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Social legal and ethical issues in counselling essays

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Legal and Ethical Issues for Mental Health Professionals Video


Learn how the laws impact your psychotherapy practice, as you watch these lively dramatizations of a judge and her law clerk

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Social legal and ethical issues in counselling essays

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Cinna ou le paradoxe de la Clemence. Pages : 176 ISBN : 9782130526148 DOI : 10.3917/rhlf.023.0443 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Revue d'histoire litteraire de la France. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Cinna ou la clemence d’Auguste est un texte tres — trop ? — connu, un classique consacre, un chef-d’?uvre intouchable. Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! Et pourtant cette tragedie ne cesse d’intriguer les critiques. Difference Between Controlling! C. Legal And Ethical In Counselling! Venesoen n’hesite pas a ecrire que « toute relecture de Cinna risque de reserver quelques surprises » [1] [1] « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers. Program In Dietetics Coursework! . In Counselling! Il n’y a pas si longtemps, l’interpretation du denouement de cette piece a encore provoque une polemique entre trois critiques de qualite, A. Program In Dietetics! Georges, R. Legal Issues In Counselling! Pommier et C. Difference Between Controlling Purpose Thesis! J. Social Legal Issues In Counselling! Gossip [2] [2] A. Didactic Program In Dietetics Coursework! Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna ». Social Issues! . Didactic! Par ailleurs, on issues, peut se faire une idee du foisonnement des commentaires contradictoires de cette ?uvre en consultant le panorama qu’en brossent W. Controlling Purpose! Leiner et S. Social And Ethical In Counselling Essays! Bayne dans leur etude : « Cinna ou l’agenouillement d’Emilie devant la clemence d’Auguste » [3] [3] Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme…, reunies. Essay Singh! . Les travaux de ces chercheurs ont, semble-t-il, ouvert la voie a une interpretation globale de la piece, une interpretation qui prendrait en compte a la fois la dramaturgie et la signification (ethique, philosophique, spirituelle) du texte. Legal And Ethical! Il s’agit donc de tenter de montrer que le pardon d’Auguste est a la fois un effet dramatique — un « coup de theatre » — et un acte d’une portee morale profonde, qui revele toute une philosophie de l’existence. La premiere remarque qui s’impose au spectateur de Cinna concerne le poids du passe, un poids qui marque tous les protagonistes et qui finit par les ecraser.

Parmi les personnages, il en est un pour qui cela parait peu evident, c’est Cinna. Cover Doctor C.v! Et pourtant, comment oublier qu’il porte en lui le souvenir de son aieul, Pompee ? On peut considerer que c’est parfois un souvenir commode, qui lui offre un argument politique facile, comme dans son discours aux conjures. Social Essays! Il termine en effet sa harangue par le rappel des liens qui le rattachent a ce glorieux ancetre, et affirme que sa conduite est dictee par la fidelite a cet exemple illustre : Ainsi d’un coup mortel la victime frappee. Cinna se situe ici dans une logique de la vengeance : le sang appelle le sang. On Yuvraj Singh! Le personnage se range dans la typologie topique du « heros vengeur ». Social And Ethical In Counselling! Meme si l’on sait que le personnage obeit a un autre motif — plus profond — celui de meriter Emilie, il n’en reste pas moins que le rappel de cette heredite va marquer tout son role. Coursework! Apres sa palinodie du deuxieme acte, pour convaincre Auguste de rester sur le trone imperial, Maxime lui rappelle precisement le souvenir et l’exemple de son « aieul Pompee » [5] [5] II, 1, v. And Ethical In Counselling Essays! 563. Didactic Program In Dietetics Coursework! . Social Issues In Counselling Essays! De la meme facon, Emilie lui reproche de trahir l’ideal de son ancetre, de n’etre pas digne de lui : Pardonnez-moi, grands dieux, si je me suis trompee. Quand j’ai pense cherir un neveu de Pompee, Et si d’un faux-semblant mon esprit abuse. A fait choix d’un esclave en son lieu suppose [6] [6] III, 4, v. Cover Letter! 1029-1032. Legal In Counselling Essays! . Peut-etre n’a-t-on pas examine ces vers avec assez d’attention : c’est sans doute, de la part d’Emilie, l’aveu qu’elle a d’abord aime Cinna parce qu’il etait le descendant de Pompee. Didactic Program In Dietetics! Leur amour ainsi aurait eu une origine ideologique et historique. Social! Decidement, le poids du passe est encore plus lourd qu’on ne le supposait…

Enfin, a l’acte V, c’est Auguste qui rappelle encore a Cinna son lien avec Pompee : Tu vois le jour, Cinna ; mais ceux dont tu le tiens. Furent les ennemis de mon pere, et les miens : Au milieu de leur camp tu recus la naissance, Et lorsqu’apres leur mort tu vins en ma puissance, Leur haine enracinee au milieu de ton sein. T’avait mis contre moi les armes a la main; Tu fus mon ennemi meme avant que de naitre [7] [7] V, 1, v. Essay Place! 1435-1441. Social In Counselling! . Et Cinna, loin de renier ce schema, l’assume et le revendique : Seigneur, je suis Romain, et du sang de Pompee. Le pere et les deux fils, lachement egorges, Par la mort de Cesar etaient trop peu venges. C’est la d’un beau dessein l’illustre et seule cause […] [8] [8] V, 1, v. Essay Place! 1546-1549. Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! . Meme s’il essaie ainsi de sauver Emilie en cachant les vrais motifs de son engagement dans le complot, Cinna n’en exprime pas moins une partie de la verite. Essay Terms Definition! Car la piece est bien d’abord une tragedie de la vengeance, de la vengeance familiale. Legal Issues! On se rappelle que les conjures avaient accepte cette explication, y avaient meme adhere avec enthousiasme.

Le sens est clair : la vengeance est consideree par la doxa comme un comportement naturel, normal et necessaire, en quelque sorte un mobile noble, digne d’une tragedie deja classique. Il est evidemment plus facile de montrer qu’Emilie est hantee par le passe. Difference Controlling Thesis! Elle est litteralement obsedee par le meurtre de son pere, Toranius, assassine par Auguste. And Ethical Issues Essays! Elle vit dans le souvenir de ce drame. On Power Of Indirect! Sa memoire et son imagination s’unissent pour donner a ce souvenir une force singuliere exprimee des l’ouverture de l’?uvre par la plus energique des figures, l’hypotypose. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! Citons simplement ce court passage : […] par sa propre main mon pere massacre. Du trone ou je le vois fait le premier degre [9] [9] I, 1, v. Essay Place! 11-12. Social In Counselling! . Sa volonte de se venger, d’obtenir une « illustre vengeance » (v. Letter For Medical Doctor C.v! 1), est pour elle un veritable devoir de memoire. And Ethical! Tout son role decline ce theme : « la sanglante image » de son pere (v.

13) emplit et obsede sa « triste memoire » (v. Didactic In Dietetics Coursework! 10), elle est « la cause de [sa] haine » (v. Legal Issues! 14), elle lui dicte sa mission. On peut observer qu’elle va loin, singulierement loin, en ce sens, comme le montre la discrete erotisation de son discours de vengeance : « impatients desirs » (v. Essay Place! 1), « embrasse » (v.

4), « Vous prenez sur mon ame un trop puissant empire » (v. And Ethical In Counselling Essays! 5), « Je m’abandonne toute a vos ardents transports » (v. Cover Letter For Medical C.v! 15). And Ethical In Counselling Essays! Le langage du meurtre rejoint celui de la pulsion erotique ; il n’est donc pas etonnant que la vengeance soit la condiion de son union avec Cinna. In Dietetics Coursework! En tout cas, Corneille montre admirablement que le passe obsede Emilie au point de la faire entrer dans une veritable mystique de la vengeance.

Le point culminant de « ce bouillant mouvement » (v. In Counselling! 19) se situe evidemment dans la deuxieme scene du premier acte, quand Emilie confie a Fulvie qu’elle irait jusqu’a epouser Auguste pour avoir la possibilite d’assouvir sa haine, son desir vengeur : Je recevrais de lui la place de Livie. Comme un moyen plus sur d’attenter a sa vie [10] [10] I, 2, v. Essay Place! 81-82. Legal! . Assurement, les spectateurs du XVII e siecle ont du voir ici Emilie comme une seconde Judith [11] [11] On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture. Essay! . Social Legal And Ethical Essays! Elle erige sa mission, sa vendetta, en imperatif categorique, ce qu’exprime un vers comme celui-ci : Pour qui venge son pere il n’est point de forfaits [12] [12] I, 2, v. Terms Definition! 83. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling! . Le processus mis en scene par Corneille se comprend aisement : le pere, representant de la Loi, dicte a Emilie son devoir. Of Indirect! Elle vit pour venger ce pere, pour accomplir un devoir qui la hante comme une memoire d’outre-tombe. Quant a Auguste, le texte de la piece est largement constitue du rappel de son passe. Legal Essays! Cinna, dans son discours aux conjures, evoque les guerres civiles et leur cortege d’horreurs; il insiste surtout sur les responsabilites d’Auguste dans ces atrocites : J’ajoute en peu de mots : « Toutes ces cruautes, La perte de nos biens et de nos libertes, Le ravage des champs, le pillage des villes, Et les proscriptions, et les guerres civiles,

Sont les degres sanglants dont Auguste a fait choix. Pour monter dans le trone et nous donner des lois […] » [13] [13] I, 3, v. Program Coursework! 215-220. Social And Ethical In Counselling Essays! . Le passe d’Auguste est donc celui d’un tyran (v. On Yuvraj Singh! 222), mais surtout d’un meurtrier ; en termes anachroniques, nous dirions que la piece fait de lui un veritable criminel de guerre. Legal And Ethical Issues! Et le spectateur n’est pas surpris d’entendre Cinna prononcer une sentence qui l’exclut de l’humanite : Si l’on doit le nom d’homme a qui n’a rien d’humain, A ce tigre altere de tout le sang romain [14] [14] I, 3, v. Essay On Yuvraj! 166-168. Social Issues In Counselling! . Par ces vers, Cinna proclame la denaturation d’Auguste, le renvoie a sa brutalite essentielle et le ravale a l’animalite. Les propos d’Emilie vont evidemment dans le meme sens. Coursework! Tous ses discours disent sa haine pour Auguste et justifient cette haine. Social Legal And Ethical Issues Essays! Ses evocations du passe de l’empereur sont autant de requisitoires qui stigmatisent l’enormite de ses crimes, qui ont fait « rougir la terre et l’onde » (v. Essay Speech! 941). Arretons ici cet inventaire.

Il suffit largement a montrer que chaque personnage est comme prisonnier de son passe. Social And Ethical Essays! Chacun est engage dans l’Histoire par reference a son passe. In Dietetics! Emilie et Cinna deviennent conspirateurs pour se venger d’un passe durant lequel Auguste a commis les pires exactions. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! Ce passe les constitue en ennemis irreductibles. In Dietetics Coursework! La fatalite prend la forme de la vengeance, de la vengeance necessaire, imposee comme un devoir. Social Issues In Counselling! La tragedie nait de ce poids du temps ancien sur la vie presente de tous les protagonistes. C’est alors qu’intervient un element nouveau, une peripetie imprevue. Essay Place! A l’acte II apparait un Auguste inattendu, bien different de celui qu’avaient decrit Emilie et Cinna au premier acte. In Counselling Essays! Auguste, lasse du pouvoir, envisage maintenant d’abdiquer.

La raison de cette lassitude reside dans la prise de conscience de la vanite des grandeurs et du pouvoir. Essay Place! Mais derriere cette raison s’en cache une autre, plus profonde : l’empereur traverse une crise existentielle. Social Legal And Ethical Issues Essays! Comme l’ont remarque S. Essay! Doubrovsky et C. Social! Venesoen, il a le sentiment d’etre « un homme hai, trompe, menace » [15] [15] C. On Power Of Indirect! Venesoen, art. Legal In Counselling! cit., p. For Medical! 372. Social Legal And Ethical Issues! , un homme solitaire, abandonne. In Dietetics! Auguste eprouve un vide affectif : « C’est bien ce desir d’affection […] qui meut a present Auguste en perte d’autonomie heroique » [16] [16] S. Legal And Ethical In Counselling! Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros. Essay! . Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! Et en effet Auguste a besoin de rompre cette solitude, ce qui l’amene a demander, a quemander litteralement l’amitie de Cinna et de Maxime : « Traitez-moi comme ami » (v. Essay On Yuvraj Singh! 399). Auguste fait donc devant les spectateurs la douloureuse experience de la dereliction. Social In Counselling Essays! A la fin de la scene, il croit avoir trouve la serenite, sinon le « repos » qu’il recherchait (v. Essay! 376) ; il le croit parce qu’il est sur de l’amitie que lui portent Cinna et Maxime : Je vois trop que vos c?urs n’ont point pour moi de fard, Et que chacun de vous, dans l’avis qu’il me donne, Regarde seulement l’Etat et ma personne. Votre amour en tous deux fait ce combat d’esprits […] [17] [17] II, 1, v. Legal Issues! 628-631. Essay! . Or, par un effet d’ironie tragique, Corneille ne fait qu’enfoncer davantage Auguste dans l’illusion d’etre aime.

Et lorsqu’il apprendra la trahison de Cinna, sa reaction sera a la mesure de sa deception : « Quoi ? mes plus chers amis ! » (v. Legal And Ethical! 1081). In Dietetics! Le plus remarquable est qu’il n’analyse pas la situation en termes politiques, mais bien en termes affectifs : il est trahi par ceux a qui il ouvrait son « c?ur » et dont il avait fait « choix » (v. Legal Issues In Counselling! 1083). On Yuvraj Singh! Ses exclamations sont revelatrices et significatives : O trop sensible coup d’une main si cherie ! [18] [18] IV, 1, v. Legal Issues In Counselling! 1098. Le monologue qui suit (IV, 2) est tout a fait eclairant. Didactic! Auguste examine sa vie, ses crimes passes et eprouve enfin le remords : Rentre en toi-meme, Octave, et cesse de te plaindre. Quoi ! tu veux qu’on t’epargne, et tu n’as rien epargne ! Songe aux fleuves de sang ou ton bras s’est baigne,

De combien ont rougi les champs de Macedoine […] [19] [19] IV, 2, v. Legal Issues! 1130-1133. Didactic Program Coursework! . Le premier vers est capital. And Ethical In Counselling Essays! « Rentre en toi-meme » montre qu’Auguste se livre ici a un examen de conscience, a un grand exercice spirituel par lequel il passe en revue tous les crimes de son passe. Difference Between Controlling! On remarque aussi qu’il se nomme spontanement « Octave », retrouvant tout a coup l’identite du coupable, du meurtrier qu’il a naguere ete. Mais, au terme de cet exercice, il n’a pas encore pris sa decision : il hesite entre le suicide et la repression sanglante. Legal And Ethical Essays! Remarquons simplement que ce sont deux decisions mortelles. Essay On Yuvraj! Dans l’impasse ou il se trouve, seule la mort se presente a son esprit comme la solution de son probleme existentiel. Dans l’acte V, le mouvement dramatique s’accelere. And Ethical In Counselling! La premiere scene, qui a souvent mis les critiques mal a l’aise, a une signification simple, mais profonde : elle montre qu’Auguste est toujours le meme homme. On Yuvraj Singh! Orgueilleux, dominateur, superbe, il ecrase Cinna de son mepris et de sa superiorite. Social Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling! Ce dernier a bien du merite a ne pas faire trop mauvaise figure face a cet empereur redevenu lui-meme et anime par l’energie de la vengeance.

Dans cette scene, c’est encore Octave qui s’exprime. Lorsque, a la scene 2, Emilie lui annonce sa trahison, sa reaction est essentiellement affective. Essay Place! C’est un pere bafoue plus qu’un empereur trahi qui s’exprime dans cette comparaison d’Emilie et de Julie : L’une m’otait l’honneur, l’autre a soif de mon sang ; Et prenant toutes deux leur passion pour guide, L’une fut impudique, et l’autre est parricide. O ma fille ! est-ce la le prix de mes bienfaits ? [20] [20] V, 2, v. Social Legal Issues In Counselling Essays! 1592-1595. Puis il rappelle le passe : Songe avec quel amour j’elevai ta jeunesse [21] [21] V, 2, v. Definition! 1597. Social And Ethical In Counselling! . Mais il a toujours en lui l’energie suffisante, ou plutot la violence suffisante pour prononcer sa sentence : il condamnera au « supplice » (v.

1662) le « couple ingrat et perfide » (v. Didactic! 1657). And Ethical In Counselling Essays! C’est encore un jugement digne d’Octave. Essay Terms! Cependant, Auguste est reste longtemps silencieux (entre les v. Social And Ethical Essays! 1597 et 1657). Essay Of Indirect Speech! On peut penser que la nouvelle de la trahison d’Emilie l’a profondement ebranle : son mutisme est le moyen theatral le plus approprie pour traduire ce traumatisme et le cheminement invisible qui s’effectue en lui. Social And Ethical Issues Essays! C’est donc un personnage profondement touche qui recoit la nouvelle de la derniere trahison, celle de Maxime. Didactic! Or Corneille a savamment mis en scene cet episode. Legal In Counselling! Auguste accueille Maxime comme son ultime recours, le dernier refuge de son affection : Approche, seul ami que j’eprouve fidele [22] [22] V, 3, v. Cover! 1665. Legal Essays! . On connait la suite : Maxime avoue a son tour son forfait et Auguste decouvre qu’il a atteint le fond de la solitude et de l’abandon. Definition! C’est alors qu’il va prendre la decision du pardon… Pour S. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! Doubrovsky, « Auguste ne pardonne pas par charite ou par magnanimite, au sens moderne, mais par generosite , au sens du XVII e siecle, c’est-a-dire par orgueil aristocratique, pour prouver, a ses yeux comme a ceux des autres, sa propre superiorite » [23] [23] Op. Difference Between Thesis! cit., p. Social Essays! 214. Difference! . Pour C. Legal Issues! Venesoen, Auguste choisit de « dechoir sur le registre male et heroique […]. Essay Place! Son anima combat et commence a triompher de son animus » [24] [24] Art. Legal Essays! cit., p. On Yuvraj! 373. Social In Counselling Essays! . Definition! L’heroisme male laisse place a une sensibilite feminine, qui lui permet de passer de la force a la clemence.

Pour L. Social Legal Essays! Herland, Auguste est brutalement saisi par la grace : le pardon n’est pas voulu, medite, decide par Auguste ; il lui est insuffle par Dieu et par la toute-puissance de sa grace [25] [25] L. Essay Place! Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La. Legal In Counselling! . A notre avis, toutes ces interpretations ne font pas assez de place a la profondeur spirituelle dont Corneille a dote son personnage. Difference Purpose Thesis! Nous avons deja observe que la structure de la tragedie etait travaillee de facon a mettre en scene une veritable psychomachie. Legal Issues Essays! Or cette psychomachie se deroule a l’interieur meme du personnage, dans sa conscience. Didactic Program Coursework! Il y a deux etres dans cet unique personnage : Octave et Auguste. Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! Octave est l’etre du passe, celui qui a commis crimes, meurtres, proscriptions. Essay Definition! Octave est celui qui a tue Toranius. Social And Ethical In Counselling! C’est encore Octave qui ecrasait Cinna de son orgueil implacable (V, 1).

Mais, parallelement, Auguste nait peu a peu en lui. Difference Between! Il nait dans la crise morale que traverse le personnage, une crise qui le conduit jusqu’au bord de la mort (IV, 2). Issues In Counselling! Mais surtout, cette crise consiste en une experience de depossession, de desappropriation : il se voit depouille, abandonne de tous, trahi par tous. Didactic Program In Dietetics Coursework! Et c’est alors qu’Octave va enfin devenir Auguste. Il s’agit, par son pardon, de poser un geste d’humanite.

En effet, la piece montre comment Octave, « ce tigre […] qui n’a rien d’humain » [26] [26] I, 3, p. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling! 167-168. Cover Doctor C.v! , va peu a peu reconquerir son humanite. Social Issues Essays! Le sens de son geste de clemence est a situer dans cette perspective. Essay Place! Car au centre de Cinna se pose une question qui traverse tout le theatre de Corneille : l’histoire du monde est une suite de violences, d’atrocites, d’abominations, et on legal and ethical issues in counselling essays, ne sait comment mettre un terme a ce dechainement. Terms! Ici encore la question se pose, la meme que dans Le Cid : comment arreter cet engrenage infernal ou le sang appelle le sang ? Comment changer le sens tragique de l’Histoire ? C’est alors qu’intervient le heros. Legal Issues In Counselling! Le heros cornelien est ce personnage qui a l’energie et la generosite necessaires pour inflechir le sens de l’Histoire.

Auguste est heroique en ce qu’il accomplit un acte qui va a contre-courant de la violence generale : il est celui qui dit non a la violence naturelle du monde. Terms! Mais pour cela il lui faut faire l’experience fondamentale de tout heros cornelien, l’experience du sacrifice. Auguste va devoir renoncer a une partie de lui-meme, a la partie violente de son etre. And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! Il renonce ici a Octave, a l’homme des guerres civiles, des combats et des assassinats, a l’homme avide de pouvoir qu’il a ete naguere. On Power! Il lui faut tuer en lui le vieil homme. Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling! Octave doit mourir pour laisser vivre le nouvel Auguste : a l’homme de la violence succede l’homme de la clemence.

On assiste donc a une veritable conversion du personnage, a sa metanoia , a son changement d’ ethos . Terms Definition! Ainsi, le « tigre » Octave laisse place a Auguste, clement, plein de bonte, en un mot « humain ». Les lectures pessimistes du theatre de Corneille sont nombreuses. Legal And Ethical! Rappelons, par exemple, celle de R. Difference Controlling Purpose! Mac Bride : La gloire d’Auguste s’avere de meme nature que celle de Cinna. Social Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling! Dans tous deux ce n’est rien d’autre que le lyrisme du desespoir qui transcende le desespoir [27] [27] R. Essay Place! Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien ». And Ethical Issues In Counselling! . Or il semble que le recours a la tragedie a fin heureuse (Corneille, on between controlling purpose, le sait, disait meme « la tragedie heureuse » [28] [28] Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique. Social And Ethical In Counselling Essays! ) corresponde mal a ce pessimisme. Essay Terms Definition! Toute technique implique une metaphysique — ou du moins une vision du monde. Social Issues In Counselling! Celle de Corneille nous semble, a la lumiere de Cinna , resolument optimiste, a cette epoque du moins. Cinna pose en fait une question qui hante l’humanite depuis des siecles : comment arreter l’engrenage du mal ? Comme l’a montre J.-L. On Yuvraj Singh! Marion, dans ses Prolegomenes a la charite [29] [29] Ed.

La Difference, Paris, 1986. Social In Counselling Essays! , la logique du mal est tres precisement la logique de la vengeance : en rendant le mal pour le mal, on essay place, l’entretient au nom de la justice. Issues! Auguste se trouve exactement dans cette situation : il a le droit legitime de punir ceux qui ont voulu le tuer. Essay Place! Et cependant, contre toute logique et meme contre toute justice, il ne le fera pas. And Ethical In Counselling! Auguste a compris que le mal reside dans sa transmission et qu’il ne peut le vaincre qu’en rompant cette transmission. Cover Letter Doctor C.v! Il va bloquer le mal en refusant de le rendre, en arretant ainsi l’engrenage infernal, le cycle de la violence et de la repression. Social Legal Issues! Auguste renonce donc a toute justice a son endroit. Essay Place! Il choisit de pardonner, c’est-a-dire d’aimer gratuitement, d’aimer a perte, jusqu’a risquer de se perdre lui-meme plutot que de rendre le mal pour le mal. Corneille fait donc accomplir par Auguste le geste qui realise le grand reve humaniste : arreter le mal, sortir de la spirale de la violence et de la haine. Social Legal And Ethical Issues! Tel le Serviteur souffrant de la Bible [30] [30] Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. On Yuvraj Singh! , il ne repond pas aux coups par des coups, ni a l’insulte par l’insulte. Legal! Au contraire, a partir du vers 1693, il repond a la trahison et a la haine par le pardon et par le don. Between Thesis! Et la conversion en chaine de tous ses ennemis lui donne raison : il a vraiment vaincu le mal.

Le mal en effet n’a pas donne lieu a un mal plus grand; le mal ne s’est pas propage, le mal n’a pas suivi son chemin infernal. Evidemment, nous pourrions prolonger cette analyse et, en nous appuyant sur les belles etudes de M. In Counselling Essays! Fumaroli [31] [31] Voir Heros et orateurs. Essay Place! Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes. Social Essays! , nous pourrions remonter a la source evangelique de la meditation de Corneille. Cover C.v! Nous verrions alors dans le denouement de Cinna une illustration de la parole evangelique : « Aimez vos ennemis » [32] [32] Matthieu, 5,45. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! . Difference Between Controlling Purpose! On y trouve, en effet, la meme folie que saint Paul assimilait a la sagesse supreme [33] [33] Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. Legal Essays! . Terms! Esthetiquement, nous pourrions aussi analyser le geste d’Auguste comme la mise en scene parfaitement accomplie du sublime . Cependant, nous preferons en rester a une interpretation purement ethique de l’?uvre. Social Essays! Corneille a mis en scene le grand exercice spirituel ou intellectuel qui permet a Auguste de comprendre que la seule solution pour creer une cite harmonieuse et pour attteindre le bonheur personnel est l’amour, l’ agape . Letter For Medical! Le choix d’Auguste est le resume de celui que doit effectuer l’humanite tout entiere. Legal Issues Essays! C’est pourquoi il est permis de considerer Cinna non seulement comme l’une des plus grandes tragedies du repertoire classique, mais aussi comme l’une des plus grandes ?uvres humanistes du patrimoine europeen.

Nous constations, au debut de cette etude, que tous les personnages etaient prisonniers de leur passe. Coursework! La haine, le desir de vengeance bloquaient le temps : chaque personnage etait fige dans ses positions. Legal Essays! Emilie disait, au premier acte : Je demeure toujours la fille d’un proscrit [34] [34] I, 2, v. Didactic Program! 72. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! . Elle ajoutait : « Je suis ce que j’etais » (v. Program In Dietetics! 78). Social And Ethical Issues Essays! Au troisieme acte, elle reprend le meme refrain : Je suis toujours moi-meme, et mon c?ur n’est point autre [35] [35] III, 4, v. Essay On Power Speech! 914. Legal Issues Essays! . Et jusqu’au discours de la clemence, elle revendique sa « haine » d’Auguste et en proclame la legitimite et la continuite (v. Letter For Medical Doctor! 1576 et 1650). Social Legal In Counselling Essays! Emilie est donc bloquee, arretee dans sa position.

Le pardon d’Auguste est le seul geste qui pourra briser ce figement. Essay On Yuvraj Singh! Le pardon seul permet de debloquer le temps, de changer les c?urs et d’ouvrir un avenir aux individus et a la cite. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! C’est evidemment le sens de la prophetie finale de Livie : Jamais plus d’assassins ni de conspirateurs : Vous avez trouve l’art d’etre maitre des c?urs [36] [36] V, 3, v. Difference Between Thesis! 1763-1764. Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling! . Le pardon a litteralement renverse — converti — le monde, qui passe de la guerre a la paix, de la violence a la douceur, de la haine a la concorde. On se rappelle qu’Auguste ressentait douloureusement un insupportable vide affectif ; maintenant, ce vide est comble : il obtient l’amour de Rome tout entiere (v. Terms! 1765-1768). Social Legal Issues In Counselling! Desormais s’ouvre une ere de « bonheur » pour le monde (v. Essay Terms! 1768) et les dieux viennent couronner cette apotheose (v. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! 1772). Ce finale somptueux, veritable mise en scene du sublime, a tout a la fois une signification theatrale (le triomphe de la tragedie a fin heureuse), une signification morale (a la loi du Talion se substitue l’ethique du pardon) et une signification spirituelle (l’amour plus fort que la haine, l’amour plus fort que la mort).

Tout cela est symbolise par la fusion, proclamee par Livie, des trois modeles archetypes dans la personne d’Auguste : le heros, le roi, le saint. Si cette piece, par-dela les siecles, nous touche encore si profondement, c’est assurement parce qu’elle met en scene l’une des questions qui hantent depuis toujours notre civilisation, celle du pardon. Controlling Thesis! Elle nous en propose une version radicale : le pardon s’impose dans sa gratuite absolue, avec tout le pouvoir paradoxal de son infinie faiblesse. La clemence d’Auguste signe donc son passage d’un individualisme clos, narcissique, a un systeme de references et de valeurs morales tout a fait different. Legal And Ethical! Le heros passe d’un jugement fonde sur la loi institutionnelle a une decision fondee sur un humanisme profond. Singh! Il a compris que l’Autre doit etre place au-dessus de la Loi. La decouverte d’Auguste est donc une sorte d’illumination philosophique et morale : il decouvre que le bien commun et la serenite personnelle peuvent s’acquerir simultanement lorsque l’on erige l’Autre en absolu a respecter. Issues Essays! Auguste est passe de la Loi a l’Amour.

Nul doute que les spectateurs cultives de Corneille, ses contemporains en ce « Siecle des Saints » [37] [37] On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles. Essay Terms! , aient reconnu la un des enseignements majeurs de la theologie paulinienne — meme si l’on ne peut affirmer que Corneille l’ait expressement voulu. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling! En effet, conformement aux analyses de l’ Epitre aux Romains , tous les personnages de la piece sont coupables au regard de la loi; mais, par le geste d’Auguste, tous sont pardonnes et sauves gratuitement [38] [38] Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont. Didactic Coursework! . Social Legal Issues Essays! Qu’il soit laic ou chretien, l’humanisme ainsi defini et affirme est presente par cette ?uvre comme le fondement d’une civilisation harmonieuse, d’une cite heureuse et d’une humanite reconciliee. Universite Jean-Moulin - Lyon III. « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers on cover doctor, French Seventeenth Century Literature , vol. And Ethical Issues Essays! XVIII, 1991, n° 35, p. Essay Place! 359. A. Social Legal Issues In Counselling Essays! Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna », L’Information litteraire , marsavril 1982, p. Between Controlling Purpose! 86-91 ; R. Social Issues! Pommier, « Quand Auguste decide-t-il de pardonner ? », XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1993, n° 178, p. Terms! 139-155 ; C. Issues Essays! J. Essay Terms Definition! Gossip, « La clemence d’Auguste, ou pour une interpretation textuelle du Cinna de Corneille », XVII e Siecle , juillet-septembre 1994, n° 184, p. Social Issues Essays! 547-554 ; reponses de R. Essay Place! Pommier et de C. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling! J. Difference Controlling! Gossip dans XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1996, n° 190, p. And Ethical Issues! 219-222. Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme… , reunies par W. Between Controlling Purpose Thesis! Leiner, Tubingen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1984, p. Social Legal Issues Essays! 147-163. Cinna , I, 3, v. Controlling Purpose Thesis! 237-238. Social And Ethical Issues In Counselling! Toutes nos citations de l’?uvre renvoient a l’edition de G. For Medical! Couton, Paris, Gallimard, « Bibliotheque de la Pleiade », 1980, t. And Ethical Issues! I, p. Terms! 903-969.

III, 4, v. And Ethical Essays! 1029-1032. On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture occidentale (Botticelli, Lucas Cranach, Cristoforo Allori, Caravage, Artemisia Gentileschi…). C. Difference Controlling! Venesoen, art. Social Legal Essays! cit., p. On Power Of Indirect! 372. S. Legal And Ethical! Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros , Paris, Gallimard, 1963, p. Essay! 195. IV, 2, v. Legal And Ethical Issues Essays! 1130-1133. L. Essay On Power! Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La Table ronde , n° 15, fevrier 1961, p. Social And Ethical In Counselling Essays! 113-126. R. Terms Definition! Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien », XVII e Siecle , 1974, n° 104, p. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays! 60. Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique , ed. On Yuvraj! G. Legal And Ethical! Couton, op. Essay Place! cit. Legal Issues In Counselling! , t. Between Controlling Purpose Thesis! III, p. Social Essays! 126.

Ed. Letter! La Difference, Paris, 1986. Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. Voir Heros et orateurs. Social Legal And Ethical! Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes , Geneve, Droz, 1990.

Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles de Condren, l’un des maitres de l’Ecole francaise, qui succeda a Berulle comme superieur general de l’Oratoire de France, en 1629. Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont coupables (Ro 3,9-20) mais, par le sacrifice du Christ, tous sont justifies (Ro 5,1-11). Cinna ou le paradoxe de la clemence Le denouement de Cinna a fait l’objet d’interpretations multiples et controversees. Didactic Program In Dietetics! Le texte a pourtant tisse tout un reseau d’indices permettant de le comprendre a la fois comme un effet de theatre et comme une profonde reflexion sur le Mal. Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! Le choix d’Auguste parvient a arreter l’engrenage de la violence et de la haine, la spirale du Mal. On Yuvraj Singh! Par l’experience de la desappropriation et du sacrifice, il parvient a convertir le monde aux valeurs d’un humanisme authentique : l’ancien tyran decouvre en l’Autre un absolu a respecter, et son exemple sublime fonde une humanite reconciliee. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.

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airline pilot essay How Does an Airline Pilot Get His Wings? Every day millions of issues, people fly. Cover For Medical C.v. From Minneapolis to Moscow, airlines carry passengers to their destinations safely. Little is known about the and ethical issues essays, person or persons that are responsible for getting the passengers from point A to point B. On Yuvraj. Many people know there is a lot of training, but the extent of that training is really not realized. Social Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling. The Federal Aviation Administration or FAA is the governing body for all aviation.

It has made sure that the people in charge of operating the aircraft have paid their dues and essay place are competent to fly the precious cargo. Barry Schiff, who is a twenty-one year veteran pilot with Trans World Airlines, explains that through the years, aviation has come a long way. Today’s pilots are required to learn much more than in legal in counselling the past (Thom 7). The series of steps pilots are required to take should assure even the weariest of passengers. As Len Morgan says, “A lot of people dream of being pilots but few do anything about it” (n.pag.). So it is clear that pilots must be highly motivated. From a pilot’s first solo to a job with Delta or Northwest, the pilot learns everything having to essay terms do with aviation. The first step begins with what is called a Private Pilot License. This certificate allows the pilot enjoy the freedom of flight. To get this license, a pilot begins as a student pilot. Social Legal And Ethical Issues. The student’s training is an introduction to the world of flying.

First, the student learns about the airplane itself. Morgan writes, “Every pilot worthy of the title knows not only what his airplane can do for him, but what his airplane can do to him” (n.pag.). Difference Controlling Purpose Thesis. The student learns how the airplane obtains lift, how it turns, what kind of engine it has, and all the why’s and how’s associated with it. Most students begin their training in small airplanes. As their training progresses, the size and complexity increases. Social And Ethical Issues. Student pilots then move on to learn how to operate the aircraft.

Their flight instructor teaches them how to take off and land, and all the essay place, knowledge needed to fly the essays, small planes. As the student gains experience, he is cover, ready for his first solo. This is a milestone for the student for he has now learned to fly. Students need to acquire 20 hours of time with an instructor and 20 hours of time flying solo. As the student continues to gain experience flying in the airport environment and landing, he is taught the regulations of what he can and can’t do with the social issues essays, airplane. With his training almost complete, the student now must pass a written exam. The final step is an oral and flight exam with an FAA examiner. Once the tests are passed, the student becomes a validated pilot.

His next step is the Instrument Rating. The Instrument Rating is one the most challenging ratings for a pilot to achieve. It allows a pilot to fly the aircraft when visibility is reduced below the minimums allowed for Private Pilots. In general, it teaches the in dietetics, pilot to fly the airplane by referring only to the instruments in the cockpit, not by visual references on the ground. Instrument pilots do their training by flying with what is a called a hood on. This is social legal and ethical essays, a shield that allows the pilot’s field of didactic program coursework, vision to social in counselling be limited to of indirect speech the instruments only. The first thing taught is the scan. It is social and ethical issues in counselling, a pattern used to look at the instruments and is the basis for the rest of the training.

Next, the on power of indirect, pilot is introduced to approaches. Issues. These are a means for the pilot to get the aircraft from the essay on yuvraj singh, enroute phase down to the airport for a safe landing. As the social legal and ethical in counselling essays, pilot becomes proficient at approaches, he is definition, taught the regulations pertaining to instrument flight. The pilot is required to have 40 hours of simulated instrument time. This rating also culminates with both a written and a flight test. Social. With what many call the hardest rating to receive behind them, the instrument rated pilot moves on to get his commercial rating. The commercial rating is basically an extension of the private license and allows the pilot to be paid to fly. Robert Goyer states, “It seems as though the FAA uses the Commercial Rating to give would be professional pilots the chance to finally come to grips with the stuff they should have learned when they got their private licenses” (n.pag.). Pilots without a commercial rating can only “share operating expenses” ( Far/Aim ). Commercial students learn advanced flight maneuvers and gain greater knowledge of the definition, airplane.

To receive a commercial rating, a pilot must have a minimum of 250 total flight hours and pass a written and flight test. With this rating, the pilot is ready for the Multi-Engine Rating. The Multi-Engine rating lets the pilot fly complex aircraft with more than one engine. It is legal and ethical issues in counselling, a crucial step to progressing to an airline pilot. Once again, after having been given instruction, a written test and flight test are needed to secure this rating. Pilots are required to have a minimum of 1500 hours of total time in order to receive their Airline Transport Pilot Certificate. Most pilots teach others to difference purpose thesis fly to receive these hours. To instruct, pilots need to get another rating. The Certified Flight Instructor or CFI rating is awarded upon completion of social issues in counselling, a series of training and tests.

CFI’s are allowed to teach students to get their private and commercial ratings. They are limited to this until they get their CFII rating. With this additional endorsement, instructors can also teach the instrument rating. Another endorsement is the MEI or Multi-Engine Instructor. This is for instructors that want to teach multi-engine students.

So why instruct when you really want to fly for the airlines? The answer is singh, simple. Flying costs money and to gain the required 1500 hours it would cost quite a bundle if you just paid out of your pocket. Social Legal Essays. Instructors are paid an average of $25 per didactic in dietetics hour and social and ethical issues in counselling they get to log all of the didactic, hours while they are teaching. It’s kind of like killing two birds with one stone. Social Issues In Counselling. So depending on how many students an instructor has, he will usually need to instruct for about three years. Once they have achieved the 1500 hour mark, they are ready for the Airline Transport Pilot Certificate. Again, the pilot is put through a rigorous course of training and tests. The pilot will be certified to fly a certain type of plane. The plane they fly is determined by the air carrier that they will be employed with. Pilots usually start in aircraft that carry about 20 to 30 people and move up to larger planes.

As you can see, the road to being an airline pilot is a long one. The training they receive makes them more than capable of essay on power speech, flying the aircraft that millions of passengers a year ride on. The flight experience is only one of the types of training for pilots. Most airlines also require at least four years of college. So the next time you fly and the pilot greets you as you board, feel safe that the person behind the legal and ethical essays, controls will get you to your destination safely. ( 1218 words, 11 paragraphs , 4 double spaced pages , Times New Roman 12-point font) (Works Cited and Consulted on letter for medical a separate page) Works Cited and Consulted. Far/Aim 97 . 3 rd ed. Englewood: Jeppesen Sanderson, 1997. Issues Essays. Goyer, Robert. “Going Commercial: What It Takes to Move Up in the Ratings.” Flying Sept. 1997: n.pag. Online.

PALS. 5 May 1997. www.pals.msus.edu. Hopkins, Jay. “Back to Basics.” Flying Dec. 1995: n.pag. Online. PALS. 5 May 1997. www.pals.msus.edu. Instrument Commercial Manual . 11 th ed. Englewood: Jeppesen Sanderson, 1996.

Morgan, Len. “Been There, Done That.” Flying Jan. 1997: n.pag. Online. PALS. 5 May 1997. On Power Of Indirect. www.pals.msus.edu. Social Legal And Ethical In Counselling. Morgan, Len. ”The Best Days.” Flying Dec. 1996: n.pag. Online. PALS. 5 May 1997. www.pals.msus.edu. Thom, Trevor.

Instrument Flying: The Pilot’s Manual . Definition. 3 rd ed. N.p.: Aviation Supplies and Academics. 1993. Copyright © 200x by XXX / ENGL xxxx / Anoka Ramsey Community College.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is presented that is illustrative of legal in counselling essays, cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Purpose Thesis? Medications are the preferred treatment for essays ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and didactic program coursework behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful. Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and social legal and ethical issues in counselling essays not to be enticed by expensive ones of little benefit.

A determinant of the treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. While there is no term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by on yuvraj parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to legal, bad spirits or punishment by God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to difference controlling purpose, determine the social and ethical, unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from on yuvraj herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine. Immigrants often lack support of issues in counselling, extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Essay On Yuvraj Singh? Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to care for legal issues essays immigrant families.

Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is nearly impossible to find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. While this reality is broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in part to cultural differences in understanding and interpreting illness. The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health. 1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the essay terms definition, most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to its etiology, 2, 3 and social issues in counselling alterations in the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and essay speech executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the world.

Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 5 Although the signs and symptoms of ADHD are basically the same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the condition is social legal issues in counselling essays interpreted and responded to by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of on power of indirect speech, children, ADHD persists into adulthood. Legal And Ethical In Counselling Essays? 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of how the interpretation of didactic in dietetics coursework, symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive. Studies describing the interpretation of ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and issues in counselling treatments of ADHD and less likely to connect the school system to ADHD issues than white parents. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment, and the threshold of essay place, parental recognition and seeking of services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.

12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in social legal and ethical issues essays standardized tapes of white and essay of indirect Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the clinical cutoffs for social legal issues ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to essay on power of indirect speech, ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in legal issues raters' assessments of behavior is essay singh uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from social essays culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families.

Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of ADHD. He was an overactive child from early infancy, and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of singh, his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr. A was 3 years of age, his parents became increasingly aware of his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions.

Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from school and was forced to social legal and ethical, move from one school to the next. Singh? In his community, he developed a reputation for being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD. His parents accepted counseling to legal and ethical in counselling essays, help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of essay place, medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. A into social legal issues in counselling, a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the didactic program in dietetics, Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report.

Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on social and ethical in counselling essays, the defensive all the time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on #x0005b;Mr. Essay On Yuvraj Singh? A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr. Legal And Ethical Issues Essays? A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the difference between purpose, home. Unable to navigate the social legal and ethical issues, different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school.

Neither environment had an effect on essay place, his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to issues essays, tutor, mentor, and supervise Mr. A's school activities. Mr. A eventually graduated from high school, but was unfocused and essay place performed poorly in social and ethical essays the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one.

He continues to be hyperactive and unfocused. At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to essay on power, take medications and denies his disorder. WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of legal and ethical issues essays, 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at essay least 6 of 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and and ethical essays (3) combined (has at least 6 of essay on yuvraj singh, 9 for both inattention and social legal and ethical in counselling hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the essay terms, inattentive subtype of and ethical, ADHD tend to terms definition, be the easiest group to manage and are the least likely to legal in counselling, have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to 8 years, and decrease greatly by cover for medical c.v adolescence.

Impulsive behaviors follow the same early course, but rather than declining in and ethical issues in counselling adolescence, remain a problem for life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and impulsive spending in adulthood. In contrast to hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of symptoms must occur before the essay on power of indirect speech, age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of social in counselling, life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr.

A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at an age beyond that commonly encountered by American clinicians. Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in cover for medical doctor c.v recent immigrants. And Ethical Issues Essays? 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of difference between, experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and child abuse or neglect.

18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to immigrant populations. These scales include ones for social legal and ethical essays use by clinicians, parents, and teachers. Also, collecting information from other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories.

For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of essay on yuvraj singh, false positives and cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from social and ethical essays clinical assessment. Essay Terms Definition? 23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an social legal and ethical essays array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and psychological treatments, and essay of indirect speech complementary and alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in and ethical issues children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. C.v? Stimulant medications and psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is legal and ethical issues essays sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is essay on power superior to psychosocial treatment. 26.

Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants. While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Issues In Counselling? Studies have found that stimulants improve the defining symptoms of on yuvraj, ADHD and social legal essays associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. Essay Singh? 28, 29.

Aside from and ethical in counselling essays studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is difference controlling thesis not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for legal and ethical severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of a teenager and 1 of an adult).

Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). Essay Place? 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to be helpful in children with ADHD. 35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from other cultures. And Ethical Essays? 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in clinical trials. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the essay of indirect, primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by expensive treatments of little benefit. The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of therapy: initiation and in counselling essays titration, maintenance, and termination. Essay? 40 During the and ethical, initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and essay place side effects.

This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Social Legal And Ethical Issues Essays? Starting and adjusting medications on a weekend provides opportunity for parents to observe effects and cover letter doctor side effects directly. During the maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and side effects are appropriate. The duration and approach to termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and families to support adherence to treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Stimulant medications and atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Trials off therapy, for social legal issues essays instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial. In summary, although there are a range of treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of ADHD in children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). Essay Place? 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is no corresponding term for social issues in counselling ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the of indirect, following:

Among Haitians, the interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from family to family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the and ethical issues in counselling, ADHD behaviors. Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is extremely important in the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by God. Essay Speech? These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the United States, as in many other countries, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and psychologists. However, for and ethical issues essays most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for care of a behavioral problem. Doctors are generally seen only for on yuvraj singh physical illness and social and ethical emergency care; access to essay, primary care is limited and generally available only to the most affluent.

ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is legal issues handled by essay singh parents, extended family, and legal and ethical issues in counselling essays school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the child to letter for medical doctor c.v, others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the social in counselling essays, child. Corporal discipline and essay on power punishment can be inflicted by any member of the social and ethical essays, family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of essay on yuvraj, whom are given full authority to educate and social in counselling essays #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the support of the extended family, in essay place an environment that is not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and social and ethical issues in counselling traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style.

Like many Haitian American parents living in essay the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr. A's parents chose to send him back to Haiti with the hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and removal of the social legal and ethical issues in counselling essays, interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. Difference? Mr. A went to live with his grandmother first and then off to a boarding school, a setting seen by many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the legal and ethical issues essays, use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for essay place terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and social legal in counselling even religious leaders. Mr.

A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. Examples of folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and purpose baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to social in counselling, establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in the doctor-patient relationship is essential in obtaining their participation in the development of a treatment plan to which they will adhere. Clinicians should work to disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and family members. It may be helpful to learn a few words of Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to program, be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to legal and ethical issues, other treatments recommended.

Cultural sensitivity is essential in dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in on yuvraj singh cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of legal and ethical, social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to essay, #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for essays some patients, culture is only one factor in their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the letter doctor c.v, interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is social legal and ethical in counselling essays complex, it is a useful context for examining the integration of psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of models of essay of indirect speech, such primary care and behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is particularly useful in managing families from other cultures.

The goal of this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider. This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of social and ethical essays, primary care. Coursework? This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and allows for behavioral health and primary care comanagement of patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for assisting Mr. A and social legal and ethical issues essays his family and other Haitian children and essay on yuvraj singh adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the Haitian Health Institute at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the case and for commitment to social and ethical, the special needs of the of indirect, Haitian people. Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the social issues in counselling, practices of clinicians caring for patients and families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the difference between controlling thesis, mainstream of society. At times, those very clinicians will be in social legal and ethical in counselling essays the position to essay place, provide rich insights afforded by social and ethical essays their own unique cultural backgrounds.

These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in between purpose thesis the clinical encounter with patients from other cultures. This article is based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on social issues in counselling, Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article. Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly.

Drs. Essay Terms Definition? Prudent, Johnson, and issues in counselling Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article.

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cause of ww2 essay AND THE MOST EFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO AGGRESSORS. The world was plunged into World War II on September 3rd 1939, with the German invasion of social and ethical essays, Poland. But the in dietetics coursework, true causes of the war had come. from the underlying threats of Nationalism , Militarism, and Imperialism that. developed first in Italy and then Germany.

Perhaps the most significant cause. of the second world war was the social and ethical issues in counselling essays, policy of Appeasement used by the League. of Nations and didactic in dietetics, the strongest democracy’s in Europe, the French and the. British Empire. Although the first world war had ended in victory for the. Allies and post - war objectives by the victorious nations had been met and.

successfully maintained, these underlying causes created the longest and. bloodiest war the world had seen. Nationalism was the cause that instituted the Fascist styled governments. that shook Italy and Germany in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s. Nationalism made the social issues, people hunger for the power and program in dietetics, prestige these two. nations had before and during the first world war. The German and Italian. peoples were sick and tired of squabbling coalition governments that failed to. do anything for the most part. Social And Ethical Issues Essays! The communist threat that was growing in.

Europe also presented an opportunity for the German and Italian people to. become more nationalistic, and the people soon looked for a strong leader. who could achieve national order, revive their derailed economies and build. up National prestige. Hitler had planned for his nationalistic, racist brand of. fascism for terms definition, the German people in his short prison stint in the late 1920’s.

Entitled Mein Kampf , his book outlined his plans to dishonor the Versailles. treaty, Bring back German nationalism and power, and to unite his “Supreme. race” through war. “Oppressed territories are brought back to the bosom of a. common Reich , not by flaming protests, but by a mighty sword”(Document. #1). Hitler’s plan to unite the German race through war may have sounded. radical and impractical at the time of it’s publishing, but the social in counselling essays, prospect of.

achieving strong leadership through extreme nationalism and obedience. sparked an interest among the people of Germany. Nationalism encompassed. these two nations who were willing to bring back their country’s power. through fascist dictators, Hitler and Mussolini. The victory’s of the Allies in world war one had planned to make the.

world safe through the demilitarization of the Central powers, but the small. force of police officers and essay terms definition, volunteers in social and ethical issues in counselling essays Germany was vanquished with the. coming to power of Hitler and soon, he imposed a conscription upon his. nation, beginning almost five years before the war began. Hitler’s militaristic. tactics increased nationalism, created jobs and restored national prestige. Hitler’s militaristic tactics also tied in with his plans to doctor c.v defy the and ethical essays, Versailles. treaty and on March 7th, 1936, the German army occupied the essay place, Rhineland, to.

French disdain. “. The French government made it quite clear that there. could be no negotiations with Germany . As long as a single soldier remains. in the Rhineland in contravention of Germany’s signed undertakings” (Document # 3). This showed the French that German militarism had even.

affected their own foreign policy towards the German Nation. Hitler’s ideas. to defy the Versailles treaty were clear in social and ethical essays the ramifications that he even. disguised his newly found Lufftwaffe by speech taking the Guns off the planes and. using them as a mail service. Hitler also militarized Germany by increasing. the numbers in the Army from social legal, purely volunteers to an Army of one and a half. million men and around 2000 Lufftwaffe planes on the eve of the purpose thesis, war. Militarism increased tensions and fears that war would again take Europe. Hitler’s drives of rearmament even made the French and British weary of a. second war.

Remilitarization by the Nazi party was the first step in a plan of. Imperialism by Germany and Italy began with the attack on the. Ethiopians in 1935. It served as the building block to increased German and. Italian aggression. And Ethical Issues In Counselling! Aggression had began in essay terms Europe when Mussolini wished. to avenge the defeat that the Italians had suffered nearly forty years earlier in. Ethiopia. Social And Ethical Issues Essays! Mussolini’s advanced army soon took Ethiopia, establishing it as. part of program in dietetics coursework, Mussolini’s new Empire.

After the Italian attack on his nation, Haile. Selassie, the Ethiopian emperor, said to the League of Nations - “God and. History will remember you’re judgment. It is social legal and ethical in counselling, us today. It will be you. tomorrow” (Document #2).

The league did not heed his warning and the. British continued letting the Italians through the Suez canal. Even in the. defiance of the German signing of the letter, Kellogg - Briand pact, Hitler launched. his own expansionist drive with annexation of Austria in early 1938. The. British and French were alarmed because the Versailles treaty had. specifically said that an alliance between Germany and Austria was in direct. contempt of the Versailles treaty.

But Germany demanded that it was an. Internal matter and not the concern of the British or the League of Nations. The taking of Austria by the Nazis was the first step in a drive to take the. surrounding nations with German - speaking peoples. Essays! German aggression. then spread to the Sedutenland, a region of German speaking people along the. Czechoslovakian border. Definition! Hitler was planning on taking the land soon, and. Britain and France were gearing for a war against German aggression. Legal Issues In Counselling Essays! But. during the Munich conference, the Nations of Germany, Britain, France, and.

Italy came under the essay place, agreement that Hitler would take the Sedutenland if he. would respect Czechoslovakia’s new borders. Social Legal And Ethical Issues In Counselling! But, less than six months later. Hitler took the on power of indirect speech, remainder of Czechoslovakia, and were gearing up for social issues in counselling essays, an. invasion of Poland. The invasion came after an on yuvraj agreement between Stalin and. Hitler to remain neutral to each other and legal issues in counselling, then secretly split Poland between. the two nations.

Imperialism worked for German and Italy because it prayed. on the fears of France and Britain for fear of a new, large scale war that. would drain economic resources and topple their own governments. The most significant cause of the on yuvraj singh, second world war was the policy of. appeasement taken up by the League of nations, France, and Britain to deal. with aggressors and give in to their demands to avoid another large scale war. Hitler tested this policy by playing on this fear of another large scale war to. defy the Versailles and gain new lands for the Germany. Germany’s first step. and Frances and Britain’s first mistake was the taking of the legal and ethical issues in counselling, Rhine in 1936. Hitler even admitted that he would have backed down if France and Britain.

declared measures against Germany. But, the policy of appeasement to avoid. war only essay filled the Nazi’s with pride, and soon began to make the German. military stronger in numbers and weaponry than that of world war one. Since. France and Britain had done nothing to stop a potential threat to their own. nations with the military occupation of the Rhine, why would they consider. the annexation of Austria an social issues in counselling essays aggressive move? Hitler then moved ahead with.

his plans to annex Austria in 1938, less than two years after the occupation of. the Rhine. After the taking of Austria and essay place, the plans to take Czechoslovakia, Winston Churchill made a speech to the British Parliament warning them of. German aggression. “I think that all of the opportunities to stop the growth of. Nazi power have been thrown away”. “The responsibility must rest with. those who have control of our political affairs” (Document #6). Churchill had said that with the allowance of the Nazis to build up their.

armed forces, move into social, the Rhine, annex Austria, and then threaten the. Nation of Czechoslovakia had gone too far. He argued that the opportunities. had passed to essay terms halt German power and social issues in counselling, aggression and that the aggression. would not stop and left Britain and France in a poor condition to deal with the. growing German threat.

Churchill strongly opposed the policy brought on by. Chamberlain to appease the Germans. Hitler then took the threatened to take. the Sedutenland, much to the dismay of definition, Britain and France. And Ethical Essays! The Munich.

conference ensued and Germany was given the Sedutenland, and in turn. would respect the new Czech borders. But Hitler had once again tested. Britain’s and on power of indirect speech, France’s policy to social and ethical issues essays avoid war at all cost, even the on power of indirect speech, giving in of the. borders of a completely neutral nation. Hitler knowing that the League, France and Britain would not risk war again if he took more aggressive. measures, then took over Czechoslovakia. “The Munich agreement was a.

desperate act of appeasement at the cost of the Czechoslovak state, performed by legal Chamberlain and Daladier, in the vain hope that it would satisfy. Hitler’s stormy ambition, and thus secure for Europe a peaceful future” (Document #7). The author, George Kennan believed that the Munich.

conference was a pathetic attempt to secure peace with an entirely aggressive. nation. Appeasement encouraged Hitler to continue with his plans for. European domination and essay, the proliferation of his Imperialist plans. Collective security would have been the ideal measure for a. long-lasting peace in Europe, especially if the French and the British would.

have coalesced into stopping the aggression by the Nazi’s. Perhaps the social in counselling, most. significant event in Pre - war Europe was the movement of the Nazi military. into the Rhineland. This should have told the essay definition, British and French that if Hitler.

would defy the Treaty of Versailles on account of the occupation of the. Rhine, he would also take Austria, and ignore the borders created after the. German defeat in the first world war. After the victory in the first world war, Democratic nations pledged to social legal issues essays defend new nations and their borders and. make the world fit for more democratic governments. The allied nations split.

over many policy’s, failed to properly direct newly made democratic. governments, including the new Wiemer government in between purpose thesis Germany. This was. the underlying cause of the growth of Fascist - styled governments in Europe. Appeasement was the major driving force in German and Italian aggression.

If the democratic nations of the world relied on collective security, stood up. to aggressors, and kept their pledges to defend all nations, weak and social legal and ethical in counselling essays, strong, the war could have been avoided. The causes of the war and on yuvraj singh, Hitler’s and. Mussolini’s growths to power mainly involved the defiance and. dissatisfaction of the social legal and ethical in counselling, Versailles treaty. Terms Definition! The treaty punished Germany, and also. restricted Italian land gains from the social and ethical essays, first world war.

The treaty was not even. backed up by most of the cover for medical doctor, victorious nations, but still Germany and social and ethical issues in counselling essays, Italy had. to obey the treaty. Didactic Program In Dietetics! The dissatisfaction of the Versailles treaty, Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, and the failure of Appeasement caused the world to. spin into the most deadly war ever. comments, constructive criticism appreciated. [This message has been edited by GreekGeorge (edited 12-18-2000).] Germany planned to attack the and ethical issues in counselling essays, Allies(France/Brition) in for medical 1945 when Germany would be totaly ready for war.

Proof is that Dernezt(sp?) was promised 500subs when the war started but when the war started he only had 5. They thought they could take Poland and the allies wouldn't start the social legal and ethical issues essays, war but they were wrong. Russia planned to attack Germany in 1944 but they were attacked first by the Russians. Thats why they didn't belive Germany would attack them. [This message has been edited by essay definition Spitfire VII (edited 12-18-2000).] The second issue is the social legal and ethical in counselling, lack of an effective military. Germany began widespread military buildup in 1935. France and essay place, UK - although they started with more - did not even begin a build-up until 1938, with tangible results a couple of years off.

Chamberlain was not the in counselling, fool he has been out to be. Peace in our time was stunt to controlling purpose stall Hitler - not stop him. Social! At the time, the British recognized that they did not have the ability to win a 1938 version of the essay place, Battle of Britain. Chamberlain was fully aware of this. His goal was to social in counselling buy time. Thus, the lesson is not that appeasement doesn't work, it's that you can't get yourself into a position were appeasement is your only effective option.

It is a well known fact that Hitler tried numerous ways to get Eva Braun to bathe at least three times a week, but she never really responded. When he mentioned the idea of essay of indirect speech, shaving her legs and armpits, she is quoted as saying, Adolf, don't you love me for who I am? In desperation, Hitler sent his Gestapo bullies out looking for the squeeky-clean babes that so many German men wanted. When he found some in Poland (actually they were Dutch chicks who had immigrated there for religious purposes) he ordered the invasion. When Goering and Himler pointed out that a higher percentage of French babes were shaving and legal in counselling essays, bathing up to four times a week, Hitler literally drooled with anticipation. It is also a well known fact that after the defeat of France in 1940, Hitler spent several weeks in Paris reviewing the essay on yuvraj singh, captured porn archives and meeting well-shaven French chicks. When Hitler learned that British girls sometimes took baths five or six times a week, he unleashed the social legal and ethical issues in counselling, Luftwaffe against the British RAF. In his famous speech at Munich in April of 1940, Hitler said, Mine eyes have seen the glory of a woman who routinely washes herself and removes the unsightly hair from her more private parts. my fellow Germans, all that is necessary is to make these women our own!. to in dietetics which he received an social legal and ethical issues ovation that lasted for 41 minutes. Failing to find better beer anywhere else, Hitler gave up that portion of his quest, satisfied that French champaigne was as good as beer in certain circumstances.

It was then that the on power speech, allied forces made the legal and ethical in counselling essays, decision to turn back the Nazi tide. Recruitment posters of the early 1940's frequently mentioned the reward of pillaging the purpose thesis, German breweries that dotted the essays, map. That, coupled with the fetish mongering that had resulted from American and British men being constantly exposed to chicks who DID bathe and shave regularly, fed a promise for essay on yuvraj singh, those allied soldiers who dreamed of wild women and Super-beer. The landing at Normandy was the result of an intelligence tip that indeed the legal and ethical issues essays, German beer was better, and French underground resistance volunteers had seized a large shipment of essay place, fine lager from Dusseldorf en route to the German Fifth Army stationed near Cherbourg. The beaches echoed with battle cries of, Free beer and nasty chicks! and Lager and fuzzy ladies!

THAT is and ethical in counselling essays, why the occupation forces stayed for on yuvraj, so long in post-war Germany. The beer was great and the chicks outnumbered the men, as a result of the social legal issues in counselling, fighting, by a ten to one ratio. G.I's were heard to remark that there was something primal and deeply satisfying about bedding a chick with hairy legs and letter for medical c.v, musky armpits. The Russians were so taken by social legal and ethical in counselling the fact that Germany had almost perfected indoor plumbing, that they took Poland and Yugoslavia and other countries where Germans had left behind thousands of porcelain bathroom fixtures. As is the case with most wars, it was greed and sex and better living conditions that spurred the conflict. Letter C.v! Hitler was only a fixation of legal issues essays, personage for the never-ending quest for better beer and essay on yuvraj, finer chicks. Guess what I got on the essay! Russia helped Germany more than that. Do you want me to tell you what they did?

KP - where are you?! I wanna hear what you think of and ethical issues essays, this one. Thanks alot Spitfire. 1)the decision of Germany for essay place, expansion. 2)the race between China and Japan. 3)the control of the Pasific Ocean from Japanese and Americans.

By the way GreekGeorge (you must be Greek) do you speak greek? Sic transit, gloria mundit. Hence, the glory of the world is being passed. Imperial Greek You said that a Race between China and Japan helped cause WW2 - in legal and ethical issues essays what way? Milao kai ego ellinika, steile mou kanena e-mail. Sic transit, gloria mundit. Hence, the glory of the world is being passed. if not for the world's great depression, ww2 would not have happened. if they were all living cushy warm lives, why would the japanese support a war? why would the germans support a war? why would the americans? now, make them the poor disinfranchised people that they were and cover letter for medical c.v, then you'll find the legal issues, reason - they were broke, cold, hungry, and pi55ed off! When Hitler decided to essay place occupy the legal issues, Rhineland, France should have moved in the defend and kick Hitlers arse! Again, When Hitler was threatening Chezhloslovakia, the Western Democracies should have stood firm, if Hitler had been forced to fight then, his generals might have overthrown him. When Hitler was busy invading Poland, there frontier w/ France was practically undefended.

France had 70 divisons, they should have indaded Germany and letter doctor c.v, ended the war right there but of course they hesitated and got there asssses kicked in 40. Copyright 19972017 HeavenGames LLC. And Ethical Issues In Counselling Essays! All rights reserved.