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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Why should I obey the law? Apart from the obvious prudential and self-interested reasons (to avoid punishment, loss of essay reus rea, reputation, and so forth), is there a moral obligation to do what the law requires just because the law requires it? If the answer is yes and the mere illegality of an act renders its performance prima facie morally wrong, then I am under a political obligation. Political obligation thus refers to the moral duty of citizens to obey the laws of their state.

In cases where an act or forbearance that is required by law is morally obligatory on independent grounds, political obligation simply gives the citizen an additional reason for of Tranexamic in totals. acting accordingly. But law tends to extend beyond morality, forbidding otherwise morally innocent behavior and compelling acts and omissions that are discretionary from an reus independent moral point of view. In such cases, the sole source of one’s moral duty to comply with the law is his or her political obligation. Theories of political obligation can be roughly divided into three camps: transactional accounts, natural duty, and associative theories. Transactional accounts suggest that political obligation is acquired through some morally significant transaction between the citizen and his compatriots or between the citizen and his state.” Three such theories can be distinguished.

A political community is a cooperative scheme that is geared towards the production of benefits for its members: security, transport, clean water, and causal essays, so forth. On Actus Reus. The venture is fruitful in producing these benefits because those participating observe certain restrictions and pay their taxes. To enjoy the compare and contrast benefits of the on actus reus rea scheme without submitting to its restrictions is to free-ride on united nations essays, the sacrifices of others, which is unfair. The demands of fairness thus yield political obligation. H.L.A Hart was among the first to articulate this account:

When a number of persons conduct any joint enterprise according to rules and thus restrict their liberty, those who have submitted to those restrictions when required have a right to a similar submission from those who have benefited by essay rea, their submission. (Hart, 1955: 185) There are some difficulties with citing fairness as the source of political obligation. Robert Nozick introduces the following thought experiment in and contrast on writing Anarchy, State and on actus reus, Utopia. Suppose that a group of your neighbors invest in a public address system and decide to launch a program of public entertainment. They list the names of all of the people in the neighborhood, numbering 365 in total. On his assigned day a person is to run the public address system, play records over it, give news bulletins, tell amusing stories he has heard, and so on. After 138 days on which each person has done his part, your day arrives. Of Tranexamic In Totals.. Are you obligated to take your turn? You have benefited from essay reus rea, it… but must you answer the call when it is your turn to do so? (Nozick, 1974: 93) The answer seems to be no.

From this Nozick draws the conclusion that one does not acquire an obligation to cooperate with a scheme simply by benefiting from its labors. But examples that produce contrasting intuitions come readily to mind. Suppose that the residents of Nozick’s neighborhood vote to dig a public well, to be paid for and maintained by the members of the neighborhood, as an alternative to tap water that is dangerously polluted. One resident, who feels that the well is completely unnecessary, refuses to have anything to do with the enterprise. The others nevertheless proceed to dig the well and fund its maintenance and, after a fortnight, the dissenter begins to take water from the well. In this case, the dissenter has acquired an obligation to pitch in or to contribute his fair share.

The relevant difference between the two cases is whether the benefits are merely received or positively accepted. Page Essay. In Nozick’s example the benefits of the scheme are simply foisted upon essay on actus all members of the neighborhood, who have no real choice over whether or not they will receive them. The benefits can be avoided, but not without great inconvenience. Narrative. One would have to go to great lengths to avoid enjoying the essay reus music and page essay, entertainment being churned out through the public address system. In the latter case, the dissenter must go out of his way to retrieve water from the public well. Here the benefits of the scheme aren’t merely received ; they are positively accepted . This makes all the difference. While the acceptance of a scheme’s benefits may be enough to generate an obligation of fair play, their mere receipt cannot (Simmons 1979: 125-28). The problem with generalizing from this example is that most of the benefits provided by the state are “open” goods, the on actus reus and mens rea enjoyment of and contrast essay, which simply cannot be avoided, at least not without great inconvenience. The peaceful and secure environment created by police, roads, and national defense are all cases in point. Since we cannot say that these benefits are “accepted,” it is difficult to maintain that those who enjoy them incur a political obligation of fair play by so doing.

Those citizens that take advantage of the readily available but not “open” benefits that society makes available, such as emergency services upon request, may incur a duty to requite, but this cannot give us a sufficiently general account of political obligation (Simmons, 1979: 127-28). But is “acceptance” always necessary? According to George Klosko, the “mere receipt” of a benefit fails to impose a duty to reciprocate only when the benefit in question is trivial. The force of the argument is essay on actus and mens blunted once we turn away from robber essay, “discretionary” benefits that are not essential to well-being, such as entertainment, and towards “presumptive” benefits: goods that are necessary for an acceptable life such that all persons can reasonably be presumed to want them (Klosko 1987: 246). Klosko lists “physical security, protection from essay on actus, a hostile environment, and the satisfaction of basic bodily needs,” offering the following example to industry, illustrate his point: A lives in a small territory surrounded by hostile territories whose leaders have made public their intention to slaughter the citizens of X. In order to defend themselves, the X-ites must band together and essay reus and mens, institute measures such as compulsory military service. A, however, finds this too burdensome and time consuming and decides not to comply. Although the mutual-protection scheme has simply sprung up around him, we feel that it is barons wrong for A to free ride on the sacrifices of his fellow X-ites. He must reciprocate for essay on actus the safety and security that he enjoys because of their efforts (Klosko 1987: 249). From this, Klosko infers that the page essay mere receipt of “presumptive” benefits is enough to create a duty of essay on actus and mens, fair play. But now the emphasis has shifted from the and contrast essay enjoyment of benefits to the importance of the goods provided.

This gives us reason to suspect that considerations of fair play are not ultimately what ground political obligation on Klosko’s picture. Rather an independent imperative to help supply essential goods to reus and mens rea, one’s compatriots – a “natural duty” – may be what is doing the work (Wellman and Simmons 2005: 189-90). Page Narrative Essay. Natural duty theories will be considered in greater detail below. According to this account, a citizen owes a debt of gratitude to on actus reus, the government for the benefits that it provides. The Use Of Tranexamic Acis. This debt is owed regardless of whether these benefits are accepted or merely received, and the debt is repaid through obedience to law. There are a number of obvious difficulties with this account. First, only a benefactor who makes a special effort or sacrifice is owed a debt of gratitude (Simmons 1979: 170). But public benefits are taxpayer-funded and members of government are paid handsomely for on actus their work. As such, no sacrifice by the government is present. Our fellow citizens collectively do make sacrifices from which we benefit, but insofar as they are compelled to and contrast on writing styles, do so, they cannot be the objects of a debt of gratitude.

Voluntary benefaction is necessary for any such debt to arise. Furthermore, gratitude is not owed for essay reus and mens benefaction that is motivated by malice or self-interest, which means that a government is not owed obedience for services that it provides only to win votes, to improve its reputation in international circles, or for other such disqualifying reasons. Second, even the concession that citizens owe a debt of gratitude to their government cannot salvage this account, for the content of this debt remains an open question. In other words, it is not clear that the debt must be repaid through obedience, rather than in united essays about some other way. Interjecting that this is what governments ask for essay on actus rea in return is academic unsatisfactory since, as Simmons points out, “benefactors are not specially entitled to themselves specify what shall constitute a fitting return for their benefaction” (Simmons, 2002: 34). On this theory, a citizen that freely consents to essay rea, his government’s authority binds himself to obedience.

Though few deny this, the difficulty with consent theory is captains identifying an action in the personal history of reus and mens, most individuals that might count as a valid token of causal essays, consent. Residence in essay on actus reus and mens rea a government’s territory was said to express “tacit” consent by Locke and page essay, Rousseau (Locke, 1690: ch. And Mens Rea. 8, Rousseau, 1762: IV, ii). The fatal errors of this view are well documented. For an robber essay act or omission to reus and mens, register consent, the agent performing it must be aware of the research definition moral significance of what he is doing. One cannot submit to authority and be bound unknowingly (Simmons, 1979: 64). Furthermore, the essay on actus and mens agent must have the opportunity to withhold consent and doing so must not come at too great a personal cost (otherwise consent cannot be considered free and voluntary). Residence fails to meet each of these criteria. First, if occupying territory expresses consent to nations about, the authority of essay on actus, its government, it is safe to say that the greater bulk of citizens in academic research definition any country are not aware of it. Second, the only way to withhold consent on rea, this view is to emigrate, which is impossible for robber barons industry some and possible but extremely costly for others. Even if the moral significance of residence were known to essay reus, all, in many cases it would still not be free and voluntary, which consent must be in order to bind - a point articulated by David Hume in The use Acis “On the Social Contract:”

Can we seriously say that a poor peasant or artisan has a free choice to leave his country, when he knows no foreign language or manners, and lives from day to day, by the small wages which he acquires? (Hume, 1748) A popular alternative token of consent is that of democratic participation or voting. Weak and strong formulations of essay reus, democratic consent theory can be distinguished. According to the weak version, to vote for causal essays a candidate in a democratic election is to essay reus and mens rea, consent to his appointment to causal essays, a position of reus rea, political authority and therefore to bind oneself to obedience should that candidate’s bid for power be successful. The strong version states that by participating in a democratic election fully aware that the causal essays purpose of the and mens procedure is to invest authority in the candidate that wins the most votes, one consents to the procedure as a way of determining who will wield political power and therefore agrees to be bound by its outcome whichever way it goes . Academic Research. Under this alternative, a democratically elected government is owed obedience by every citizen that partook in the election by which it was empowered. But every democratic country contains citizens that are, for whatever reason, unable or unwilling to essay reus, vote. This leaves a large portion of any democratic populace unbound by the duty to obey the law, even on The use in totals., the stronger formulation of democratic consent theory. By identifying voting as our token of consent, we avoid the difficulties associated with the residence account, but are left with a theory of political obligation that is insufficiently general in its scope.

According to natural duty theories, political obligation is grounded not in a morally significant transaction that takes place between citizens and essay on actus reus and mens rea, polity, but either 1) in the importance of advancing some impartial moral good, such as utility or justice; or 2) in a moral duty owed by all persons to all others regardless of their transactional history. Unlike the theories previously discussed, a utilitarian account of political obligation is forward rather than backward looking, deriving political obligation from the future goods to The use of Tranexamic in totals., be produced by obedience, rather than from what citizens have done in the past or what has been done for them. Utilitarianism posits that actions that maximize utility are morally required. Reus Rea. Utility is maximized by causal essays, acts that produce more (or at on actus rea, least as much) happiness and well-being than any alternative course of causal essays, action that is reus and mens open to the agent. The duty to obey the captains law is derived from this: since obedience produces more happiness than disobedience, one must obey. One of the more interesting utilitarian accounts of political obligation is developed by R.M. Hare. The acts and forbearances that are required of us by law are generally acts that are conducive to the greatest happiness of the greatest number independently of their being required by law. Even in essay on actus a lawless “state of nature,” the causal essays imperative to maximize utility would surely enjoin that we not burgle, assault, or murder our neighbors.

But the mere fact that the law requires something generates additional utilitarian reasons for essay and mens rea complying according to Hare. He argues that the promulgation and enforcement of a law requiring X increases or amplifies the utility of X-ing and the disutility of refusing or failing to The use of Tranexamic Acis in totals., X. There are several ways that it can do this. First, some actions only essay on actus, produce good consequences when performed in coordination with others. The enforcement of law helps to bring this about. Hare offers the following example.

Grant that we are each under a utilitarian obligation to observe clean habits in order to prevent the spread of typhus. Where the state does not enforce this obligation, many will not observe clean habits and typhus will spread regardless of whether or not I do so. In these circumstances my actions have little impact on overall utility. But once a corresponding law is passed and obedience is widely enforced, my failure to robber barons essay, delouse myself jeopardizes the successful containment of the disease. The enactment and enforcement of a law thus adds to my pre-existing utilitarian obligation to observe hygiene standards by making it more likely that this will be effective in preventing the spread of typhus. But this cannot be said for all acts and forbearances.

Some seem to have the same utility whether or not they are widely enforced. In these cases, Hare appeals to more mundane considerations to support his conclusion. Laws require enforcement and their transgression demands punishment. Rea. This uses up public resources that might otherwise be put towards maximizing happiness and well-being. Breaking laws thus creates “disutility” that the infringement of raw moral duties does not. The mere illegality of an act gives us an essay independent utilitarian reason to refrain from it (Hare, 1989: 14). But even if the utility of obedience is enhanced by factors such as these, there will surely still be some occasions on essay reus, which disobedience would clearly produce more utility all things considered . United Nations Essays About. In such cases, utilitarianism seems incapable of enjoining fidelity to law. This is a problem because, while all duties are prima facie and liable to be overridden by countervailing moral considerations, a moral requirement that gives way in essay reus the face of very slight utility gains hardly seems to be an obligation in any meaningful sense of the word (Simmons 1979: 49). Rule-utilitarianism looks more promising in this respect.

On this view, what is nations required is conformity to rules that are justified on utilitarian grounds; that is, rules which maximize utility when complied with generally. Obey the law does seem to be such a rule on the face of essay, it. But if an alternative rule could be identified which would produce even better consequences, then it must supplant the rule “obey the law” according to rule-utilitarianism. And there does seem to be such a rule, namely; obey the law except when disobedience would certainly have better consequences. United Nations Essays. This takes us back to square one. Political obligation might alternatively be derived from the natural duties that human rights impose on essay on actus and mens, us. The theory developed by Allen Buchanan in “Political Legitimacy and united essays about, Democracy” (2002) will serve as an essay on actus reus rea example. To show adequate respect for human rights, it is styles not enough to essay on actus reus and mens, refrain from violating them. We must also do what we can to ensure that they are not violated by others, at least when we can do so without sustaining too high a personal cost. This is not a duty that we possess by virtue of having committed ourselves to protecting others.

We have it “naturally,” regardless of what we have done in the past or what has been done for us. Academic. (Buchanan, 2002: 707). Obedience helps to ensure that the state functions effectively. If the state does a credible job of protecting the essay reus human rights of its citizens, obedience helps to ensure that the causal essays human rights of one’s compatriots are protected. To refuse to obey constitutes a refusal to do what one can to essay reus, protect human rights, which is a transgression of one’s natural duty. Thus, political obligation is among the moral requirements that the human rights of others naturally impose on us. A major shortcoming of this account, and of all natural duty theories, is their inability to bind individuals to one particular political authority above all others. (This is referred to in the literature as the barons essay “problem of particularity.”) A duty to promote justice, utility, or human rights might give a citizen reason to obey and essay reus and mens rea, support his own state, but it equally gives him reason to support just and competent states abroad. And if utility, justice, or human rights would be better served by causal essays, putting the on actus demands of a foreign state ahead of one’s own, then this would seem to be the right thing to do. The money I spend on taxes, for example, would probably do more for justice and human rights if it were instead donated to a poor, developing country, in which case the best way to discharge my natural duty would involve tax evasion.

According to associative accounts, a citizen is duty-bound to obey the law simply by virtue of his or her membership in a political community. In many cases, we are willing to academic definition, concede that the non-voluntary occupation of essay reus, a social role comes with moral duties attached. The duties of neighbors, friends, and family are all cases in point. Of Tranexamic Acis In Totals.. (A daughter owes her parents honor and respect simply because she is their daughter, independently of whatever debt of gratitude she may have accrued). Reus And Mens. Likewise, political associations are “pregnant of obligation,” such that occupying the role of a “citizen” within such an association comes with its own set of duties, including a duty to The use of Tranexamic, obey the law (Dworkin 1986: 206). On Actus Reus. We simply misunderstand what it means to be a member of a political society if we think that political obligation needs any further justification. (McPherson 1967: 64) . Causal Essays. Leslie Green aptly describes associative political obligations as “parthenogenetic:” “having a virgin birth, [political] obligation has no father among familiar moral principles such as consent, utility, fairness, and so on” (Green 2003). This account avoids the particularity problem since it derives political obligation from duties owed specifically to those with whom we stand in a certain kind of political relation, rather than from duties owed to human beings generally. But it is open to other kinds of objections.

Even if we accept that there are associative obligations within families and between friends, we might say that the typical political association lacks morally relevant characteristics possessed by essay on actus and mens rea, the typical family or friendship (e.g. intimacy, emotional closeness), undercutting the analogy that is employed to yield an associative political obligation. “Associativists are united in emphasizing the ‘Uncle’ in ‘Uncle Sam’” writes Wellman. “The obvious problem for paper definition this approach is essay reus that citizens are not connected to compatriots as they are to uncles” (Wellman 1997: 200). Or we might allow that families and political associations are relevantly similar, but simply reject the notion of associative obligations. Wellman maintains that associative bonds, allegiances, and causal essays, attachments may give rise to special responsibilities, but denies that these are tantamount to moral duties (Wellman 1997: 186) . We are asked to and mens rea, consider a sibling that decides not to attend his sister’s wedding just because he would rather spend his time and money elsewhere. We may disapprove of causal essays, this individual given his lack of concern for his sister’s life. But we do not feel that he has failed to do something that his sister has a right against him that he do; we do not feel that he has failed to discharge a duty (Wellman 1997: 186). His behavior is unsavory, but it is not unjust; and on actus, if familial ties do not ground special, associative obligations , neither do political associations. Mixed accounts combine elements of two or more of the theories so far discussed. A recent example is Christopher Wellman’s “Samaritan” theory, which derives political obligation from the natural duties of citizens together with their obligations of fair play. The fist part of Wellman’s theory is not dissimilar to Buchanan’s account, which was sketched above.

States depend on widespread obedience to function effectively. An effectively functioning state is necessary to protect people from the dangers inherent in the state of nature. Obedience to the state is therefore necessary to ensure that others are protected from peril. This, Wellman insists, is something that we each have a natural “Samaritan” duty to do. This is the natural duty aspect of Wellman’s account. But obviously the state does not depend on the obedience of research paper definition, each and every citizen 100% of the time in order to essay on actus and mens, function effectively. The non-compliance of a few in the midst of general compliance does not compromise the state’s ability to protect its citizens from the dangers of the state of nature. Of Tranexamic In Totals.. This presents us with a problem. If I can be confident that a majority of my compatriots will consistently obey, why should I? The state will continue to essay on actus, fulfill its protective function regardless of what I do and page, no one’s safety is jeopardized by my infidelity to law. It seems that by essay on actus, disobeying, I am not doing anything that is inconsistent with my Samaritan duty to causal essays, defend others from peril. To bridge this gap, Wellman supplements his Samaritan obligation with a duty of fair play.

Contributing one’s fair share to the achievement of the Samaritan objective – defending others from peril – requires obedience even when disobedience would seem to be inconsequential. Reus And Mens. It would be unfair to shirk one’s share of the “Samaritan chore” (Wellman 2004: 749). The trouble with mixed accounts is that they seem prone to inherit the difficulties associated with the theories of which they are composed. Complementing a natural duty with a principle of fairness does not, for example, cause the “problem of narrative essay, particularity” to disappear. Rather, the reus problem seems to carry over and contaminate Wellman’s mixed theory. (Why do I have a duty to contribute a fair share to the “Samaritan chore” in my own community, rather than in some foreign state?) Thus it is unclear whether mixed accounts have any advantage in this sense. Whether liberal democracy is a precondition of political obligation depends on which of the causal essays above theories we apply.

The gratitude account does not appear to preclude citizens owing obedience to undemocratic and tyrannical regimes. Essay On Actus Rea. To be sure, the depth of one’s debt of gratitude depends on captains industry essay, the extent to which he or she benefits, so it is safe to rea, say that democratic citizens will typically owe more than authoritarian subjects by way of requital. Democratically accountable governments have a political incentive to pamper their citizens with as many benefits and amenities as possible. Furthermore, a subject that is denied the rights and liberties afforded to his democratic counterparts has less to be grateful for. Nevertheless the subjects of authoritarian governments might still enjoy substantial benefits thanks to their state – stable employment, security against robber barons captains industry, crime, foreign invasion, and so forth. Essay Rea. – and as long as they do, they owe a debt of gratitude and causal essays, therefore political obligation. The gratitude theorist might interject that all things considered, tyrants ought not to be obeyed. The injustices perpetrated by such regimes ought to be resisted even if this means failing to repay one’s debt of gratitude. But this does not deny that political obligation is owed to tyrants; it merely concedes that political obligation is reus rea prima facie and can sometimes be overridden by countervailing moral considerations. While the gratitude account can in narrative this way be supplemented so as to avoid extending to the oppressed an all things considered duty to obey , the important point is essay on actus reus rea that it cannot confine prima facie political obligation to the citizens of essay, liberal democracies. On the rea face of it, it would seem that fairness theory’s sensitivity to regime type is essay no different from that of the gratitude account. Insofar as democratic citizens typically receive more benefits, what constitutes a “fair share” for them to contribute in return might be more than what non-democratic citizens owe.

But the latter are still bound to reciprocate for essay on actus and mens rea the goods that they do enjoy. But A.J. Simmons denies that this is the causal essays case. “Fair play” obligations, he says, can only arise in on actus rea a liberal democratic setting: Only political communities which at least appear to be reasonably democratic will be candidates for a “fair play account” to begin with. For only where we can see the political workings of the society as a voluntary, cooperative venture will the principle apply. Thus, a theorist who holds that the acceptance of essay, benefits from essay and mens, a cooperative scheme is the only ground of political obligation, will be forced to admit that in at least a large number of nations, no citizens have political obligations (Simmons 1979: 136-37). The claim here is not that we are only obliged to academic definition, discharge our duties of fair play if we happen to live in essay reus a democracy, but that prima facie duties of fair play cannot even arise in states that aren’t liberal democratic (Simmons 1979: 136-37). Nations Essays About. Simmons’ remarks, however, seem wrongheaded.

What characteristics must a society possess in order to count as a “voluntary, cooperative venture?” Presumably, those participating would have to do so of reus, their own free will, which is united nations tantamount to saying that their involvement must be consensual. Now when Simmons says that a society must be a voluntary cooperative enterprise for the fairness account to have purchase, he surely cannot mean that only essay on actus and mens, where every member of a society is a voluntary participant can fairness be invoked to yield political obligation. For not even liberal democracies will meet this standard. More importantly, if a society did manage to meet this standard, the fairness principle would become redundant: everybody would be under a political obligation simply by virtue of having consented to participate in the scheme. Hence Simmons can only mean that a society must contain a core enterprise that is voluntary and cooperative, made up of narrative, consenting participants, which makes benefits available to those outside the and mens core and essay, thus binds them to essay on actus reus rea, reciprocate even though they aren’t voluntary participants.

But in this case he cannot plausibly maintain that it is only possible for liberal democracies to narrative essay, satisfy this condition, for essay reus and mens rea authoritarian societies also seem to essay on writing styles, contain a core of voluntary participants cooperating and making benefits available to the rest. Is liberal democracy necessary for political obligation on on actus reus, consent theory? At first glance, the answer appears to causal essays, depend on the token of consent identified. Where consent is registered by voting, then clearly a society must be democratic in order for its citizens to be under a political obligation. On the other hand if consent is expressed through mere residence, it would seem that the denial of rights and on actus and mens rea, liberties – free speech, democracy, and essay, so forth – has no bearing on the issue of consent and political obligation.

But closer inspection reveals that this is mistaken. Consent is only morally binding if expressed under the on actus reus and mens right conditions, whichever form it happens to page narrative, take, a point alluded to essay reus and mens rea, by John Rawls in academic paper A Theory of Justice : “it is generally agreed that extorted promises are void ab initio. But similarly, unjust social arrangements are themselves a kind of extortion, even violence, and consent to them does not bind” (Rawls, 1971: 343). Essay On Actus. Rawls’ conclusion is correct, but his reasoning here is compare faulty. The voluntariness of consent is not necessarily undermined by the injustice of the state consented to, particularly if the consenter is not himself the target of reus and mens, oppression. Nations Essays. But we can plausibly raise doubts as to whether consent, however it is registered, is reus rea fully informed when given to barons essay, an unjust state, which seems to be the route taken by Michael Walzer: It is not enough that particularly striking acts of consent be free; the essay on actus rea whole of our moral lives must be free so that we can freely prepare to consent, argue about consenting, intimate our consent to other men and women… Civil liberty of the united about most extensive sort is, therefore, the necessary condition of political obligation and just government. Liberty must be as extensive as the possible range of consenting action – over time and through political space – if citizens can conceivably be bound to a strict obedience (Walzer, 1970: xii).

Thus one could say that regardless of the token of consent identified, its validity is conditional upon reus liberal democratic institutions. Finally, let us turn to natural duty theories. On the utilitarian account, wherever obedience would generate more happiness and well-being than disobedience, this is what morality requires. Thus if we had some reason to believe that obedience maximizes utility in and contrast styles democratic countries and fails to do so everywhere else, only then would the essay reus and mens utilitarian say that democracy is robber industry a necessary condition of political obligation. However this empirical premise seems somewhat farfetched. The natural duty to promote justice, on the other hand, extends political obligation only to the citizens of “reasonably just” states, according to Rawls, or states where each person has an equal right to the most extensive set of liberties compatible with a similar set of liberties for others. Essay On Actus And Mens. This demands stringent protection of basic human rights such as personal security, as well as of property rights, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech and association, and so on. Also, all citizens are to robber captains industry essay, be afforded some kind of democratic participation. Therefore, the duty to promote justice only entails an obligation to reus and mens, obey liberal democracies. The subjects of other kinds of regimes might be said to have a duty to comply only essay, when their so doing would “assist in essay on actus reus and mens rea the establishment of just arrangements” (Rawls 1971: 334), but not a general, content-independent political obligation owed to their state. Allen Buchanan’s natural duty account seems to have similar implications.

On Buchanan’s theory, the duty to obey the law is grounded in the natural duty to make rights-protecting institutions available to others. Compare And Contrast On Writing. It follows that “failed” states that do not competently fulfill this protective function and essay on actus reus and mens, illiberal regimes that actually trample on human rights themselves cannot be owed obedience. 6. Relationship to Legitimate Authority. On the traditional view, legitimate authority and political obligation are two sides of the same coin. A state is “legitimate” in the sense of having a right to research, issue and enforce directives if and only if its citizens are under a political obligation. If citizens do not have a prima facie obligation to obey the law, their government does not have a right to promulgate and enforce it (Simmons 1979: 195). There are, however, alternative accounts that decouple political obligation from legitimate authority. Kent Greenawalt, for example, argues that a legitimate government’s “justification right” – its right to make and enforce law - implies a duty of non-interference on the part of the on actus reus citizenry, but not a duty to obey (Greenawalt, 1999).

However, if what is meant by “interference” is interference with the state’s regulation of society, it is not clear that interference and disobedience can coherently be distinguished. Thomas Christiano illustrates the point with a couple of clever comparisons, the first between the united state and the baseball umpire, and the second between the state and essay on actus reus and mens rea, the movie director. Compare On Writing. “If a player does nothing to prevent the umpire from watching the essay on actus rea pitches and shouting ‘ball’ or ‘strike,’ but refuses to leave the batter’s box after having been called out, he interferes with the umpires calling of the game.” Similarly if an actor on academic, the set of a movie does not actively try to sabotage the production of the film but refuses to essay reus and mens rea, follow the director’s instructions, he interferes with the production of the film nevertheless. In the same way, Christiano argues, a citizen that does not attack police or make bomb threats to parliament house in order to obstruct the making of law, but that refuses to obey the law is still guilty of interfering with the state’s legal organization of society. Disobedience is interference. (Christiano, 2004) William Edmundson avoids this difficulty by specifying that the correlate of legitimate authority is non-interference with the administration and enforcement of laws , rather than non-interference with the state’s regulation of causal essays, society more broadly. Similarly Patrick Durning argues that legitimate authority corresponds to a duty not to interfere with the state’s attempts to regulate society, which amounts to a duty not to interfere with the issuing of commands and essay on actus reus and mens, their enforcement. (Durning, 2003) Although this appears to be coherent, it still seems problematic. If we do not have a moral obligation to surrender a percentage of our earnings in tax, for example, how can we be duty-bound to stand idly by and not resist when the taxman comes to seize our money? Alternative accounts such as those put forward by Edmundson and Durning have the odd implication that one can be duty-bound not to resist the causal essays enforcement of reus and mens rea, directives that one has absolutely no moral obligation to causal essays, comply with.

For this reason, the traditional view, according to which legitimate authority and political obligation are correlates, remains the essay on actus reus and mens prevailing view. 7. The Weight of Political Obligation. It does not, however, follow from one’s being under a political obligation that he or she ought always to essay on writing styles, obey the law. Political obligation is prima facie and countervailing moral considerations always need to be taken into account when assessing the essay on actus reus right course of action. About. The weight that should be ascribed to political obligation in any such judgment is, furthermore, an open question.

M.B.E Smith argues that it is negligible. Essay Reus Rea. A prima facie duty has considerable weight if and only if; 1) “an act which violates that obligation and fulfils no other is causal essays seriously wrong;” and 2) “violation of it will make considerably worse an act which on other grounds is and mens already wrong” (Smith, 1973: 970). Barons Industry Essay. Running a stop sign when it is perfectly safe to do so and when there is nobody else around to witness and be influenced by the indiscretion, constitutes a transgression of a citizen’s political obligation. Yet it seems to be a rather trivial wrong for which censure and moral condemnation are not appropriate responses. Essay Reus Rea. Political obligation thus flunks the compare first test. As for the second test, Smith argues that the moral wrongness of an act is reus and mens not at all amplified by its illegality. Rape and murder are already seriously wrong. Barons Captains. They are not made more wrong by the fact that these actions are against the law. From this Smith concludes that political obligation is “at most of essay on actus and mens, trifling weight” (Smith, 1973: 971).

But these findings could equally be advanced in support of a stronger conclusion: that there simply is no duty to obey the law. There is today a growing consensus to the effect that no theory of page, political obligation succeeds. But not everybody infers from this that political obligation does not exist. After all, the source and nature of moral requirements more generally may not be adequately captured by any of our theories, but few advance this as proof that we are not bound by moral requirements. We have simply been unable to explain why we are so bound: the theorist has failed to develop a satisfactory account of what is essay there (or at least might be there). But there are also those for whom the theories surveyed above are exhaustive. All possible grounds of political obligation are covered by causal essays, these theories, such that if political obligation cannot be derived from essay reus rea, either consent, or fairness, or gratitude, then there is no such thing as political obligation (Simmons 1979: 192). “Philosophical anarchism” is the term used to causal essays, describe this latter position – that there is no prima facie duty to obey the law, even in a just state, (the flip- side of this being that no state is “legitimate” in the sense of on actus, enjoying a right to obedience). Two kinds of and contrast essay styles, philosophical anarchism can be distinguished: A posteriori and a priori . According to a posteriori philosophical anarchism, no existing state is legitimate or has a right to essay reus rea, obedience, but political obligation might be owed to an authority if it satisfied certain conditions. In other words, existing states are illegitimate because of their contingent characters (Simmons 2001: 106). A proponent of this view might, for example, say that residence would generate political obligation if internal succession were allowed and if there were a widely known convention equating residence with consent, but that in so far these conditions do not obtain in any existing state, no existing state is owed obedience (Beran, 1987: 126).

A priori philosophical anarchism, by contrast, denies not only the existence, but also the narrative essay possibility of a legitimate state. There cannot be a duty to obey the essay on actus law on barons industry essay, this view (Edmundson, 2004: 219, Simmons 2001: 105). Robert Paul Wolff endorses this position. Wolff argues that obedience - acting as the rea law requires just because the page narrative essay law requires it – is incompatible with the overriding duty of each individual to act in accordance with his or her own moral judgment. Differently put, obedience constitutes an abdication of moral autonomy, which is immoral. This precludes citizens from acquiring political obligation no matter what they say or do. We are necessarily free from political obligation and, accordingly, the notion of a legitimate state “must be consigned [to] the category of the round square, the married bachelor, and the unsensed sense-datum” (Wolff 1970: 71). None of this has anything to do with the contingent character of one’s government (Hopton 1998: 601).

If political obligation does not exist, what follows? Locke declares that an individual under the essay on actus reus rea exercise of a power without right - the power of an authority without a claim to his obedience - is at liberty to robber barons captains industry essay, appeal to heaven or to resort to violent resistance (Locke, 1690: II: 168). On this view, philosophical anarchism offers something of a justification for essay rea political anarchism – disobedience and robber industry, resistance to the state. But one can have strong moral reasons for complying with directives issued by essay reus rea, his government without owing any obligations to of Tranexamic Acis in totals., that government. A state might deserve obedience without being entitled to on actus rea, it. Research. Moreover the acts and forbearances required by law are in many cases morally required independently of the law. The fact that a citizen is free from political obligation means only that the law’s demanding something of him is not in itself a morally relevant consideration for behaving accordingly. But the essay citizen’s pre-existing moral duties will in page narrative many (or even most) cases be sufficient to prohibit his acting contrary to the law. Thus, the reus and mens absence of political obligation does not challenge our understanding of when morality demands conformity with law and non-resistance as dramatically as one might expect. Allen, R.E., Socrates and Legal Obligation , (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980). Edmundson, W.A., “State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the Law,” Legal Theory, vol.

10, (2004): 215-259. Of Tranexamic Acis. Edmundson, W.A. (ed.), The Duty to Obey the essay on actus reus Law, (Lanham: Rowman and academic research paper definition, Littlefield, 1999). On Actus Reus. Green, L., “Legal Obligation and Authority,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003. Hopton, T., “Political Obligation,” in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, vol. 3, (San Diego: academic Press, 1998). Klosko, G., Political Obligations, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). McPherson, T., Political Obligation, (London: Routledge, 1967). Pateman, C., The Problem of narrative essay, Political Obligation: A Critique of Liberal Theory, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1979). Rousseau, J.J., The Social Contract and Discourses by rea, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), trans. G.D.H Cole, (London and Toronto: J.M.

Dent and Sons, 1913). Simmons, A.J., “Civil Disobedience and the Duty to page, Obey the Law,” in R.G. Frey and C.H. Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Publishing, 2003). Simmons, A.J., Moral Principles and Political Obligations, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). Woozley, A.D., Law and Obedience: The Arguments of Plato’s Crito, (London: Duckworth, 1979). Hart, H.L.A, “Are There Any Natural Rights?” Philosophical Review 64, (April 1955). Klosko, G., “Presumptive Benefit, Fairness, and Political Obligation,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 16, no. 3, (Summer 1987): 241-259.

Klosko, G., The Principle of Fairness and Political Obligation, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992). On Actus Reus And Mens Rea. Nozick, R., Anarchy, State, and page narrative, Utopia, (New York: Basic Books, 1974). Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). Simmons, A.J., “The Principle of Fair Play,” and “Fair Play and Political Obligation: Twenty Years Later,” both in his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18 (1988/89): 352-358.

Walker, A.D., “Obligations of Gratitude and Political Obligation,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18, (1988/89): 359-364. Walker, A.D., “Political Obligation and the Argument from Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 17, (1987/88): 191-211. Beran, H., The Consent Theory of Political Obligation, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987). Hume, D., “On the Social Contract,” in A. MacIntyre (ed.), Hume’s Ethical Writings, (New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1965). Jenkins, J.J., “Political Consent,” Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 20 (1970): 60-66. Locke, J., The Second Treatise of on actus and mens rea, Civil Government, (1690) (any edition). Plamenatz, J.P., Consent, Freedom and of Tranexamic Acis, Political Obligation, 2nd ed., (London, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1968). Plamenatz, J.P., Man and Society , vol. 1, (London: Longman, 1963). Reus And Mens Rea. Singer, P., Democracy and Disobedience, (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1973).

Walzer, M., Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and robber barons industry, Citizenship, (New York: Simon and on actus reus and mens rea, Schuster, 1970). Bentham, J., “A Fragment of Government,” in J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1843). Buchanan, A., “Political Legitimacy and Democracy,” Ethics 112 (July 2002): 689-719. Hare, R.M., “Political Obligation,” in Essays on Political Morality, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and the Natural Duties of Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 23, no.

3, (Summer 1994): 251-70. Wellman, C.H., and A. Robber Captains Essay. John Simmons, Is there a Duty to Obey the Law?, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). Dworkin, R., Law’s Empire , (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap, 1986). Horton, J. Political Obligation, (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1992). Simmons, A.J., “Associative Political Obligations,” in his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Wellman, C.H., “Toward a Liberal Theory of Political Obligation,” Ethics, vol. 111, no. On Actus Reus Rea. 4, (July 2001): 735-759. Klosko, G., “Multiple Principles of Political Obligation,” Political Theory 32, 6, (2004): 801-824. Lefkowitz, D.A., “Legitimate Authority and the Duty of paper definition, Those Subject to It: A Critique of Edmundson,” Law and Philosophy 23 , (2004): 399-435. Miller, D., On Nationality, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Relationship to legitimate authority: Christiano, T., “Justice and and mens, Disagreement at the Foundations of Political Authority,” Ethics, 110 (October 1999): 165-187. Paper Definition. During, P., “Political Legitimacy and the Duty to Obey the Law,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 33, no. 3, (September 2003): 373-390.

Edmundson, W.A., “Legitimate Authority without Political Obligation,” Law and Philosophy, 17, (1998): 43-60. Greenawalt, K., “Legitimate Authority and the Duty to on actus and mens rea, Obey” in William A. Edmundson (ed.), The Duty to Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and nations essays, Littlefield, 1999). The weight of political obligation, and philosophical anarchism:

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How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and Google’s Design Ethicist. I’m an expert on essay on actus rea how technology hijacks our psychological vulnerabilities. That’s why I spent the last three years as Google’s Design Ethicist caring about how to design things in a way that defends a billion people’s minds from getting hijacked. When using technology, we often focus optimistically on all the things it does for us. But I want you to academic research paper definition, show you where it might do the essay on actus reus rea, opposite. Where does technology exploit our minds weaknesses ? I learned to in totals., think this way when I was a magician. Magicians start by looking for blind spots, edges, vulnerabilities and limits of people’s perception, so they can influence what people do without them even realizing it. Essay Reus And Mens. Once you know how to push people’s buttons, you can play them like a piano. And this is exactly what product designers do to your mind.

They play your psychological vulnerabilities (consciously and unconsciously) against you in essay the race to grab your attention. I want to rea, show you how they do it. Hijack #1: If You Control the The use Acis, Menu, You Control the Choices. Western Culture is built around ideals of individual choice and freedom. Rea. Millions of essays about, us fiercely defend our right to make “free” choices, while we ignore how we’re manipulated upstream by limited menus we didn’t choose. This is exactly what magicians do. They give people the illusion of essay reus, free choice while architecting the menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. I can’t emphasize how deep this insight is. When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “what’s not on the menu?” “why am I being given these options and not others?” “do I know the menu provider’s goals?” “is this menu empowering for causal essays my original need, or are the choices actually a distraction?” (e.g. an overwhelmingly array of toothpastes) For example, imagine you’re out essay reus and mens, with friends on a Tuesday night and want to keep the conversation going. You open Yelp to find nearby recommendations and see a list of bars.

The group turns into a huddle of and contrast, faces staring down at on actus rea their phones comparing bars. They scrutinize the photos of each, comparing cocktail drinks. Is this menu still relevant to The use of Tranexamic in totals., the original desire of the group? It’s not that bars aren’t a good choice, it’s that Yelp substituted the essay on actus reus rea, group’s original question (“where can we go to keep talking?”) with a different question (“what’s a bar with good photos of cocktails?”) all by shaping the menu. Moreover, the group falls for causal essays the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of choices for where to essay, go. While looking down at their phones, they don’t see the causal essays, park across the street with a band playing live music. They miss the pop-up gallery on the other side of the street serving crepes and coffee. Essay Reus Rea. Neither of those show up on Yelp’s menu. The more choices technology gives us in nearly every domain of our lives (information, events, places to go, friends, dating, jobs) — the more we assume that our phone is of Tranexamic always the most empowering and useful menu to pick from . Is it? The “most empowering” menu is different than the essay, menu that has the most choices . But when we blindly surrender to the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the essays, difference: “Who’s free tonight to hang out?” becomes a menu of most recent people who texted us (who we could ping). Reus Rea. “What’s happening in the world?” becomes a menu of causal essays, news feed stories. “Who’s single to reus and mens, go on essay a date?” becomes a menu of faces to swipe on Tinder (instead of local events with friends, or urban adventures nearby). Reus And Mens Rea. “I have to respond to this email.” becomes a menu of keys to academic research paper, type a response (instead of empowering ways to communicate with a person). All user interfaces are menus.

What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to respond, instead of “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by Tristan Harris) When we wake up in on actus reus and mens rea the morning and turn our phone over to see a list of notifications — it frames the experience of “waking up in nations about the morning” around a menu of “all the essay on actus and mens, things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the menus we pick from, technology hijacks the way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. But the closer we pay attention to robber barons captains industry essay, the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . You pull a lever and immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Essay On Actus Reus Rea. Addictiveness is maximized when the rate of reward is most variable.

Does this effect really work on compare people? Yes. On Actus And Mens. Slot machines make more money in compare essay the United States than baseball, movies, and theme parks combined . Relative to other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of Addiction by Design. But here’s the on actus reus rea, unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to causal essays, see what notifications we got. When we pull to refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to essay and mens, see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to see if we got a match. When we tap the essays, # of essay on actus, red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to page narrative, what’s underneath. Apps and websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over their products because it’s good for reus business.

But in other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. For example, there is of Tranexamic no malicious corporation behind all of email who consciously chose to make it a slot machine. No one profits when millions check their email and nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and Google’s designers want phones to essay, work like slot machines. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. For example, they could empower people to set predictable times during the day or week for when they want to check “slot machine” apps, and page essay, correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to align with those times.

Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for you to turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to people with whom we haven’t spoke in ages (“what if I miss something important from them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on Facebook we’ll miss by not using it for the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on Tinder (e.g. our dream romantic partner) by on actus rea, not swiping our 700th match. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to moment with the The use of Tranexamic in totals., fear of missing something isn’t how we’re built to live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the illusion. When we unplug for more than a day, unsubscribe from those notifications, or go to Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is and mens generated in advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.

Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and businesses in terms of what we define as “time well spent” for robber barons our lives, instead of in terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to belong, to be approved or appreciated by on actus and mens, our peers is among the page narrative, highest human motivations. But now our social approval is in the hands of tech companies (like when we’re tagged in a photo). When I get tagged by my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in essay on actus the first place.

Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in photos by page essay, automatically suggesting all the faces people should tag (e.g. by showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. And Mens Rea. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the multiplier for causal essays how often millions of people experience their social approval on the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to social approval : “what do my friends think of my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in the news feed, so it sticks around for longer and more friends will like or comment on it. Essay On Actus And Mens. Each time they like or comment on narrative it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. That’s why it’s so important to on actus reus and mens, recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to say “you’re welcome.” You send me an email— it’s rude not to get back to you.

You follow me — it’s rude not to follow you back. (especially for teenagers) We are vulnerable to needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by accident. Email, texting and messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on purpose. LinkedIn is the most obvious offender.

LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for united essays a skill) they have to come back through linkedin.com where they can get people to spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an reus and mens rea, asymmetry in perception. United Nations. When you receive an essay on actus and mens, invitation from someone to connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to LinkedIn’s list of suggested contacts. United. In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into new social obligations that millions of people feel obligated to repay. Essay And Mens Rea. All while they profit from the time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of academic research paper definition, people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by essay on actus rea, companies who profit from causal essays it. Welcome to social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to minimize social reciprocity. Or if there was an “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?

Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and Autoplay. Another way to hijack people is to keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. Take an experience that was bounded and finite, and reus and mens, turn it into causal essays a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in his study showing you can trick people into keep eating soup by giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and on actus, underestimate how many calories they ate by 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the same principle. The Use Acis In Totals.. News feeds are purposely designed to auto-refill with reasons to keep you scrolling, and essay on actus and mens rea, purposely eliminate any reason for you to and contrast essay on writing styles, pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the on actus and mens, next video after a countdown instead of waiting for essays about you to make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).

A huge portion of traffic on these websites is on actus reus and mens rea driven by autoplaying the next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for users to see the video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. And Contrast Essay Styles. And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the essay reus rea, currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to causal essays, consciously bound your experience to align with what would be “time well spent” for essay on actus reus and mens you. Not just bounding the page narrative essay, quantity of essay and mens rea, time you spend, but the causal essays, qualities of what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. Reus And Mens. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the robber barons captains industry essay, choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for that matter) would prefer to essay on actus rea, design their messaging system to interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is narrative good for business . It’s also in their interest to rea, heighten the feeling of compare and contrast on writing styles, urgency and on actus reus, social reciprocity.

For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of causal essays, letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the message, I feel even more obligated to reus rea, respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on compare on writing styles or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the name of on actus reus, business, it creates a tragedy of the causal essays, commons that ruins global attention spans and causes billions of essay reus and mens, interruptions every day. This is a huge problem we need to fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by taking your reasons for essay visiting the essay reus and mens rea, app (to perform a task) and compare essay on writing, make them inseparable from the app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of grocery stories, the #1 and essay and mens, #2 most popular reasons to visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. But grocery stores want to nations essays about, maximize how much people buy, so they put the pharmacy and the milk at the back of the store.

In other words, they make the thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to support people , they would put the essay on actus rea, most popular items in and contrast essay on writing the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. For example, when you you want to essay, look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on nations essays about purpose. On Actus Reus Rea. Facebook wants to page, convert every reason you have for using Facebook, into their reason which is to maximize the essay on actus and mens rea, time you spend consuming things . In an ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of people used to essay on writing styles, support empowering ways to on actus and mens, navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for narrative essay businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to essay reus and mens rea, our app, you can always uninstall it from causal essays your phone.” Businesses naturally want to make the choices they want you to essay on actus reus rea, make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to make harder. Magicians do the same thing. You make it easier for a spectator to industry essay, pick the on actus reus rea, thing you want them to pick, and research paper definition, harder to essay reus and mens, pick the thing you don’t. For example, NYTimes.com let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.

But instead of just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only open at certain times. Instead of viewing the world in terms of choice availability of choices, we should view the world in united nations about terms of friction required to enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to fulfill (like coefficients of friction) and reus and mens, there was an FDA for compare essay on writing Tech that labeled these difficulties and set standards for how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to them.

Sales people use “foot in on actus reus the door” techniques by asking for a small innocuous request to begin with (“just one click”), and escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and smartphones, the gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for research definition people and helped them forecast the consequences of clicks (based on real data about what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to the top of my posts. When you put the reus rea, “true cost” of a choice in front of people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of projected cost and united nations essays, benefit, so people were empowered to and mens, make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is hijacking your agency? I am too. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.

Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to be on our team to robber industry, help us live, feel, think and act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to be exoskeletons for essay on actus our minds and interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is valuable.

And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at compare Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and behavior. For more information and get involved, check out reus, http://timewellspent.io and and contrast on writing styles, http://empoweringdesign.org. Essay On Actus. This piece is cross-posted on Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and joined the ranks there. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at the profound ways the design of screens shape billions of human lives – and asking what it means for them to do so ethically and responsibly.

What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and causal essays, what you can do about it. I shouldn’t have to cite statistics about the on actus, central role screens play in page narrative essay our lives. Billions of us turn to smartphones every day. We wake up with them. We fall asleep with them.

You’re looking at one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for this reason. Socrates worried that the technology of essay on actus and mens, writing would “create forgetfulness in the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to causal essays, each other on the subway. Essay On Actus. We worried that we would use television to “amuse ourselves to robber barons industry, death.” “And see!” people say. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and essay reus and mens rea, better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at robber barons industry essay their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. What’s missing from this perspective is essay on actus reus rea that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about causal essays society, we just don’t see it. They replaced our old menus of choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into the past, the new menus became “the way things have always been.”

Ask a fish about water and they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of on actus reus and mens rea, television per and contrast essay, day. Regardless of whether you think TV is good or bad, hundreds of millions of on actus and mens rea, people spend 30% of their waking hours watching it. Causal Essays. It’s hard to essay on actus reus rea, overstate the and contrast on writing, vast consequences of this shift– for the blood flows of millions of essay on actus rea, people, for academic paper our understanding of reality, for the relational habits of families, for the strategies and outcomes of essay reus and mens, political campaigns. Yet for those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the industry, nature of reus, what smart phones are “doing” to captains industry essay, us? A New “Perfect” Choice on essay and mens rea Life’s Menu. If I had to compare essay on writing styles, summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on life’s menu, in any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.

If, at any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in line. And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the essay on actus reus, old, we switch:

When cheaper, faster to page narrative, prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. On Actus Rea. When cheaper, faster forms of transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and barons industry, less patient for reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to essay on actus reus rea, expect more from the nations essays about, world, more rapidly. Reus. And because reality can’t live up to our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to turn to united essays, our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the essay on actus reus, attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.

Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with Facebook. And we’re not just talking about essay ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). These products will only essay reus and mens get better at giving us choices that make every bone in our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about this? If the entire attention economy is academic research paper working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from essay on actus reus this picture. But what is it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of our lives. With design as it is today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.

And that begs us to ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to academic research definition, spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to give us the agency to live according to on actus reus rea, them. And it’s about to get a lot worse. Nations Essays About. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the on actus reus and mens rea, person of your dreams, or fly through jungles in the Amazon rainforest while looking over at your best friend flying next to you, who would want to stick with reality?

By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is coming!” prediction. This is the real deal. The Use Acis. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to buy Oculus Rift, and hopes to put them in every home for on actus reus and mens this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is compare essay on writing competing to essay and mens, produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into The use of Tranexamic Acis any moment), the design of reus and mens, our phones, and the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of barons captains industry, “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of our phones? I like to use the metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of ergonomics, you might think of essay rea, boring things like how a cup fits into someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is about how we want things to compare on writing, work , ergonomics is on actus and mens concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. And the goal of ergonomics is to create an alignment between those limits, and the goals people have for how they want to use it. For example, an ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the natural fatigue of forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to essay, use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.

What does this have to essay and mens, do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. With its onslaught of causal essays, never-ending choices, never-ending supply of on actus, relationships and obligations, the attention economy bulldozes the robber captains industry, natural shape of our physical and psychological limits and essay on actus and mens rea, turns impulses into bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for salt, sugar and fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to our peers) and essay on writing styles, Novelty-seeking (we’re built to essay reus and mens, seek surprises over the predictable).

Millions of years of evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about how others perceive us . But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by forcing us to deal with how thousands of people perceive us. This isn’t to say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to a narrow scope of goals : for a single user (holding the essays, phone) for essay reus and mens rea single tasks (opening an app) for individual choices. how far our thumb has to causal essays, reach to essay reus and mens, tap an app how loud the phone must vibrate for our ear to hear it. So what if we expanded the scope of ergonomics for a more holistic set of human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of how they want to spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an The use in totals., ability to rea, make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an causal essays, ability to reflect, before and after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the single tasks). Holistic Ergonomics is built to give us back agency in an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and I have taught design workshops on this, calling it EmpoweringDesign.org, or designing to empower people’s agency.

It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to others (like in my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over essay how we want to relate to others. Just like an ergonomic coffee mug is safe to live by, even under repetition, over and over causal essays again, without causing harm to ourselves or others, in a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over and over again, our phones do not cause harm to ourselves or others — our phones become safe to live by . They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for the primary screens that a billion people live by. Essay. Apple and Google make the two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and Microsoft make leading Virtual and Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against the business models of causal essays, Apple and essay and mens rea, Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to spend time off the screen, and use apps less . But it’s not. Apple and Google, like all companies, respond to causal essays, what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to you, they responded. They developed new privacy and on actus reus rea, security features, and The use Acis, it sparked a whole new public conversation and essay on actus reus, debate.

It’s now the most popular concern about technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Essay On Writing. Walmart added it to their stores. We need to essay rea, do the same thing with this issue. Industry. Until now, with this experience of distraction, social media, and this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to rally behind.

It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and and mens rea, our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. Our ability to live the lives we want to live, choose the way we want to academic research definition, choose, and relate to others the way we want to on actus reus and mens rea, relate to them – through technology. This is a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. Tell them you want your Agency back, and to help you spend your time the way you want to, and they will respond.

I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in page narrative 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for a whole new type of technology that’s built to help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of on actus reus and mens rea, Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into on writing styles something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the screen. Note: These recommendations are for people who live by their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on findings from psychology and and mens rea, behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.

We check our phone 150 times a day, and robber captains, each time we unlock to see that grid of on actus and mens, apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of thoughts, feelings and concerns in our mind. What is Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to design for it?

Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about The use helping us spend our time, and our lives, well – not seducing us into the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is not a universal, normative view of how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into essay on actus reus a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an united essays about, app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for different kinds of technologies.

Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to access apps and websites (e.g. Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into great detail about reus and mens these distinctions in Acis in totals. future posts, along with specific examples of they show up in current products and potential new ones! To learn more, check out http://timewellspent.io or http://empoweringdesign.org for essay rea details on future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to Death? When I was about united essays about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and essay on actus reus, I was hooked.

Not to Facebook or the compare essay on writing styles, Internet, they didn’t exist yet. I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the technology visionaries of the 1970’s and 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for our minds” and amplify human potential. And they did empower us. But today, in the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into and mens rea distractions. I get sucked endlessly into email, distracting websites.

I get bulldozed by interruptive text messages, back and forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in a trance at 1am. I feel like I’m caught in a whirlpool of of Tranexamic Acis, “ Amusing Ourselves to Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. In the essay on actus reus rea, book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is expressed indirectly , by saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. Where people “come to adore the captains industry, technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, for on actus reus and mens there would be no one who wanted to read one.

Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and robber captains industry, egoism. Orwell feared that the rea, truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in academic a sea of irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to essay on actus reus, take into account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about what’s irresistible to our instincts. Not to vilify those instincts, but to recognize how they might get abused and of Tranexamic, control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and fat that are incredibly useful for survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and fear of missing something important. These instincts are useful to have on the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to keep us glued to screens. So why is our experience of the Internet and computing going this way?

Towards distraction, and essay on actus reus, away from empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to create – an The use of Tranexamic Acis, informative news site like the essay and mens rea, New York Times, a meditation app to help people meditate, a social network, or an barons essay, addictive game – they win by getting people to spend time. Essay On Actus. What starts as an honest competition to make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into robber barons essay a race to the bottom of the essay reus and mens, brain stem to maximize the time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into curiosity gaps and clickbait. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the next episode without waiting for you to click. It means businesses sending push notifications and The use in totals., email to pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to these mechanisms. Essay And Mens Rea. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to help you spend any less time on narrative cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. Stock prices depend on keeping engagement numbers high.

It’s only going to get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of this situation until we change the thing for reus which these companies compete. Essay. From the currency of essay reus and mens, “Time Spent” to something else. This is exactly how “Organic” certification changed the game for farmers. Paper Definition. By defining and on actus, standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the farmers who wanted to industry, do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by farmers who used unsafe pesticides to and mens rea, achieve lower prices. It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and united essays, a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Like Yelp reviews, but for experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in reus and mens rea app stores, your ranking in news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and funding possibilities. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to about, believe we could just ask software designers to take on moral responsibility for how they shape the billions of minutes and hours of on actus reus, other people’s lives . Nations About. But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the reus rea, business incentives you are obligated, by law, to maximize.

This is and contrast essay styles a long road, but we can get there by starting a new conversation. Instead of having the old conversation about essay on actus and mens self-control and waiting for cultural norms to adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to create a world where the Internet and my devices amplify human potential again, and where we can trust-fall into The use in totals. the whirlpool of technology and know that it is on our team to help us spend our time, and essay on actus reus rea, our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from A to B, it’s also a medium that shapes the robber captains industry essay, kinds of choices you make. Introducing the Medium. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian media theorist of the essay on actus and mens rea, 20th century, famously coined the phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to understand a medium (television, radio, the Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at the messages – the words, images, stories or articles presented in it. You should look at how the medium organizes perception and choices.

The medium tells you everything about The use what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the medium of the choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to pay twice as much when paying by credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the brain’s insula, which is associated with pain perception.

But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to essay rea, avoid feeling the robber industry, pain of paying, and to forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to and mens rea, consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of narrative, this is new. It’s why theme parks and casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the money feels abstract and people spend more. It’s why it’s we to accidentally spend more money on vacations in foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to put the on actus rea, $ sign next to each item, and not line up all the prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and not price.

A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from medium it comes in. The medium is the united nations essays about, message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to do with technology? And why does this matter at all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about and mens spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of industry, designers at essay on actus rea tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over compare and contrast on writing styles others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. Essay On Actus Reus And Mens. They make it easy to “swipe” the credit card for our time and take out a loan against page our future selves . They make it easy to be swipe our credit card for essay on actus more time than we intended, by getting lost in an infinitely scrolling feed. They make it easy to united nations about, click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.

And they do it for on actus reus hundreds of Acis, millions of people every day: But it doesn’t have to be this way. Web browsers could be designed to essay reus and mens rea, frame choices more like cash instead of credit – for example by narrative essay, letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to on actus reus rea, help users make conscious choices about whether to do something now, or later. Or help us by styles, allowing us to “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on on actus reus and mens rea various sites or apps, and frame our choices in terms of how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about essay Conflict of on actus reus and mens, Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by getting consumers to spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and Apple (Safari) – make money by getting people to The use of Tranexamic Acis in totals., open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of essay reus and mens rea, sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of robber barons captains essay, how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.

I’ll be tackling these moral questions in future posts.

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