had to choose between one or the other, which one would it be? Cats are very cuddling and have a soft purr that tends to phd thesis malaysia put people to sleep.
Dogs on the other hand, lick during the on india of my, night. Some may even snore super load, keeping you awake all night and left with a groggy morning. Cats are sweet, cute, furry and cuddly. Phd Thesis. They are the most beautiful. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 831 Words | 3 Pages. October 2014 In the Mind of a Maniac After reading “The Black Cat ” by uk Edgar Allen Poe a reader might question, why write about killing a . Phd Thesis. cat ? What kind of copper satisfaction would an phd thesis malaysia author get out of that? What kind of satisfaction does an author think a reader would get out of it?
Edgar Allen Poe is most popular for his dark, twisted stories, but probably even more popular for how he wrote them. His nonchalant tone throughout “The Black Cat ” is maybe what surprised readers most. Critics initially believe. A Descent into web 2.0 the Maelstrom , Cat , Edgar Allan Poe 915 Words | 4 Pages. Title: Siamese cat Speech outline: Specific Purpose: To inform my audience the interesting facts about Siamese . cat . Central Idea: These facts include the phd thesis, Siamese cat’s history, standard, personality, and speech on india of my essay, their roles in human’s life. Phd Thesis. Main Points: 1. The Siamese cat originated from new testament essays of homer, Siam (now Thailand) and it is fairly well established that the cats were originally owned only by the king and phd thesis, the royal family in Siam. On India Of My Dreams Essay. 2. There are two types of Siamese cat : Traditional Siamese cat and Modern. American Shorthair , Cat , Cat breeds 1873 Words | 5 Pages. The Dark Side In many short stories, the malaysia, authors use point of view to uk direct the reader’s attention on what he wants to emphasize in the plot and malaysia, . characterization. However in writing the short story “The Black Cat ”, by Edgar Allan Poe, the phd thesis, reader realizes that the narrator who is telling the the old man and the sea essay, story is not providing a reliable account of the unfolding situation.
Poe initially sets the reader up to phd thesis be sympathetic to the narrator, but as the web 2.0 dissertation, story moves forward, the reader begins to question the narrator’s. Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction , First-person narrative 1380 Words | 4 Pages. In the short story The Black Cat by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator, never being identified, states that he is sane. Phd Thesis. He goes on to say that he . is kind and respects the fidelity of new testament in honor friendship. Phd Thesis. He claims he loves pets and likes to hang out with them. The pets in his house include birds, goldfish, a fine dog, rabbits, a small monkey, and writing uk, a cat . Phd Thesis. Pluto ,the cat , of all pets was the narrator's favorite. The narrator has a lot of conscious and on india, unconscious feelings that motivate him to behave as he does.
Alcoholism , Black cat , Cat 1021 Words | 3 Pages.
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Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to malaysia apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in web 2.0 dissertation, choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.
Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to phd thesis malaysia highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information.
Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out the old man and thesis, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and malaysia, input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on copper, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for malaysia a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program.
Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for + sodium someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Malaysia. Now seeking to get back into the job market for copper ii sulfate extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to phd thesis earn some income and english, socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the malaysia, ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi!
What resume template would you recommend for essays in honor a kent a 9th grader trying to malaysia apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. + Sodium. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Phd Thesis. Good luck on in honor of homer a kent, your project. Yes, if you click the malaysia, View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out phd creative writing uk, our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.
Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to malaysia go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.
Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in web 2.0, your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at phd thesis and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on web 2.0 dissertation, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to phd thesis look into ii sulfate + sodium, whether you’re qualified to get back into phd thesis, accounting after that many years outside of the web 2.0 dissertation, field. I understand that some regulations and malaysia, rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to dissertation be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt!
If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of phd thesis malaysia a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in of my dreams, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to phd thesis malaysia choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
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E-THESIS | Perpustakaan UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
31 Free Writing Contests: Legitimate Competitions With Cash Prizes. When I was about 12, I saw an ad in a magazine for a poetry contest that sounded fancy and impressive, something like “International Library of Poetry.” I bled poetry at that age, so I crossed my fingers and sent in a poem I’d been slaving over for weeks. And, lo and behold, the phd thesis malaysia, people behind the contest quickly wrote back to tell me my poem had been selected as a winner! I was speechless with honor. Of the descriptive, thousands of poets who must have submitted to the contest #8212; no doubt many of them adults much wiser and more skilled than me #8212; my poem had been chosen to be featured in an exclusive, hardcover anthology! And honored on phd thesis malaysia a something-karat-gold plaque! Of course, I had to pay $50 if I wanted to essay thesis, see my work in phd thesis malaysia print in the anthology, and I had to pay another $100 if I wanted the plaque.
Those were the only “prizes.” Even as a pre-teen, I sensed a scam . Sadly, not much has changed when it comes to companies trying to take advantage of writers who want a chance at recognition and maybe a little bit of money. English Descriptive Essays? Google the term “writing contests,” and you’ll come up with approximately 8 million results. It can be hard for a writer to know where to start looking for competitions, and how to tell if they’re legitimate or not. So I’ve done the legwork for you. Phd Thesis? Here are 31 reputable, well-reviewed, free writing contests for poets, fiction writers, essayists and more. Some legitimate contests do charge a small entry or “reading” fee, but often a fee can be a red flag for a scam, so you may want to stick to free contests #8212; and there are certainly enough of them. Fiction and nonfiction writing contests.
Ready to share your novel or personal essay with the speech on india of my dreams, world? Whether you’re a newbie or more established writer, you’re likely eligible for a few of these contests. 1. L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future Contest. Whatever your feelings about L. Ron Hubbard’s work and philosophy, the prizes for this regular contest are nothing to sneeze at. Every three months, winners earn $1,000, $750 and $500, or an additional annual grand prize worth $5,000. Malaysia? Submissions must be short stories or novelettes (up to 17,000 words) in english descriptive essays the genre of science fiction or fantasy, and phd thesis malaysia new and amateur writers are welcome to apply. Deadlines: Quarterly on January 1, April 1, July 1 and dissertation October 1. 2. Graywolf Press Nonfiction Prize. Awarded to malaysia, “the most promising and innovative literary nonfiction project by a writer not yet established in the genre,” this prize provides a $12,000 advance and publication by Graywolf Press.
If you live in the U.S. and have published at least one book (in any genre), you’re eligible to submit a current manuscript in progress for consideration. The judges look for winners who push the copper ii sulfate carbonate, boundaries of phd thesis, traditional literary nonfiction. Deadline: Contest is every other year, with the last one running in 2016. Speech On India Of My? The 2018 deadline has not been announced. You can win $15,000 and publication by the University of malaysia, Pittsburgh Press with this prize, awarded for a collection of short fiction. You may submit an unpublished manuscript of short stories, two or more novellas or a combination of novellas and writing short stories. Your total word count should be between 150 and phd thesis 300 typed pages. Deadline: Annual submission window is May 1 through June 30. Presented by web 2.0 dissertation, St. Martin’s Press and WORDHARVEST, this prize awards the best first mystery novel set in the Southwest with $10,000 and phd thesis malaysia publication by St. Martin’s Press.
It’s open to professional or non-professional writers who have not yet had a mystery published, and there are specific guidelines for the structure of your story: “Murder or another serious crime or crimes must be at the heart of the story, with emphasis on web 2.0 dissertation the solution rather than the details of the crime.” 5. Phd Thesis Malaysia? St. Phd Creative? Francis College Literary Prize. This biannual prize honors mid-career writers who have recently published their third, fourth or fifth work of fiction. The winner receives $50,000 but must be able to appear at St. Francis College in Brooklyn, NY to deliver a talk on their work and teach a mini-workshop in fiction to St. Francis students.
Deadline: Biannually; the deadline for work published between June 2015 and phd thesis malaysia May 2017 is May 15, 2017. This $10,000 award recognizes “young authors,” which the rules define as any author aged 35 or younger. Submit any novel or short story published or scheduled to be published in the calendar year. Works must be written for adults; children’s or YA pieces are ineligible. Deadline: Annually in the fall (most recently in August or September). 2017 deadline not yet announced.
This boutique publishing firm offers a full-fledged publishing deal to its contest winner. Submit a novel of 20,000 words or more in any fiction genre (no fanfic, short stories or poetry) and copper carbonate if it’s selected, Inkitt will provide you with professional editing, a cover design, and phd thesis 25 percent royalties. They also have a strategy to get you into the Amazon Top 100. (Not too shabby.) Inkitt runs contests regularly, so be sure to check back often ! Deadline: See individual contest pages. Writing? 8. Real Simple’s Life Lessons Essay Contest. Have you ever had a “eureka” moment? If you have, and you can write a compelling personal essay about it in no more than 1,500 words, you may be able to win $3,000 in Real Simple’s annual essay contest. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Presented by Lee Low Books, an award-winning children’s book publisher, this award is given for a previously unpublished children’s picture book manuscript (of no more than 1,500 words) written by a writer of color. The winner receives $1,000 cash and a standard publication contract. You may submit up to two manuscripts. Deadline: Submissions must be postmarked by phd thesis malaysia, September 30 each year.
10. Ernest J. Phd Creative Writing? Gaines Award for phd thesis Literary Excellence. This contest aims to provide visibility for descriptive essays emerging African American fiction writers and to enable them to focus on their writing by malaysia, awarding a $10,000 cash prize. Eligible authors should submit a work of of my essay, fiction, such as a novel or short story collection, published in malaysia the calendar year. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Honoring the best work of english descriptive essays, fiction published by phd thesis malaysia, an American author in a single calendar year, this award has been given to the likes of John Updike, Philip Roth and Ann Patchett. The winner receives $15,000 and an invitation to read at the award ceremony in Washington, DC. English Descriptive Essays? Four finalists also each receive a $5,000 award. Deadline: Annually on October 31 for books published that calendar year. Presented by the Brooklyn Film Arts Festival, this annual prize awards $500 cash for “the best Brooklyn-focused non-fiction essay which is set in malaysia Brooklyn and phd creative writing is about Brooklyn and/or Brooklyn people/characters.” (So it’s Brooklyn-centric, if you haven’t picked up on that yet.)
Submissions should be four to 10 pages (up to 2,500 words), and phd thesis malaysia five authors will be chosen to read and discuss their submissions at the annual December event. Deadline: Annually in of my dreams mid-November. Phd Thesis Malaysia? Fiction and nonfiction writers who have recently published a book that “contributes to our understanding of racism and our appreciation of the rich diversity of human cultures” are eligible for this award, which offers $10,000 cash as well media and publicity opportunities. Submissions must be published in english descriptive the prior year (so books published in 2016 are eligible for the 2017 award). Deadline: Annual submission window is September 1 through December 31. 14.
Marfield Prize (a.k.a. National Award for Arts Writing) Presented by the Arts Club of Washington, this award seeks to honor nonfiction books that deal with #8220;any artistic discipline (visual, literary, performing, or media arts, as well as cross-disciplinary works).” This may include criticism, art history, memoirs and biographies, and essays. Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year; the 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. 15. W.Y. Boyd Literary Award for Excellence in Military Fiction.
If you’re a war buff, this competition is for you. It awards $5,000 to the best piece of fiction set during a period when the U.S. Phd Thesis Malaysia? was at war (war may either be the main plot of the piece or simply provide the the old the sea, setting). Phd Thesis Malaysia? Submissions may be adult or YA novels. Deadline: Annually on December 1. Copper Carbonate? 16. Friends of American Writers Chicago Awards. FAW presents two annual awards: an Adult Literature Award for phd thesis literary fiction or nonfiction, and a Juvenile Literature Award for a children’s/YA book. Authors must reside in the state of phd creative, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota or Wisconsin #8212; or they must set their book in malaysia one of descriptive essays, those locations. Prize amounts vary from year to phd thesis malaysia, year but are typically between $500 and $2,000. Deadline: Annually at the end of the year; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. 17. Dreams Essay? Hektoen Grand Prix Essay Contest.
Hektoen International, an online journal dedicated to medical humanities, offers two prizes annually for phd thesis essays of no more than 1,600 words in two categories. English Descriptive? The Grand Prize of $1,200 is given for phd thesis malaysia an essay suited for their Famous Hospitals section, while a Silver Prize of writing, $1,000 is given to the best essay suited for the sections of Art Flashes, Literary Vignettes, Moments in History or Physicians of phd thesis, Note. Web 2.0? Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 18. Nelson Algren Short Story Award. Phd Thesis? Presented by the Chicago Tribune, this award presents $3,500 to one grand prize winner, $1,000 to four finalists and $500 to five runners-up for writing uk a short fiction story of less than 8,000 words. Malaysia? You may submit up to two short stories, but note that your name must not appear anywhere on your submission as the dissertation, process is anonymous. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 19. Minotaur Books / Mystery Writers of malaysia, America First Crime Novel Competition. Writers 18 and older who have never had a novel published (in any genre) are eligible for this prize, awarded for an original book-length manuscript where “murder or another serious crime or crimes is at the heart of the web 2.0, story.” The winner receives a publication contract with Minotaur Books and an advance of malaysia, $10,000 against future royalties.
Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed; the deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Want to english, change the world? Then listen up. FutureScapes is looking for concrete, substantive pieces that “can provide a roadmap for cities, states, and nations to follow.” If you just want to write the next Hunger Games , this isn’t the contest for you, but if you’re inspired by politics and civic issues, you’ve found the right place. (Case in point: the inaugural theme, “ Empowerment Cities ,” features a quote from Alexis de Tocqueville.) First place wins $2,000; second place $1,000; and four runners-up will get $500 each. Oh, and did we mention publication in an anthology that will be “distributed to mayors, governors and members of the phd thesis, U.S.
Congress”? Deadline: Annually; deadline for 2017 is TBD. This biennial prize of speech of my, $10,000 honors an phd thesis, American author whose work has had an impact on english essays a critical social justice issue (as did Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin ). Phd Thesis Malaysia? In addition to submitting a copy of your book or written work, you must also complete a 250-word statement that describes the tangible impact your piece has made in the world and outlining any social justice work you perform outside of your writing. Deadline: Biennially in odd-numbered years. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed, and the old man and essay thesis the deadline for 2019 have not yet been announced.
22. The Diana Woods Memorial Award in malaysia Creative Non-Fiction. Creative nonfiction essays of no more than 5,000 words on english descriptive any subject, are eligible for consideration for this award, whose winner receives $250 and publication in phd thesis Lunch Ticket , the literary and art journal produced by the MFA community of Antioch University Los Angeles. Works must not have been published elsewhere. Award winners are required to submit a 100-word biography, recent photo and dissertation a short note thanking the Woods family for their generosity and support. Deadlines: Biannual reading periods are the phd thesis malaysia, month of February for the Summer/Fall issue and man and the sea essay the month of August for the Winter/Spring issue. This contest seeks to foster collaborations between artists and writers. Select a piece of phd thesis malaysia, artwork from the gallery provided and submit a short story inspired by it and you could win $350 #8212; plus a spot in a future art book showcasing these collaborations.
Short stories should be between 2,000 5,000 words. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and english 2018 deadline is not yet announced. For young writers ages 13-18, this cool contest also serves as a mini writer’s camp. Recognizing that “a first draft is never perfect,” submissions actually receive peer review by authors, writing teachers and other experts and phd thesis malaysia writers are given the uk, chance to phd thesis malaysia, revise their pieces based on speech on india essay this feedback before submitting them for final prize consideration. There’s a $100 prize for the winner and $50 for the runner-up (plus $50 for the best peer-reviewer). All three are featured on Write the World’s blog alongside comments from a guest judge. And since each month’s prompt is from malaysia a different genre, developing writers get a chance to test out different styles. Stuck with writer’s block and looking for english essays a way to jumpstart your escape? Prose offers weekly challenges meant to malaysia, spark your creativity; many are just for fun, but look for the weekly numbered challenges posted by of homer a kent, Prose (rather than community members or sponsors) for a chance to win money.
Prizes are typically between $100 $200 and word counts are low #8212; some as low as under 150, some as high as 500, but all say “quality beats quantity.” So even if all you get from the prompt is a chance to flex your brain, it’s not a bad deal. Curious about opportunities for poets? Your stanzas #8212; rhyming or not #8212; could be worth a fair amount of money in malaysia these competitions. 26. Naomi Long Madgett Poetry Award. Open to copper ii sulfate carbonate, African American poets, previously published or not, this award provides a $500 prize and publication by Boardside Lotus Press for the best book-length collection of poems (approximately 60 to 90 pages). Deadline: Annually on March 1. If you’re already a published poet, this is the award for phd thesis you; it’s given for a second book of poetry due to phd creative writing uk, come out in the forthcoming year. The winner receives $5,000 and an all-expenses-paid week-long residency.
In addition, copies of her book are distributed to the 1,000 members of the Academy of malaysia, American Poets. Deadline: Annual submission window is January 1 through May 15. 28. African Poetry Book Fund Prizes. The APBF awards three prizes annually for African Poetry. The Glenna Luschei Prize for Afican Poetry gives $5,000 for a book of original African poetry published in the prior year.
The Sillerman First Book Prize for African Poets gives $1,000 and writing uk a publication contract for an unpublished book-length collection of poetry by an African author. The Brunel University African Poetry Prize is a new prize that grants ?3,000 to a poet who was born in malaysia Africa, is the old man and the sea essay thesis, a national of an African country or has African parents, who has not yet had a full-length book of poetry published. Phd Thesis Malaysia? (U.S. citizens qualify.) To submit, you’ll need 10 poems. Deadlines: See individual prize pages. + Sodium Carbonate? Claremont Graduate University presents two awards each year to poets they deem to phd thesis malaysia, be “outstanding.” The Kate Tufts Poetry Award grants $10,000 for phd creative writing uk a published first book of poetry that shows promise. The Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award grants a mammoth $100,000 for a published book of poetry by an an phd thesis malaysia, established or mid-career poet.
Deadline: Books published between July of the previous year and June 30 of the current year are eligible for the following year’s prize (i.e. Essays? award for 2017 was for phd thesis works publishing between between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016). Deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Writing contests with multiple categories. Some contests accept submissions in multiple categories, so you could submit a novella as well as a poem or other work. 30. Binghamton University Book Awards. Sponsored by the Binghamton Center for Writers #8212; State University of New York, this competition offers a $1,000 prize for work published in the previous year in two separate categories.
The John Gardner Fiction Book Award goes to the best novel or collection of fiction, while the Milt Kessler Poetry Book award goes to the best book of poems. Phd Creative? Deadline: Annually on malaysia March 1 for writing books published the previous year. Phd Thesis Malaysia? 31. Writer’s Digest Annual Writing Competition. (Editor’s note: We were so excited to include this competition that we overlooked its entry fees. We’ll leave it in the post for those interested in submitting their work, but please note that this contest is not free.) One of the longest-running writing competitions #8212; it’s now in its 83rd year #8212; this contest spotlights up and coming writers in a number of categories, including Memoirs/Personal Essay, Magazine Feature Article and Genre Short story. Of Homer A Kent? The Grand Prize winner gets $5,000, a feature in Writer’s Digest magazine, a paid trip to phd thesis, a writing conference and more. Runners-up earn prizes in first through tenth places. Deadline: Annually; May 5, 2017.
Where to find more legitimate, free writing contests. Looking for dissertation more opportunities to submit your work to writing contests? Here are a few great sites to phd thesis, keep an eye on. On India Of My? A number of the contests found on our list came highly recommended by this site, which compiles some of the best free literary contests out there. You can sort contests by recommendation level (Highly Recommended, Recommended or Neutral), view plenty of phd thesis, info on requirements and even see which contests are better for beginners, intermediate writers and pros. They also offer a handful of contests themselves , including the Wergle Flomp Humor Poetry Contest (which sounds delightful). Another fantastic source for legitimate writing contests I consulted when compiling this list, Poets Writers vets competitions, contests, awards and grants to make sure they’re following legitimate practises and policies. It’s worth checking out regularly as it features both annual and one-time contests. Writer, poet and editor Cathy Bryant sources legitimate, free-to-enter writing contests and calls for submission. She releases a new list of contests and calls each month, so check back monthly for new opportunities. Copper + Sodium Carbonate? Are you planning to enter any writing contests this year?
Which ones? This post contains affiliate links. Phd Thesis Malaysia? That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and we thank you for that! This post originally ran in February 2016. We updated it in March 2017. Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and essays is growing her own freelance writing, editing and malaysia blogging empire day by speech on india of my dreams essay, day. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Phd Thesis Malaysia? Move from irregular client work and crappy pay to being a freelance leader in your field.
Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for essays of homer a kent 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and phd thesis malaysia more. What a brilliant list! Thank you. Thank you too for web 2.0 the mention of Comps and Calls I love finding free writing competitions, and some of them have very impressive prizes. I#8217;m one of those old-fashioned writers who think that we should be paid for our work and free comps are a great way of achieving that. I#8217;m with you on that #8220;old-fashioned#8221; notion. #128578; Can I take part being Pakistan? Ha! Of course!
I get emails from people all over the world who have had success via Comps and Calls. Good luck! While free writing contests are definitely great, it would be a little odd to overlook ones with fees. A lot of times you will be paying a fee somewhere along the way, it#8217;s just nice when it#8217;s upfront and phd thesis not in the form of stealing your work. English Descriptive Essays? Check this one out, insider tip: Good advice, Tiffany. For example, the Erma Bombeck Writing Competition (https://www.wclibrary.info/erma/) opens for entries on December 4, 2017, and there is a $15 fee which goes to fund four prizes ($500 to each winner plus a free registration, valued at $400+, to malaysia, the Erma Bombeck Writers Workshop at the University of Dayton, April 2018). Entry length must be 500 words or less for web 2.0 either a Humorous or Human Interest entry. I have problems in finding short story competitions as I live in England.
If you do post any short story competitions or any in the literary format, that would excite my senses. Malaysia? You may want to check out these sites- but be aware, some require subscriptions, give precedence to subscribers or charge small entry fees; but not all do, and there are some free entrance comps in Canada that are worthwhile. (These are monthly.) There are many more, I#8217;ve only begun to new testament essays of homer, root those out.- I#8217;ll post more as I discover them. my problem is that I am disabled and phd thesis malaysia I am looking for english descriptive essays grant help. Looking for phd thesis a contest that my 10 old son can enter or a publishing company that can help with self-publishing. Any recommendation or advice please? Please contact the copper ii sulfate, publisher to discuss self-publishing for your son. Malaysia? Our university just launched a new competition (no entry fee, no gimmicks) called FutureScapes. We#8217;re an innovation office, and we#8217;re looking for help from ii sulfate carbonate writers to help us envision cities of the phd thesis, future. Hugo-Award winning author Mary Robinette Kowal will be our judge this inaugural year. $2,000 for essays first place. I#8217;ve added it to July#8217;s list for Comps and phd thesis malaysia calls. Phd Creative? Many thanks for getting in phd thesis malaysia touch!
Pity I cannot contest, being Sri Lankan. sigh Stop discriminating writers. Descriptive Essays? I#8217;m a South African and phd thesis I#8217;d like to enter this competition. I#8217;m already have the script. hello sir, would it be possible for me to join even if I#8217;m from the Philippines? Old fashioned notions were/are just once legitimate notions of phd creative writing, claims for money or what else, when in a time there were hardly or very little amount of writing gigs to malaysia, get; let alone having someone getting paid for it. Now it is like there are too many people as working in the business here of transposing things across for a living. That really the only thing these vetted competitions do now is, just bunch up a bunch of people who cannot write, among judges judging as judges cannot much write either, and they sit around give a small vagabond gift amount of web 2.0, money in discovery for malaysia those who suck less at it. As really a sign should go up before hand about how real writers we really need not to web 2.0 dissertation, apply here anymore. As none of the spirit of writing is left of writing.
Everyone writes politically correct as only to affirm the lack for want of any real creativity getting dispersed. Amen to that! I#8217;ve read winners#8217; stories of a certain contest that is held by a magazine every year which I will not name and when I see the judges#8217; names, I think #8220;Well, they don#8217;t know anything about phd thesis, writing!#8221; No wonder this was chosen. Man And The Sea? Speak for yourself, honey. Phd Thesis Malaysia? I#8217;ve got a very politically INCORRECT story I#8217;m working on writing uk right now. Who knows if anyone will publish it, though. It#8217;s satirical and quite offensive.
While I like how your not afraid to speak your mind, and phd thesis I really have no say in what you put in your books, could you please try not to offend too many people? This is just a suggestion, so feel free to do whatever you like. My mind is full of stories to tell.. The Old Man And Essay Thesis? I am an idea person. Phd Thesis? Is there a place in this writers world for one like myself? Perhaps a writer lacking an idea? My mind screams..my voice mute. #128577; Maybe you just need a writing partner.
You have my attention. I love to write, but I am almost always of of ideas#8230; Maybe you can let me know. Were do I find the legitmate ways to to get paid for entering contests? many are. scams so far that I researched, and entered. please let me know thanks. I would like to find work online and get paid weekly by check through the mail. do you know of such? Nice Post and thanks for the sharing free Legitimate contest list. can i participate from sri lanka?? Every competition has its own rules, so you#8217;d have to check the rules of the one you want to enter. Many are open worldwide, though, so good luck! I see you havent included the South African Writers college competition held annually..its free to enter and the 1st prize is R10,000.. The theme this year is #8220;A person#8217;s world is only as big as his heart#8221; Deadline April 30th. Only open to english descriptive, South African writers who have not been published. Contests with a deadline past 1st April haven#8217;t gone up yet I put them up monthly at phd thesis Comps and web 2.0 dissertation Calls.
Is there an URL with guidelines? Yes, the URL for the College is :www.sawriterscollege.co.za. Its only for unpublished SA writers but the phd thesis malaysia, prizes are pretty darned good: R10,000. R5,000 and phd creative uk R2000#8230; and its free to enter. Cheers Ginny. Thanks!
I#8217;ve added it to the list. It#8217;ll go up on 1st April and will be in phd thesis malaysia the #8216;Competitions#8217; section. Thanks for that and best wishes. Here’s another competition for your list, this one for women only, memoir and contemporary/historical fiction: http://www.storycircle.org/SartonLiteraryAward/ Susan Wittig Albert. Sarton Award Coordinator. Thanks for sharing, Susan! TWL Assistant Editor. This one has a $60 entry fee. Got anything for children? I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on my own fantasy/science fiction that can be entered into several of web 2.0 dissertation, these contests.
I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on my own fantasy/science fiction book (full lengh) that can be entered into several of phd thesis malaysia, these contests. The entry fee for the SCN competition is phd creative writing uk, $90 and the prize money is $150.00 does this look enticing to anyone, considering the effort involved for the author? Thanks for this excellent list, Kelly! I#8217;ll be adding a direct link to it to my recent post over at The Kill Zone called #8220;Indie Book Contests 2015#8221; http://killzoneblog.com/2015/02/indie-book-contests-2015.html. and I#8217;ll also add a link on my ongoing, continually updated list of malaysia, Writers#8217; Conferences Book Festivals in North America: Thanks for sharing this post, Jodie! TWL Assistant Editor.
I like the competitions but I#8217;m in South Africa? Can#8217;t I enter? I think taking people only in one country isn#8217;t fair because there is a great deal of talent out the old man and the sea essay there that just needs to be found. Yes. Also in SA, and I find it sooooo hard finding a compitition I can do. Sounds like there is phd thesis malaysia, a need for writing competitions in SA. Why not start some?!
Apologies for the n00b question but out of interest when they say #8216;unpublished#8217; do they mean unpublished which would include self published ebooks? And if you were to phd creative uk, submit something previously published on Kindle or Smashwords or the like could you take it down for a period and still be considered? I#8217;d check the specific guidelines for each contest. Some specify whether situations like self-publication are acceptable or not. Phd Thesis? If the guidelines don#8217;t go into any detail on copper ii sulfate + sodium that, you could always try contacting the phd thesis, organization sponsoring the phd creative, contest.
I#8217;m not sure about pulling down something that HAS previously been published, however. That feels like a risky gamble that might get you in trouble. Thanks for posting this list. Malaysia? When it comes to short stories, I never think about competitions and always look for new testament essays in honor of homer publications instead. This is a great reminder of malaysia, another valid option. Thanks, Kelly, for this interesting article and list. One does have to on india, watch out for scams and ineffective ways of publishing your work. And entering legitimate writing contests sounds a lot more challenging and rewarding.
When I was a college student, I had written some poems and essays, and phd thesis was encouraged by friends to writing, get them published. Being the babe in the woods I was at the time, I got about 30 to 40 copies published through a local #8220;vanity press,#8221; which cost me about $80 at the time. Learned my lesson to malaysia, avoid being so vain. Hello Kelly! Thank you for providing us with this awesome list! #128512; Good compilation, will be of great help to phd creative writing uk, me. Thanks for sharing. Correction: the Writer#8217;s Digest contests are NOT free to phd thesis, enter. There are different fees listed on the site, as follows: #8220;Early-Bird Entry fees are $25 for dissertation the first manuscript; $20 for each additional entry submitted during the phd thesis, same transaction. Poems are $15 for the first entry; $10 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction. Entries submitted after the man and the sea essay thesis, May 4, 2015 Early-Bird deadline are $30 for the first manuscript; $25 for each additional entry submitted during the phd thesis malaysia, same transaction.
Poems are $20 for the first entry; $15 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction.#8221; Thanks, Laura! Another reader brought this to our attention as well, and I#8217;ve added a note to essays, the post. TWL Assistant Editor. You are absolutely wright and why they are not recommended on Predators Editors. Your use of #8220;wright#8221; makes me wonder about any writing skills you may possess#8230; Everyone makes the phd thesis malaysia, odd mistake. Don#8217;t judge someone by a single typo. It is eye and I prefer to poses and to use my pen as the copper + sodium, double edged sword it is don#8217;t worry lady i#8217;m sure this went over his head also. This was a lot of work, but such a great resource for writers. Thanks for sharing this!
I#8217;m just so stunned that the malaysia, horrid poetry-competition people had so little concern for such a young aspirant poet, what a sick twisted lot they are, and you#8217;re right, this kind of dream-baiting continues. Sharks and of my essay charlatans all, but the good thing is that you didn#8217;t give up on your dream of writing, so you go girl -go for gold and malaysia more power to you! Sadly, there are all sorts of ways writers and wannabe writers can fall into the wrong hands, from essays scam competitions to content mills that pay pennies per phd thesis, word. It#8217;s all about in honor, knowing where to phd thesis malaysia, look for the legitimate resources. (This site is a great place to start.) #128578; I wrote a piece to this site called the Eber Wein publishing. Of My? how well do you know about them? is this site scam?
I never. sent in phd thesis any money I was told I could win cash, and the old man and essay prizes, and. my name can be in this analogy. then you have to buy that. Thanks for the list. Please can you give more lists for contests for African writers? Great list of resources for free contests. I quite often scour Poets Writers for possibilities and have heard of some of the others, like Story Circle Network, but some of these were quite new to me. Phd Thesis? Appreciate the time it takes to curate such a list and so glad you shared it with us.
I#8217;ll be passing it along to some of my friends and followers. Can I join this Writing Contests ? I live in India. Kindly respond me. New Testament Essays In Honor? You#8217;ll have to check with the phd thesis malaysia, individual competitions to see whether they allow worldwide entries. Good luck! TWL Assistant Editor. Is there any writing contest in Peabody and I never public a book but can I still enter the writing contest is there more writing contest for Peabody with out ii sulfate scams . Phd Thesis Malaysia? This is a great list but is this just for writers in the old man and essay the US. Phd Thesis Malaysia? I am in the UK. Fair point, Ian #8212; we#8217;re based in the U.S. and know more about competitions here. We#8217;ll see what we can do about a more international follow-up!
TWL Assistant Editor. Ian, Comps and Calls (that Heather lists) is UK-based. Although I include many international calls, it is UK-centric, simply because that#8217;s my largest area of knowledge. Thanks for chiming in, Cathy #8212; good to know! All credit for the list goes to Kelly Gurnett, though #128578; TWL Assistant Editor. Thank you so much. I#8217;m so inspired seeing these all lined up in one place. Phd Creative Writing Uk? Cheers! This is well time for malaysia me and I am excited.
I#8217;m looking for ways to gain money for my Master#8217;s and get recognized for the love of my heart: writing. I#8217;m applying to some now and even composing new pieces. I#8217;ve even set aside a certain amount of money that I#8217;m writing to give to enter. I love to write as well! I am only phd creative writing ten years old though, so I probably won#8217;t be able to enter many contests even if I wanted to. I#8217;m writing a novel called Cat Quest. Malaysia? Its not childish and stupid. I#8217;m actually serious. I work on it about every other day or when I get time. Copper + Sodium Carbonate? I#8217;m not lying.
Could you experienced authors give me some tips? Appreciate this list, my writing goal for phd thesis this year- well, one of them, is to seek new writing and publishing opportunities and challenges. Thank you. We provide a contest where you get paid either way, so long as you make the cut. It#8217;s a bit different from the average writing contest, in that it is a public head to speech dreams essay, head battle. Check out thewritersarena.com for more info. Thanks for sharing, Tony! TWL Assistant Editor.
That doesn#8217;t offer any prize, does it? Thanks for sharing, posted your site on my blog: hoyeocmova.com. At FanStory.com we have a membership fee $6.95 per month (or $48 for one year or $67 for phd thesis malaysia two years). With the membership fee you can enter all of in honor of homer a kent, our contests at no charge. Phd Thesis Malaysia? That#8217;s over 50 contests every month. Some have a cash prize ($100) and others are just for ii sulfate + sodium the fun of the competition. Thanks for sharing, Tom!
Wish to phd thesis, get info on free contests for speech on india essay poets in Nigeria. Hey.. I have a short story of my stolen childhood.. Its a memoir.. It has touched a lot of phd thesis malaysia, ppl nd its very deep.. A lot of ppl who have read it has gained goose bumps nd a lot of others has related a lot to it.. I have councillors stating I should get it published as its very helpful to thoughts who have been through similar.. I write a lot about life nd the deeper I go with my words the man and the sea essay, more ppl feel it..
I have had a few ppl state they felt like it was happening to them the words stand out so much.. The only problem is as u see here with this paragraph I#8217;m not so good with my editing.. I don#8217;t know how or where to start with getting my writing seen to for hell in weather I can get my words out there.. I wouldn#8217;t mind starting with competitions but its also great to have someone around that knows where nd how to help me start to get this out there.. My email is email@example.com I got a feeling this is a long shot but I#8217;m keen to start somewhere.. It would be a great honor if u could pls give me some advice on where or how to start..
If u could pls email me I will be an phd thesis malaysia, honour. You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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essays on behaviour Read the following essay from the subject Human Behaviour. Malaysia! Click on the blue highlighted numbers to see comments. Words or phrases highlighted in pink are wrong or in some way problematic. Most of these have comments attached, but in a few places we leave it to you to think about dreams essay, what is wrong, or how the writing might be improved. 1 Cancer is still seen by many as an incurable disease that slowly takes over healthy human tissue, and ultimately causes death. 2 Through advances in medical science, different physical procedures have been developed to treat cancer for example, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
In recent years however, there has been a growing perception by cancer specialists and patients that the onset and treatment of phd thesis, cancer may be affected by psychological factors. A new field of research called psycho-oncology has emerged to investigate how the mind can slow down, or even reverse, the progress of cancer. The results from on india of my dreams such studies however, have not always been conclusive, and in the case of retrospective studies, have often proved contradictory. 3 While it is important that medical science properly investigate the merit of mind-cancer theories, the benefits of alternative therapies and viewpoints should not be overlooked in the debate over cancer research. 4 The essay briefly surveys the origins of mind-cancer research and the emergence of the field of phd thesis, psycho-oncology, before addressing contemporary research in the area, in particular, the problem of validating results. It concludes by examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to patient psychology. 5 Before examining the of my dreams essay, origins of mind-cancer research, the physiology of cancer will be briefly discussed.
Cancer is a general term used to describe a physiological disorder in phd thesis malaysia which cells in the body begin to phd creative uk, reproduce as abnormal cells, forming a mass called a tumour. There are different types of cancers and tumours, and the body utilises the immune system to destroy the cancerous cells. If the tumour is malignant, the immune system stops the cancer cells from moving to other areas of the phd thesis malaysia, body. Descriptive Essays! The immune system halts the spread of the cancer cells by the use of cytotoxic T-cells, also known as 6 natural killer (NK) cells. These cells attack the cancerous cells and destroy them. This is why much cancer research over the years has concentrated on the immune system because in effect, this system provides the body#039;s own natural cancer treatment.
In several studies completed over the last two decades, 7 researchers have found that psychological factors such as stress and bereavement can suppress NK cell activity in the body, and the activity of all T-cells in general 8 (Bartrop, 1977; 9 Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed as a contributing factor in many physiological diseases including allergies, infections, digestive disorders, asthma, heart disease, and malaysia, cancer 10 (Edelman Kidman, 1997). The idea however, that psychological factors could have an influence on cancer was first raised as early as the second century. The Greek physician, 11 Galen, noted that depressed women were more likely to develop cancer than happy women (cited by Sdorow, 1995). Other eminent physicians and surgeons also noted that the personalities of people who had developed cancer were markedly different to people who had not developed cancer (cited by Kune, 1992); 12 i.e, they concluded that cancer was more likely to develop in people who possessed a #039;melancholy#039; disposition (cited by Horne, 1996). 13 This raised the question of why such psychological factors might influence the behaviour of cancer. Studies in phd creative writing uk the field of psycho-oncology, which combines oncology with psychiatry, therefore tried to show how the mind affected physiological functions. Dedicated experimentation in the field first began with laboratory mice. 14 Sklar and Anisman (1979) implanted cancerous cells into malaysia, mice, and then subjected them to a series of escapable and web 2.0, inescapable electric shocks. Malaysia! They reasoned that the speech on india of my, mice subjected to the inescapable shocks would be placed under more stress than the mice allowed to escape the malaysia, shocks. They further found that the mice in the former category developed exaggerated tumour sizes and did not survive as long as did the mice in the latter category.
Nevertheless, the results were regarded as inconclusive since different tumour systems are differentially influenced by stress (chemically induced tumours are inhibited by increased stress levels), and the experiment involved mice and not humans. 15 Research was then directed to cancer patients. Many studies concentrated on women suffering from breast cancer, and consisted of interviewing them after a significant event involving their cancer (such as diagnosis, or an operation). The patients were then followed up after a number of years. However, the results often proved contradictory, as has occurred in several retrospective studies. Web 2.0 Dissertation! In one well-known case, 16 Ramirez et al. (1989) found that there was a prognostic association between severe life stressors and the recurrence of phd thesis, breast cancer. English Essays! Barraclough et al. (1992) 17 on the other hand, 18 found that psychosocial adversity such as depression, or a severe life event, was not conducive to a relapse of cancer and this conclusions has since been supported. Phd Thesis Malaysia! 19 There is ii sulfate + sodium carbonate, good evidence for any relation between stressful life events and breast cancer (McGee 1999, p.1015). Certain studies found that patients could be classified into different psychological groups, and that a pattern emerged in malaysia the life span of the patients in each of the groups. In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 20 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into one of four groups , 21 the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of essay, Hopelessness groups.
The Denial group consisted of those patients who rejected any evidence of their diagnosis, and 22 didn#039;t consider having cancer as serious. The Fighting Spirit group consisted of patients who possessed a highly optimistic attitude, and phd thesis malaysia, sought to learn more information about their cancer and to do everything they could to conquer the disease. The Stoic Acceptance group comprised patients who ignored their cancer and descriptive essays, any symptoms as much as they could, continuing with their lives as normal. The patients in the Feelings of Hopelessness group considered themselves gravely ill, and were totally preoccupied in a negative way with their illness. At the completion of the malaysia, study, researchers found that the patients classified in the first two groups were more likely to achieve a favourable outcome than the patients classified in the latter two groups (Greer et al.
1979). This conclusion was similar to Galen#039;s hypothesis, which claimed that women who had cancer and died from it were more likely to have different personalities than those women who did not develop the disease or were cured of it. Other studies reinvestigated the role of stress in cancer. Medical research had established that stress could cause immunosuppression, and new testament essays in honor of homer, that in times of stress, people could become sick more readily. Goodkin et al. (1984) postulated that an invasive cervical carcinoma could develop as a result of a mediating mechanism such as the immune system becoming adversely affected by stress. As mentioned previously, exposure to stressful life experiences can also alter T-cell activity in the immune system. Schleifer et al. Phd Thesis Malaysia! (1985) demonstrated that in most people T-cell activity returned to normal after a time, but for phd creative writing uk others, it remained lower than prior to the stressor event leaving them more susceptible to illness. However, like many other findings, it remains to phd thesis, be determined whether these changes in immune function are specifically related to cancer.
23 Can the mind really play a role in cancer onset and carbonate, cure? While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive, and in some cases, contradictory. It is also possible that researchers have concluded what they wanted to believe. Phd Thesis Malaysia! . . . Essays In Honor A Kent! In those studies which have directly linked stress to cancer, stress may only malaysia, be an indirect cause. People in general, when confronted with something that causes stress, tend to isolate themselves and engage in #039;emotion-focused coping behaviour,#039; to prevent being overwhelmed by their negative emotions (Atkinson et al. 1996). Typical examples are behavioural strategies including cigarette smoking and drug and the old the sea essay, alcohol consumption.
Such behaviour can cause numerous health problems with smoking being especially linked to the development of lung cancer. In turn, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body. These coping factors may in fact, represent the real reason why stress has been linked to phd thesis malaysia, cancer. Speech On India Essay! Issues such as these are among the phd thesis malaysia, questions that mind-cancer research needs to resolve. The quality of studies conducted has also prevented any definite conclusions being reached about the validity of theories that view the mind as influencing cancer. Many of these studies for example, have been criticised for poor methodology and on india of my dreams, design faults (Edelman and Kidman, 1997). 24 Small sample sizes, the use of unvalidated instruments, no control groups, no vital information taken into account and no randomising of treatment groups may have led to phd thesis malaysia, errors in the calculation of results, and speech on india dreams, therefore, to questionable conclusions. Many studies have not been replicated by phd thesis, other researchers to determine the accuracy of their results. . . . Or, they may have been based upon what was in effect, the measurement of phd creative writing, feelings.
Since feelings cannot be determined quantitatively, it is hard to assess the exact amount of stress or depression that a person has experienced. . . . Phd Thesis Malaysia! In addition, the equipment used in some studies to measure psychological variables may have varied between studies. All these factors can contribute to speech on india of my dreams, inconclusive outcomes. Although verifying mind-cancer studies is problematic, medical personnel need to consider the psychology of phd thesis malaysia, their patients. For this reason, the benefits offered by a positive mindset or alternative therapies should not be too readily dismissed. It may well be useful for some cancer patients to believe that the mind can be used as a tool to treat, or even, prevent the the old man and essay thesis, onset of cancer. Malaysia! Similarly, it may also benefit some cancer patients to attempt alternative treatments such as meditation and positive thinking. No matter how strange a cancer treatment may appear, it should not be immediately discredited. One woman with breast cancer was able to keep her malignant tumour localised for a period of seven years, before undergoing chemotherapy and dissertation, radiotherapy to malaysia, finally destroy the cancer.
Over a period of seven years, she underwent vibrational healing and oxygen therapy, took high doses of Vitamin C and Vitamin B17 (Laetrile), but most importantly, adopted a positive attitude toward life and english, living (Ward 1996). . . . Such a patient may well be an phd thesis example of the phenomenon Sarafino (1990) notes of patients who appear to #039;will away#039; cancer. 25 The extent to which the mind can affect cancer still remains unresolved. Specific questions cannot be answered with any certainty due to the ambiguities, inconsistencies and direct contradictions of some studies. English! Nevertheless, an phd thesis examination of the literature that discusses these issues reveals broad findings that are worth emphasising: Stress can negatively affect the immune system. Although the evidence is ambiguous, stress can also affect the onset and progression of cancer.
An individual#039;s psychological profile can affect the progression of cancer in the body. Such findings should not be ignored, but rather used to the patient#039;s advantage. With the of my dreams, advent of newer medical technology, more research and greater knowledge about how the mind works, the answers to questions in the field of psycho-oncology will hopefully be revealed. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., and S. Phd Thesis! Nolen-Hoeksema . Hilgard#039;s Introduction to Psychology. (12th ed.). USA: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1996. Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor I., and phd creative, M. Perry.
Life events and breast cancer prognosis. Phd Thesis! British Medical Journal, 304, 1078-1081, 1992. Bartrop, R.W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus. L., Kiloh, L.G., and R. Descriptive Essays! Penny. Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. The Lancet, i, 834-836, 1977. Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman.
Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - 27 A review of phd thesis malaysia, evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. Goodkin, K., Antoni, M.H., and P.H. Blaney. Stress and hopelessness in web 2.0 the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to phd thesis, invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the descriptive essays, cervix. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 67-76, 1986. Greer, S., Morris, T., and K.W. Pettingale. Psychological response to phd thesis malaysia, breast cancer: Effect on essays outcome. The Lancet, ii, 785-787, 1979. Home, R. Cancer Proof your Body.
Adelaide: Griffin Paperbacks, 1996. Kune, G.A., and S. Bannerman. The 1st Slezak Cancer Symposium - The Psyche and phd thesis malaysia, Cancer. New Testament Essays In Honor Of Homer! University of Melbourne, 1992. McGee, R. Phd Thesis! Does stress cause cancer? There#039;s no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and copper + sodium, cancer. British Medical Journal, 319, 1015-1019, 1999.
Ramirez, A.J., Craig, T.K.J., Watson, J.P., Fentiman, I.S., North, W.R.S., and R.D. Reubens. Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291-293, 1989. Sarafino, E.P. Health Psychology-Biosocial Interactions. Canada: 28 1990.
Schleifer, S.J., Keller, S.E., and M. Phd Thesis! Stein. Central Nervous System Mechanisms and phd creative uk, Immunity: Implications for Tumour Response. In S.M. Levy, Behaviour and phd thesis malaysia, Cancer. The Sea Thesis! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1985. 29. Sdorow, L.M. Psychology, (3rd ed.). 30 Brown and Benchmark , 1995. Sklar, L.S., and H. Malaysia! Anisman. Stress and coping factors influence tumour growth.
Science, 205, 513-515, 1979. Ward, D. Writing Uk! One in 10 - Women living with Breast Cancer. Sydney: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1996. The first thing to do in phd thesis a typical introduction is to introduce the topic , and provide a little relevant background information to orient the reader. The first statement here identifies the broad topic as cancer, with a brief description of phd creative uk, what it is. The second stage of malaysia, a typical introduction limits the scope of the discussion. Writing Uk! The next 4 sentences focus on the history of the phd thesis malaysia, treatment of cancer, and specifically the role of the mind in controlling the disease.
This next stage points out the importance or relevance of the topic. Writing! We don#039;t yet know, however, exactly how the writer is going to tackle the subject. In the final stage of the introduction, the writer gives a brief outline of the structure of the essay, and what the writer intends to achieve. Note, however, that this plan avoids using #039;I#039; statements (In this essay I will . ); to do so would overemphasise what is purely organisational information. Instead it does the same thing in a less personal way: This essay . surveys . It concludes by examining . . In general,#039;I#039; is rarely used in scientific writing, where the #039;facts of research#039; are required to speak for themselves. Notice how the topic sentence in this paragraph maintains the overall theme - the effects of the mind on cancer - while at the same time moving the discussion forward. If you wish to use an acronym like NK = natural killer in your essay, introduce it the first time by using the full term and adding the acronym immediately after it in brackets.
Use the active voice and human agent(s) where possible (i.e. Researchers have found. instead of impersonal constructions of the type It has been found. Impersonal constructions do not clearly indicate authorship or responsibility. This first use of a reference focuses on introducing relevant information rather than specific researcher achievements/events/opinions. This is a typical practice in phd thesis malaysia the early stages of an essay. See Citing previous research on the difference between information-prominent and author-prominent citations. (Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992) is a reference within a reference . In general, you should avoid reporting writers at #039;third-hand#039;; instead go to the original source if possible. If that is web 2.0 dissertation, not possible, you can use this method to cite authors referred to in another source. When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of phd thesis, referencing, a reference at the end of on india, a sentence is phd thesis malaysia, always placed in brackets before the descriptive, full stop, not after it:
This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and phd thesis malaysia, cancer (Edelman, 1997). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and essays, cancer. (Edelman, 1997) Galen is a source cited by another author (Sdorow, 1995), as are other eminent physicians and surgeons (cited by Kune, 1992). In formal writing it is preferable to malaysia, avoid using abbreviations - use #039;that is#039; rather than i.e. and ii sulfate, #039;for example#039; rather than e.g. The pronoun this is often overused by writers.
In this sentence, you may feel it is malaysia, not clear what #039;this#039; refers to. The following sentence is dissertation, more specific, and you might consider dropping this first sentence altogether. Author-prominent citations (see Citing previous research) are appropriate at phd thesis malaysia this point as the writer#039;s focus has now moved to the work of individual researchers. Note that if you have cited a particular reference once already in a paragraph, it is thesis, not necessary to cite that work again in phd thesis malaysia the same paragraph unless a second reference has also been cited, and you need to clarify any possible ambiguity. In this paragraph only one reference has been cited (Sklar and Anisman 1979), and the reader will naturally assume that any information in the old man and essay the rest of the paragraph comes from the same source. The topic sentence must state the intention behind the paragraph clearly and specifically.
In this case the point is the phd thesis malaysia, turn from research on animals to research on human patients. Adding a couple more words could clarify this; for example: At that point, therefore, research was directed to cancer in human patients. et al. is the Latin short form for #039;and others#039; or #039;other writers#039; and is used when more than two writers are referred to. Strictly speaking, it should only be used the second time you refer to new testament essays a kent, the same source - in other words, give the full citation the first time the phd thesis, work is cited. Here, therefore, the citation should be to Ramirez, Craig, Watson, Fentiman, North, and Reubens (1989) . (Of course, the authors#039; initials are not included in the citation - except when two of the authors have the same surname.) Note, too, that et al. is plural in reference; so make sure the verb agrees with its plural subject. Transition markers such as #039;on the other hand#039; are used to man and the sea, organise your argument and to emphasise particular points - e.g. cause ( because , since, etc.), effect ( as a result , therefore , etc.) contrast ( however , on the other hand , etc.), concession ( although , etc.) and example ( for instance , etc.) (see also Linking.
Use them strategically and carefully. It might be better to use #039;claimed#039; here in place of #039;found#039;. Vary your reporting verbs (i.e. Phd Thesis Malaysia! states , claims , suggests , aintains , demonstrates , etc.), but make sure the appropriate verb is used. Descriptive! #039;Say#039; and phd thesis malaysia, #039;tell#039; are not used when reporting written sources. Use a direct quote only when the wording is exceptional. Otherwise, use a paraphrase instead. A direct quote was not necessary in this case. Direct quotations are generally not used in academic writing; they are a feature of journalistic style. For a direct quote, use quotation marks around the of my dreams, exact words of the original. Use three dots to indicate any omission of word(s), e.g. (between . and cancer). Phd Thesis! Include the page number in the citation, after the year.
A quote longer than three lines should be set out as an indented block, single-spaced, without quotation marks. Numbers are written as words (one, two . ) up to copper ii sulfate carbonate, ten, and thereafter usually as figures. So the writer here is correct to write 69 patients but four groups. It would be better to phd thesis, use a colon rather than a comma here to new testament essays in honor, introduce the list that follows like this: In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into one of malaysia, four groups: the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and on india, Feelings of Hopelessness groups. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms (i.e. #039;did not#039;
Topic sentences in the form of questions are not appropriate in phd thesis malaysia formal scientific writing. The Old The Sea Thesis! They look lazy or journalistic. Make a clear statement to introduce the topic of the paragraph. In this case the second sentence in this paragraph would make a better topic sentence: While many researchers in phd thesis the field of writing, psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive. Keep items in a list parallel in grammatical form.
In this case, make them all noun phrases like small sample sizes or the use of phd thesis, unvalidated instruments. Here, rather than using no . it would be better to write: the absence of control groups and the failure to the old man and the sea essay, take vital information into account and randomise treatment groups. The conclusion that follows here does what is recommended for concluding an phd thesis malaysia essay: it firstly sums up the argument with appropriate reference to the main points discussed, and then attempts to indicate further implications or future directions. However, the final statement is rather glib that is, it looks good, but doesn#039;t say very much. This weakens the overall impact. It might be better to offer a more cautious, reasoned statement at the end: With the advent of better medical technology and continuing research, answers to some of the questions in the field of new testament in honor, mind-cancer research may become clarified.
In the meantime, the professional desire for verifiable results should always be balanced against malaysia, the patient#039;s well-being. Notice the use of cautious language here. Academics are generally careful not to make claims that could easily be proved wrong, and use qualifiers, modal verbs and hedging expressions (some, may, possibly, etc.) to do this. Remember, too, that the conclusion should never introduce new information. Make sure you are consistent in the setting out of your bibliography and that you include all relevant information. Phd Creative Writing! Once you adopt a particular way of setting out the information, don#039;t chop and phd thesis malaysia, change between items. Note that article titles are typically formatted in lower case apart from the new testament in honor a kent, initial capital and the capital after the phd thesis malaysia, colon:
Edelman, S. and A.D. New Testament Essays Of Homer A Kent! Kidman. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. This is to distinguish them from book and journal titles, especially where italics are not used to identify these, as they are in this case. The name of the publisher must be provided with the City of phd thesis, publication. See the entry for Home, R. as an example. Page numbers must be provided for single chapters in a book, as well as for web 2.0 dissertation any journal articles used. City of malaysia, publication must be provided with the name of the publisher. See the entry for english descriptive Home, R. as an malaysia example. Problems?
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