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IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction


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A Career Change - After 20 Years of Nursing! “As a child, I vacillated between wanting to be a teacher like my grandmother and wanting to be a nurse because of the cool uniforms. Nursing won out after I read the Sue Barton and Cherry Ames novels. “Biking has long been a favorite hobby of mine. I remember getting my first bike from the Marion Gamble Hardware Store as a birthday gift from essay, my parents when I was in thesis body conclusion grade school. The picture on the left below is of my father holding me when I was just a newborn. In 1963, I Started Teaching Third Grade. “In 1963, I started teaching third grade at Sacred Heart School in Lombard, Illinois. At that time, you did not need a teaching degree in a Parochial School (I had begun pursuing my teaching degree, but I had not finished yet). My first class had 54 students. My favorite pet was our family cow! Our Guernsey herd was such an integral part of our life… they were like family! We took them to the crucible, all the local fairs: Urbana, London, Hilliard (which is thesis introduction, Franklin County), the Ohio State Fair, and two or three others. Essay! What#39;s the introduction conclusion, most interesting job you#39;ve ever had?

One day, I was talking to a fireman and he told me to put my application into the Battle Creek Fire Department. I was hired, and it started a wonderful career for me. I loved that every run was different and there were never any two alike. One especially memorable Christmas was the essay about industrialisation, year that I was hired to work the Christmas rush at Kresges Dimestore in conclusion Elmhurst, Illinois. An Essay On Marriage Versus Living Together! I was working at Sutherland Paper company as a commercial artist and also building our first house when I got my greeting for introduction conclusion, induction on March 2, 1951. I was to report on March 29th. I was born in aphra 1923, in thesis conclusion Tevel, Hungary. My name is body art visual, Katie, and I was born in introduction body 1923 in Tevel, Hungary. As a little girl, my family lived on a homestead. We had ten acres and it was called “existence” farming, because we could exist on those ten acres.

You can do anything by hard work, honesty, and love! I’ve gone from no electricity or running water to knowing how to use Facebook and an essay on marriage living together text on a cell phone! I was the youngest of five children – four girls and one boy – with my brother Charles being right in the middle! My two older sisters and Charles were too old to be my playmates, but my sister, Mary, and I played together often. My brother, Roland, was always my 'other dad' since he was 8 years older than me. He taught me how to thesis introduction body, ride a bicycle; catch a baseball; and later when I was driving, he helped me get a car unstuck and also helped with cleaning the spark-plugs. I enlisted a day after graduation. I enlisted a day after I graduated from high school. I chose the Army because I knew, if I went in the Navy, I would get seasick, so the essay about industrialisation, Navy was not a good choice for introduction body conclusion, me. My vision wasn't good, so flying was not for me.

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My Perfect World Essays and Research Papers. Grip and Unwanted courageously confront rejection and betrayal with all the heaviness such subjects demand. Then there's My . Thesis Introduction. World and the metaphoric Mobile, which perfectly articulate the Avril experience. I have this awesome opportunity to fulfill my dream. I am all over the place, flying here and there, going through different stuff every day, she explains. This is my lifestyle, but I wouldn't want a normal life or I'd get bored. Apparently, Avril was born for such insanity. A middle. Arista Records , Avril Lavigne , Complicated 905 Words | 3 Pages.

Like Usher, Justin did not have much of a father figure either. Sources say that Beiber’s mother and father separated and divorced when Justin was just a . little boy (Answers). This means that Usher and Justin were both raised by single mothers. From my experience living in a divorced situation, each part of the family for instance the the crucible, mother’s side and thesis conclusion the father’s side do not have a lot of money. Both stars did not have a male figure in their lives, only a mother who cared about each one of them. 52nd Grammy Awards , Childhood , Justin Bieber 1218 Words | 3 Pages. Melissa Lopez Professor Shannon H. McBurnette-Arguelles English 1301 2 April 2011 ARE WE REALLY SINNERS I often hear “ He sings like a girl” or “ He . looks like a 12 year old” when the words Justin Bieber come out my mouth. Immediately people start ranting against essay structure, him with so much disgust like if they were deeply hurt by something insanely wrong he might of done. Thesis Conclusion. Justin Bieber is a boy who started of from YouTube by posting videos of himself which lead for his manager Scooter Braun to essay organizational, discover. Justin Bieber , My World 2.0 , Usher 875 Words | 3 Pages.

Bieber's fame and popularity. Although Bieber is still a young and body conclusion inexperienced star, he was able to descriptive first, reach the peak of success, impress millions of fans . Thesis Body. very rapidly and sympathize with his young fans. Justin Bieber's childhood was not a perfect and ideal period of time for him to become an impressive star, yet via his charisma, determination and strong will, he was able to prove himself and persuasive essay organizational become a universal figure. Bieber was born on March 1st, 1994 in Ontario, Canada. He was raised in. Justin Bieber , My World 2.0 822 Words | 3 Pages. March 01, 1994 (Age: 19) • PLACE OF BIRTH: London, Ontario, Canada • AKA: Justin Bieber • ZODIAC SIGN: Pisces more about Justin Best Known . For Justin Bieber is introduction, a Canadian pop star who was discovered via YouTube. His debut album, My World , went platinum in the United States, Canada and the United KiJustin Bieber Justin Bieber APA Style Justin Bieber. (2013). The Biography Channel website. Descriptive On My First Flight. Retrieved 09:37, Mar 21, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/justin-bieber-522504. . Justin Bieber , My World 2.0 880 Words | 4 Pages.

Relationship Between Men and introduction conclusion Women in the Secret Life of Walter Mitty. story in the crucible essay, which the couple is driving around running errands, but not together as a couple, instead, Walter has to stop in front of the hair salon where his . wife is having her hair done, and thesis introduction conclusion he is essay, told to “remember to introduction conclusion, get those overshoes while I’m having my hair done”, and in industrialisation, which Walter replies “I don’t need overshoes” but the wife replies back saying “you’re not a young man any longer” (47). Thesis Body. These last quotes show how strong and on my first harsh her character is and how dominant she can be in their relationship. A Thurber Carnival , Fiction , James Thurber 1056 Words | 3 Pages. awareness, self knowledge, build their own identity, develop their strengths and talents, improve wealth, improve self potential, enhance their life style, . fulfill self aspirations, as they think of thesis conclusion their ambitions only and are disconnected with the persuasive essay structure, world . Now compare this human with the nature. Conclusion. If plants, trees and animals start thinking only for them and stop giving us the fruits, oxygen, vegetables, milk etc. then this human life would almost come to an end.

Now give a pause and think about your. 2006 singles , 2007 albums , Debut albums 838 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Comparison Between a Short Story and a Poem. that she appears to not be afraid of “Death” or “Immortality” and joins them on descriptive the carriage ride. The carriage slowly moves along as if there is no time . schedule and “Death” has no pressing matters. Thesis Introduction Body Conclusion. The woman seems as if she no longer has a care in world and nothing else matters except her carriage ride with “Death”.

The carriage signifies a coffin inside of a horse during a funeral procession. The slowness in which the carriage is moving could be the result of living a slow death for the woman, meaning. A Thurber Carnival , Emily Dickinson , James Thurber 2136 Words | 5 Pages. The Life Journey of Justin Bieber. Justin to Atlanta and signed a contract with Usher Bieber’s first single “One Time” went certified platinum in Canada after its release in May 2009. His . album “ My World ” selling more than 137,000 copies within a week of hitting stores. Bieber broke into the Billboard Top 10 in early 2010 with his single “Baby”. Bieber soon released “ My World 2.0” in 2011, he took a big screen in thesis body conclusion, the concert documentary “Never Say Never” and the crucible earned more than $73 million at the box office.

In June 2011, Bieber was ranked. Baby , Justin Bieber , My World 534 Words | 2 Pages. to an Island Records recording contract offered by record executive L.A. Reid.[6][11] His debut extended play, the seven-track My . World , was released in November 2009, and was certified platinum in the United States. He became the first artist to thesis body conclusion, have seven songs from the crucible essay a debut record to chart on the Billboard Hot 100.[12] Bieber's first full-length studio album My World 2.0, was released in March 2010. It debuted at thesis introduction or near number-one in several countries and was certified platinum in the United. Justin Bieber , Michael Jackson , My World 2.0 585 Words | 2 Pages. [8] and then to on marriage versus together, an Island Records recording contract offered by introduction conclusion, record executive, L.A. Reid.[3][9] Bieber released his debut EP, My . World , in essay, November 2009. It was certified platinum in the United States.

He became the first artist to have seven songs from a debut record to chart on the Billboard Hot 100.[10] Bieber released his first full-length studio album, My World 2.0, in March 2010. It debuted at or near number one in several countries and thesis body conclusion was certified platinum in the United States. It was. Baby , Justin Bieber , Love Me 4106 Words | 11 Pages. who stole the essay, hearts of most teenage girls. He has a smile that would make me melt, and eyes that would make me faint. His voice is what my . Thesis Body Conclusion. ears would want to hear every single day.

He loves to sing, dance, play instruments, and do all kinds of sports. Essay About. He is a very talented and athletic person, who is introduction body conclusion, also very enthusiastic. Millions of girls all over the world go crazy for him, including me. He changed a lot of people’s lives, and has helped others believe in themselves. His name is Justin Drew.

Justin Bieber , My World 2.0 866 Words | 2 Pages. record contract with Usher and became the the crucible, first solo artist to have four singles enter the Top 40 before the release of a debut album. His record . My World has gone platinum in several countries. He lives and works in Atlanta. Childhood Pop star Justin Bieber was raised by thesis body conclusion, a single mom in aphra behn essays, the small town of Stratford. Bieber, whose debut album My World hit stores in November 2009, is thesis introduction body conclusion, a true overnight success, having gone from an unknown, untrained singer whose mother posted YouTube clips of her. 2000s singers , 2010s singers , Justin Bieber 590 Words | 2 Pages. accepted his offer whenever he was just thirteen years old. Language. From then on, Justin Bieber became one of the most popular and successful young artists in conclusion, the . world (“TheFactSite.com”). Justin’s debut album, “ My World ”, was released on November 17, 2009.

It featured the aphra behn essays, hot singles “One Time”, and conclusion “One Less Lonely Girl”. His second album, “ My World 2.0”, featured his #1 hit single, “Baby” that went double platinum and was placed #5 on the Billboard Hot 100 in February 2010. Aphra Behn Essays. His music video for his song. Justin Bieber , My World 2.0 , One Less Lonely Girl 767 Words | 2 Pages. People have always fantasized about introduction body having perfect worlds . Some people want riches, others want peace. It seems that people are . never capable of behn essays agreeing on what the thesis body, perfect world should include. On Marriage Together. The realization of most perfect worlds is impossible because of the fact that people can't agree. Therefore the perfect world would be one in thesis body conclusion, which everyone agreed all the time. Essay About Industrialisation. In a world where everyone agreed , argument and conflict would be eliminated. The world would become a lot less diverse, and a. Automobile , BBC World Service , Computer 824 Words | 6 Pages.

My world . My world is a series of strung memories, slow songs, copper streetlights dancing over thesis introduction conclusion, . my skin during long car rides, first kisses yet to be shared, poems yet to be read, apologies I was too afraid to make, mistakes I don’t know how to undo, pulse punching through me every moment I write, and the laughs that I have yet to the crucible integrity, enjoy. My world is not only my world ; it is your world , her world , his world , our world . The lines of my world are not defined. I have not found my world , but am creating. Bee Gees , Dead Sea , Earth 1388 Words | 4 Pages. ?In my perfect world , everyone is thesis body conclusion, kind. Any girl who has ever snubbed another will come to the realisation that . Body Art Visual Essay. life is introduction body, too precious to waste it with snide comments. Everyone who has every taken advantage of their beauty, will descend from their high horse and descriptive first hold hands with those of thesis introduction our level. The words fat and ugly do not exist. On Marriage Living. In my perfect world , cancer is an thesis conclusion, illusion.

Diabetics can eat all the chocolate they like without endangering themselves, the mentally ill will clear their minds. Cher , Family , Hand 440 Words | 2 Pages. Dreaming of My Perfect Career University of Phoenix LDR/531 Dreaming of descriptive on my flight My Perfect Career . Thesis Conclusion. As far back as I can remember I have enjoyed the sensation of decorating a dull room and making it magnificent by allowing myself to express my talents of interior designing. The sensation of adding colors and textures to an essay on marriage living together, a room to bring it to life is extremely comforting to me. I have always been told that I have a unique talent when decorating a room, rearranging furniture, and adding memorable. Decision making , Interior design 1271 Words | 4 Pages. REFLECTION PAPER ON PLATO’S REPUBLIC In the thesis, republic, Plato tried to imagine and essay make a most perfect just society. He argues . that wisdom, which is based on truth, judgment, and reasons of a person, would make a just person and a just society, which would bring peace to the world . In his ideal society he believed that people would live harmoniously and there would no be violence. He divided the thesis introduction, population of the society into three divisions or levels – the producers with bronze sash.

Democracy , Form of government , Government 1228 Words | 3 Pages. No day is perfect as something always seems to go wrong. Persuasive Organizational. Little or big there is introduction conclusion, always a flaw. Aphra Behn Essays. That is thesis body conclusion, what I have always believed in and . probably always will. Anyone that says something is perfect is either lying through their teeth or overlooking a bunch of things. Some days do come close though.

Some days just are so wonderful they seem perfect . They seem like the persuasive, best day you've ever had. That doesn't mean they are but they do come very close. For me a nice summer day always is the thesis conclusion, start of. 1139 Words | 3 Pages. My perfect day would start by me waking early — 7:30 am is early, for industrialisation, me — feeling refreshed and restored. Introduction Body. I haven't had a . relaxing night of sleep in months and often awaken far later than I had planned, feeling guilty, stiff, and descriptive on my first flight still sleepy.

After a hot shower and a shave I'd put on a comfortable outfit, including nice socks (it's amazing how wearing a pair of nice socks can improve my day), comfortable jeans, and a tagless t-shirt (really, the ones without itchy tags in thesis introduction body conclusion, the back of the neck. 2008 singles , A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer 1044 Words | 3 Pages. My Perfect Wedding Christmas Day is usually a holiday mainly observed to commemorate the versus living, birth of Jesus. Body Conclusion. For non Christianity . followers it is essay, a day to exchange gifts, decorate houses and for Santa Clause. Thesis Body. For me, Christmas of two thousand eight changed my life forever. This is the day my now to be husband kneeling down on one knee, asked me to spend the rest of my life with him. On Marriage Living Together. His proposal was short sweet and introduction conclusion sincere. Essay. Without a doubt I gracefully replied “Yes, I will.” With many new emotions.

A Flock of Seagulls , Chandelier , Gown 1210 Words | 3 Pages. ?Once upon a dream I had a dream that I would wake up with the perfect life. Well not so much perfect but the thesis introduction, one thing I want to . change is how I look I want to organizational, be a flat stomach size 8 with a pretty face. And I want to body, be rich. Well not rich, rich but enough money to get what I want all the time and enough money so that my mum doesn’t have to worry about essay money.

Chapter one A morning full of surprises. “jade, jade wake up its 5:30 you are going to thesis introduction, be late for school”. Mum are you being serious. Family , Major Dad , Mother 1560 Words | 4 Pages. chosen by your county elections office. Find your polling place (“precinct”) by looking at aphra the back cover of the Sample Ballot from your county elections . office. Or, you can look it up at www.smartvoter.org. Thesis Introduction Body. 3. Go vote! What happens if I vote at aphra behn my polling place? • You will be asked your name and to thesis introduction body conclusion, sign a book that lists all the voters in your area. • If you are a first-time voter, you may be asked to show identification. • The pollworker will give you a paper ballot to mark in a private booth.

Democracy , Election , Elections 1023 Words | 4 Pages. My Role in essay about, Creating a Peaceful World. Writer: Michael Lam My role in creating a peaceful world . My idea of a peaceful world is a world free from terrorists, where people put aside their differences and live together as one. People help others in times of body conclusion needs without the thought of descriptive on my any returns. Most importantly, the idea of a peaceful world in my opinion is introduction, everyone being happy. Growing up in a broken family, I was often unhappy due to.

Africa , Earth , English-language films 804 Words | 3 Pages. Men’s interest in industrialisation, women goes as of the following, is she hot, does she have money or will she use me, than lastly her personality. It might not make much . sense of body conclusion why, but many believe it is to essay, show off their prize or what they won. For example, my dream wife goes like this. Thesis Introduction. She will be a hot, amazing, a 26 year old from Florida. With her long, brown, hair, more soft then can be possible.

She will be the ever so simple 5’ 7” and 125 pounds. Her skin, so smooth, I imagine keithstone will be. 2002 albums , Lebanon, Tennessee , Marriage 1704 Words | 4 Pages. Perfect Competition Is Rare In The Real World. ? Perfect competition is rare in the real world , but the model is important because it helps analyze industries with . characteristics similar to an essay on marriage versus living together, pure competition. This model provides a context in which to apply revenue and cost concepts developed in the previous lecture. Examples of this model are stock market and agricultural industries. Perfect competition describes a marketplace that no one participant can set the market price of an thesis introduction body, exchangeable product. The Crucible Essay. This is generally considered an ideal, rarely.

Competition , Economics , Microeconomics 1833 Words | 3 Pages. Where My World Began My first home for many years. This land comes rarer to introduction conclusion, me as the day goes by. Forever . changing the knowledge I had once gained. My corner of the world , where I have formed myself unique from all else. A place with spectacular monument. An environment that has filled me with joy, yet still fills with anger from time to time. This is the crucible essay, my place in the world , my corner of Canada.

There are many lands which have been described as similar to thesis conclusion, mine. A land with. 2008 albums , Bee Gees , Earth 539 Words | 3 Pages. My World Religions Report HUM 130 My World Religions Report How different or the same is aphra behn, . Christianity and Tibetan Buddhism, and body what makes a person choose one over the other? In this paper we will first look at descriptive flight the history of the Tibetan Buddhist religion. Second, this paper will look at an interview conducted by introduction body conclusion, a Christian of a practicing Tibetan Buddhist. Last, this paper will compare and contrast what was learned in the interview as to the differences and similarities of persuasive organizational structure Christianity.

Bodhi , Buddhahood , Buddhism 2039 Words | 6 Pages. My Quality World My Tomorrow Most people don't really understand what Quality World really means. . Dr. Introduction Conclusion. William Glasser coined this term, a psychiatrist who believes that we all have an idea of what we really want in life. According to this author Quality World is the overall understanding of everything that is important to aphra behn essays, us (e.g. possession, principles and beliefs, experiences and relationships) in our lives. The quality world I imagine to thesis conclusion, be living in integrity, ten years from now is one where I have. Computer engineering , Electrical engineering , Electronic engineering 1291 Words | 4 Pages. would an ideal world order look like,What kind of world do I want to live in? If I had the power to create a society in . my own vision, what would that look like? What kinds of activities would be at the forefront of culture? How would people treat each other?

In what manner would business be conducted (if at all)? In what areas would the most energy be focused (i.e. education, health, etc.), write a list in order of importance? What kind of role models would be best for your ideal world ? How does the. Culture , Earth , Nation 1377 Words | 5 Pages. ? Where My World Began ‘The sky is not the limit,’ my father said. Every time I talked to him about . something related to studies, he used to thesis introduction, give this dialogue. He also added every time, ‘I have limited myself till the skies, but I want my son to reach above the sky.’ My father himself is an airline pilot but he wanted his son to the crucible essay, be something better. He always wanted me to become an aerospace engineer. I always believed from the childhood to look at the topmost, at least you will reach to. Aerospace , Aerospace engineering , Constellation program 1336 Words | 4 Pages. My dream world I slowly drift in and out of sleep as obfuscated images dance in thesis, and out of focus.

I find myself falling farther . and farther into essay on my flight, the darkness of oblivion where nothing is limited. How long will it last? I never know. Time appears to extend beyond all dimensions. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. The interstice between reality and fabrication widens, and out of the darkness a dim light forms. Objects begin materializing from beyond the ghostly shadows, and a vast new world is essay integrity, created.Looming in body, the infinite mist. World 1632 Words | 4 Pages. Huxley's Brave New World: A Perfect World? Aldous Huxley's Brave New World presents a portrait of a society which is superficially a perfect world . Structure. At first . inspection, it seems perfect in many ways: it is thesis introduction conclusion, carefree, problem free and depression free. All aspects of the population are controlled: number, social class, and intellectual ability are all carefully regulated.

Even history is controlled and rewritten to meet the needs of the party. Stability must be maintained at art visual all costs. In the new world which Huxley creates, if there is. Aldous Huxley , Brave New World , George Orwell 567 Words | 4 Pages. My World 1 My Social World . Melissa Lewis PSY 303 Professor Debra Booker, M.A. February 22, 2009 . Bullying , Divorce , Marriage 1223 Words | 4 Pages. material progress and are trying to make life comfortable for body conclusion, 'us'. Consideration for others is diminishing and persuasive structure we have forgotten to look at the interest of . the human race as a whole. We think in thesis body, terms of boundaries and territories instead of the world and its inhabitants - the mankind. We want every thing for 'us' and 'us' only. In this jungle we have started living like packs and descriptive essay on my first prides, grabbing the others' resources for our benefit only.

Morality and moral values are gone and I see that we. Civilization , Culture , English-language films 2590 Words | 7 Pages. In a perfect world . Introduction Body Conclusion. You're unhappy. Chances are if you're reading this you're unhappy about something. That’s just how the . world is today. People seem to always be upset about something even if it’s small your life has some conflict in it, or so it seems. Aphra Behn Essays. Everyone you meet has some “Skelton in their closet.” People today seem to introduction, forget to stop and smell the roses. Sometimes its uncontrollable things like depression and on marriage together psychological problems they can't control and is that really fair? In a perfect. BBC World Service , English-language films , Fred Phelps 625 Words | 2 Pages. ? A perfect world for me will be I read in some place that a perfect world is thesis, a . single panel to behn, be painted about how someone is dreaming to live in a world without pain and sadness and where all of our dreams come true.

People dream about a perfect world and did do nothing to change the world there that we they have! Maybe I will live in a better world in a few years if the people learn how to not be selfish. As well a A world where people won’t be as materialistic as now-a-days. A Dream , Better , Dream 647 Words | 2 Pages. No person on thesis introduction body conclusion this earth knows the future. Aphra. Not a single person knows how this world will come to an end.

Yet the current situation gives us no . Thesis. compelling proof of essay integrity a bright future. Thesis Body Conclusion. With the majority of first flight people stressing on environmental problems, they tend to thesis introduction, forget many matters of descriptive immediate concern. One of the many threats to thesis conclusion, the earth is violence. It is ironical that humanity is the greatest hazard to itself. Essay About Industrialisation. We use the new technology for the purpose of mass destruction. Introduction Conclusion. But we should remember.

Earth , Planet , Universe 740 Words | 3 Pages. hero. These are people we need, what the world will be without people like this to be there so we can call them our heroes. Stories that . resemble these heroes can be finding in the news, newspapers. All these people are trying to an essay together, bring change to introduction conclusion, this world but what if the world was so perfect we didn’t need these people. The Crucible Essay Integrity. Who would be meritorious amongst us? Is it that greatness can only be shown if there are others that need a role model or Does the world we live in thesis, make it impossible for someone. Cancer , Ed Harris , English-language films 559 Words | 2 Pages. what strengthens the believer’s commitment to body art visual essay, Allah (swt) People will go out an get degrees in law schools, or science, or engineering and they will put . four to six years of conclusion their lives studying for this stuff that will only benefit them in descriptive on my, this world . In this society people including Muslims, choose their careers according to how much money they will make and what status they will have in this society as to being a lawyer or a doctor etc. Thesis Introduction Body. They do not realize that in Islam the BEST stature of behn essays a.

God , Indecent exposure , Islam 1219 Words | 4 Pages. personal experiences with life. My own personal worldview has been crafted out of personal experiences, cultural practices and beliefs and . most importantly my Christian faith. It is my core beliefs that have placed my Lord and Savior above everything, shaped me into an open minded individual and body aided me with life's challenging and mind boggling questions. My worldview consists of a Christian based ideology that refers to the bible as both a reference and narrative. Persuasive Organizational Structure. My Christian beliefs and body conclusion practices. Causality , Culture , Epistemology 906 Words | 3 Pages. New advancements in science happen everyday. Products may include medicines, fertilizers, household cleaners, durable materials, and art visual language more. One of the most . controversial issues in the world of science is genetic engineering. Scientists say genetic engineering may bring large advantages to thesis body conclusion, humans and the way they live.

Critics argue that genetic engineering can mean the destruction of the pure human being. There are numerous advantages and disadvantages in genetic engineering but disaster can be avoided. Africa , Cell , Genetics 468 Words | 2 Pages. components that make up my Worldview are God, Ethics, and Knowledge, because they shaped my thought, experiences, education, and . life decisions. My faith in God and the things He has done in my life are what most of my worldviews are based on. I have seen the miracle that God has performed in my He has life, and an essay on marriage together the strength He has given me.

During my life I have been in situations that the only explanation that I got through them is by Gods hand leading the conclusion, way. With my Christian based education. Epistemology , Faith , Knowledge 1114 Words | 3 Pages. The limits of my language are the art visual language essay, limits of my world. (Wittgenstein) The limits of my language are the limits of my world . (Wittgenstein) Language is defined as a system of . communication consisting of introduction body conclusion sounds, words and grammar, or the aphra, system of communication used by the people of a particular country or profession. (Collins English Dictionary) All languages are made up sounds and introduction body conclusion letters which form words, sentences and phrases. The development of a language can best be illustrated by the advancement of a child as it learns a language. A baby begins by using sounds. Foreign language , Language , Language education 1228 Words | 4 Pages. text and individual other related material to the question. As such it is much easier to plan, organise and essay integrity prepare a response.

Students MUST remember that . the question/task will be about introduction ‘Into the World ’, not Educating Rita! Any response requires indepth discussion of ‘the transition from on marriage together one world to another’, with detailed commentary from body conclusion text and 2 other related texts of the students choosing. Any good response will focus not only on essays what is said about this transition, but the techniques. 2006 albums , Earth , Educating Rita 1019 Words | 5 Pages. My Journey Through The Music World. ?Angelique Chatman July 4, 2013 English 111 My Journey Through The World of Music As a young girl, I became a cheerleader . for my elementary school. Because of this, I got the chance to participate in all of the local festivities. Thesis. Football games, homecoming parades, Christmas parades, etc.

That’s when I seen and heard a marching band for the first time. An Essay On Marriage. I didn’t really quite know and understand what it was or what a marching band was all about. I wasn’t even fully sure of what an instrument. Band camp , High school , Honda Battle of the thesis introduction conclusion, Bands 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Can There Ever Be a Perfect World ? My thematic question is: can there ever be a perfect . world ? Establishing criteria for essay integrity, a perfect world can be an objective process or a subjective process. It can relate to many externally defined measures of thesis conclusion what perfection is, or it can be subjective – based on descriptive essay my own learning and beliefs. Thesis Conclusion. In between is determining what others believe or have learned and the origins of these ideas. There are many people who have defined perfection. Concepts of essay about industrialisation perfection.

Definition , Extensional definition , Garden of Eden 809 Words | 2 Pages. 1837 in introduction conclusion, Cincinnati, Ohio. The general emphasis of the firm is innovation in product development. It is the first manufacture to an essay on marriage living, conduct direct sales in 1919 . and is currently the largest product advertisers. It has over thesis introduction body, 250 brands of body essay products in introduction conclusion, the world market. The firm’s core values include leadership, people, ownership, integrity, trust, and passion for winning. Procter Gamble has 24 products with more than $ 1 billion dollars in net sales. The purpose of this paper is to define and body art visual language describe managerial. Leadership , Management , Organization 1326 Words | 5 Pages. In this paper I am going to present an theoretical school district, school, and a classroom as examples of the ideal that our educational system should . strive to achieve. The philosophy my schools will be based on thesis is one of equality.

Every single child will have an essay about, opportunity to receive the introduction body conclusion, best possible education. Organizational Structure. However, we will never lower our standards for the sake of thesis introduction body conclusion equality. Organizational. Each child will be pushed to his or her personal best, not an average standard. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. Before talking about what goes. Bilingual education , Class , College 1436 Words | 4 Pages.

My future perfect partner It is said a friend in need is a friend indeed. Same as partner, we really need partner in our life. . On My First. An ideal partner possesses all the thesis, qualities of head and heart. It is easy to find partners many but difficult to choose perfect partners. God gives us relatives by virtue of being born in behn, a family, but partners we can choose. To create the perfect partner, would take a lot of thesis body conclusion time. One’s personality is a very complex thing to the crucible, describe. I would start off with their. Comedy , Defence mechanism , Humor 453 Words | 2 Pages. My eight wonder of the world - INTERNET.

My eighth wonder of the world - Internet Internet is one of the most expanding things in the present. Introduction Conclusion. And after the essay about, other seven . Introduction Body. worlds wonders it's my eighth wonder. Why? Today it is the essay organizational structure, fastest way of sending and receiving a lot of information. For example you can buy much things - from computers, cars, books . to simple pizza. You can also communicate with your friends and family from all parts of the world . It isn't a problem to know the latest news about your American cousin.

E-mail provides. ARPANET , Domain Name System , E-mail 801 Words | 3 Pages. Alchemist: Doubt and Perfect Disciple. entrapped me, and he looked so gentle and introduction conclusion sincere I could not help but smile! The way he looked at art visual me was unlike anything else, it was almost as if he looked . into thesis, my soul. We understood what the an essay living together, other was thinking without speaking any words. It was what the strange old man, the Alchemist was always talking about, the language of the world . Santiago Professing His Love- When he told me, I was shocked. So shocked I dropped the water vessel I was carrying. Stupidly, I thought how angry mother would. Alchemy , Chile , Desert 887 Words | 3 Pages. The world that we live in introduction body, today is far from perfect . We read in the papers every day about war, terrorism, famine, genocide, . violence, pollution, hatred and sorrow.

It is our natural human instinct to essay industrialisation, believe that things are going to get better but it seems that each day the thesis, world actually gets worse and if we look back in history it doesn't seem like things were much better, we only have to behn, look back to thesis introduction conclusion, the genocide in Rwanda or the Holocaust in Europe during the late 1930's and early 40's. In this. Al-Qaeda , Bill Clinton , Bin Laden family 625 Words | 2 Pages. Today I am here to share one of on my flight my favorite place in world . This place is one of miraculous blessing given by mother earth to all . living things. I am so fond of this place that I see it in thesis body conclusion, my dreams. Kereala, it was celebrated as a 'Paradise Found' - one of the ten in the world . Integrity. A perfect description for thesis introduction, a land renowned as God's Own Country. On Marriage Versus Living. There is different charm in its backwaters, beaches, Ayurveda health holidays, hill stations, wildlife, festivals, monuments and vibrant art forms, it’s amazing.

Asia , Earth , English-language films 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Cheerleading Worlds - A Dream for conclusion, Many. Stephanie York English 1101 27 September 2013 Cheerleading Worlds : A Dream for about industrialisation, Many Loud music, big bows, smells of sweat and introduction perfume . and thousands of screaming fans is not a football championship. Electricity and tension fill the air while anxiously waiting for the next team to take the blue-taped off mat to compete for the pride and persuasive essay organizational trophy of being the next world champion in the highly competitive sport of cheerleading. This competition is introduction body conclusion, unknown to a large percent of the body language essay, population. Cheerleading , ESPN , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1004 Words | 2 Pages. economic troubles hampering its inhabitants has been done away with. Instead the state is there to thesis introduction, serve the people and ensure the peacefulness and happiness . of everyone. The word utopia, which means no place in Greek, was first used to mean a perfect society in 1516 in the publication of Saint Thomas More's story Utopia.

The story depicted life as it was with its people and social institutions on an imaginary island. More's Utopia gained critical acclaim and an essay on marriage versus a wide audience. The term was. Black Panther Party , Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon , Dystopia 2116 Words | 6 Pages. The Perfect Boyfriend - College Essay When I describe the perfect boyfriend I could have, I think of one I already had. When I . was a sophomore, I met a different kind of boy. Thesis Introduction. One who was sweet, and warm and funny: different. He was a puzzle piece that didn't fit the on marriage, rest of the thesis introduction body, puzzle and just right for me. Before him, I always thought my first love was my first boyfriend, but no, this one was. The first thing I noticed was his dark chocolate brown eyes, and I was hooked.

He had soft, floppy. Apostrophe 625 Words | 2 Pages. between worlds can be difficult as we are challenged by a changing understanding of who we are and where we belong. Discuss this quote with . Persuasive. reference to two prescribed poems and at least ONE related text of your own choosing Individuals transitioning between worlds may experience difficulties as they are challenged by a developing understanding of who they are and where they belong. Thesis. The ability to transition is dependent on the individual’s openness to aphra behn essays, new experiences offered by the new world , and. Africa , Asia , Earth 1278 Words | 4 Pages. A Day That Changed My World View Michael Strbac ENC 1101- Composition 1 05/18/2011 A Day That Changed My . World View I remember getting up in the morning, starting breakfast and introduction body conclusion turning on the TV just as I had on essays many other normal mornings. Body. I was having Raison Bran for breakfast and looking for something interesting on TV to watch. All the body art visual language essay, stations were covering the introduction body conclusion, same thing. On Marriage Together. The date, 09/11/2001.

Things would never be normal again. I called work, Inland Express Airport Shuttle Service. Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , Democratic Party 1278 Words | 4 Pages.

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2 Gals Talk . about speech therapy. This blog is dedicated to Speech-Language Pathologists looking for an answer, an idea, or a new trick to try. Good Monday Morning Everyone! Today we will look at a few techniques and strategies to elicit SH and CH . This is in no way everything you need to body conclusion, know about teaching SH and CH. These are just some tips we found worked for us and would like to share. Usually when the child learns the correct tongue position for /s/ the other sibilants simply fall into place with little to no attention. However, as with everything else in descriptive essay life, there are exceptions and some need direct instruction so we will share our tips for eliciting these sounds. Since those of you reading this are professional SLPs I am not going to tell you the correct tongue placement. You know it.

I will instead elaborate on how to fix what they might be doing wrong. The most common label for the SH sound is the #8220;be quiet sound.#8221; We visually cue by putting one finger in front of our mouth, pucker our lips, and blow. The simple act of putting one finger in front of thesis introduction conclusion our lips causes us to aphra behn essays, naturally round them which is necessary to conclusion, produce this sound correctly. Most of us do not even realize we do this. Cue with this to get lip rounding. Sometimes a child will make the sound more like an essay organizational #8220;ess#8221; because they are placing their tongue too forward in their mouth. Tell them to move it back mid-palate. If they are not getting what you mean about mid-palate use the straw trick.

Have the child to smile broadly and slightly open their mouth. Place a straw (I like to use the introduction conclusion, fat ones from McDonalds, but one from your cafeteria will do) laterally across their teeth from cheek to cheek. The straw should be sticking out both sides of the mouth. The broader they smile the closer to mid-palate you can position the straw. The Crucible! Tell them to keep their tongue behind the thesis introduction body conclusion, straw with the essay, tip down. I usually use the wording, #8221;pull your tongue back in a bunch behind the straw.#8221; If you try to produce the SH sound at conclusion, this point it will sound terrible, so don#8217;t. The point of this is for oral awareness of where mid-palate is for the tongue on SH.

Tell them to body art visual language essay, hold that position as you ease the straw out of their mouth. Thesis Introduction! Tell them to #8220;freeze#8221; their tongue as they pucker up and blow. It will not sound perfect but it should result in a palatal fricative. Now that they have the mid-palate position you can teach SH as you normally would. Pam Marshalla recommends teaching SH from the Long E to get the correct tongue positioning.

Using this method will get the sides of the tongue touching the sides of the teeth. Here#8217;s the link to those instructions http://www.pammarshalla.com/qaeach/09_32.html. Leah teaches SH by shaping from /s/+/j/ (e.g., #8220;miss you#8221;) This is another simple technique for helping the children who sound say #8220;ess#8221; for #8220;sh.#8221; By saying the an essay on marriage versus together, words #8220;miss you#8221; quickly and introduction conclusion, repeatedly, it will go from sounding like #8220;miss you#8221; to #8220;mih shoe.#8221; When it does sound like that, ask them to essay, mouth the movement for #8220;miss#8221; and say #8220;you.#8221; It will usually sound like #8220;shoe#8221; instead of #8220;sue.#8221; After practicing this several times, have them say the body conclusion, #8220;shoe#8221; without the silent mouth movement for essay industrialisation #8220;miss.#8221; A great way to get the thesis introduction, child to descriptive essay on my first, conceptualize the CH sound is to demonstrate it as the #8220;Sneezy#8221; sound. Most kids can imitate that and you#8217;re off and running with therapy. Another common label is the #8220;Choo-Choo#8221; sound.

I will try both to body, see which the child prefers. When I demonstrate the about industrialisation, Sneezy sound, I put my finger under my nose and use an exaggerated inhale while squinting my eyes closed. Thesis Introduction Body! Then a let an aphra behn essays explosive CH erupt. Sometimes I will even say #8220;uh, uh, uh#8221; on my exaggerated inhale for thesis introduction body dramatic effect. I think my silliness with the persuasive essay structure, sound is conclusion all the prompting they need to essay organizational structure, want to try it themselves. Kids love to act silly! When I present CH as the introduction body conclusion, #8220;Choo-Choo#8221; I say #8220;CH-CH-CH-CH#8221; with my arms doing the train motion. I begin my choo-choo movements slowly and build in crescendo until my train is language going fast. Now you#8217;re ready to begin therapy or not. What do you do when the usual and customary visual-auditory prompts don#8217;t work? You will try shaping from a sound they have in their repertoire.

One way is to thesis body conclusion, shape from /t/ to SH. Practice saying them separately (/t/ -pause -sh) and together, increase in the speed at which you say them until you are saying them together which will result in thesis introduction body conclusion CH. Another shaping trick is to work from /t/+/s/+/y/ (e.g., #8220;itsyou#8221;). Again you follow the same procedure as for the #8220;miss you#8221; trick in saying it faster until it begins to sound like CH. Another trick you might try is to have them say the descriptive on my flight, SH but hold the tongue on the roof of their mouth and build up pressure before they release. Introduction Body Conclusion! Sometimes just telling them to essay, push hard on the roof of their mouth will be all they need to get the CH sound. Thesis Conclusion! Carolyn Bowen (you#8217;d think I was her new best friend the industrialisation, way I speak of her) has wonderful pictures for minimal pairs on her website http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/txresources.html. So here you go, a few more tricks to add to your magic speech therapy bag! We#8217;ll see you next Monday morning! This is great info. My 2yo sucks in his cheeks when he says sh or ch.

He does it sometimes with a t sound, but I can get him to isolate the blend tr (as in truck, one of his favorite things!) by emphasizing the r and he does better. Any advice on the sh or ch? Hi Anonymous, sorry it has taken so long to get back to you. I#39;m only introduction body, guessing here but it sounds like he may be sucking air in to make the sounds and not blowing the air out. At this age sh and ch aren#39;t established in all children so you may not want to target those sounds specifically for therapy, but you will want to do some speech stimulation. About Industrialisation! I suggest two things: 1) practice blowing things in play (eg pinwheels and thesis body conclusion, bubbles are great teaching the concept of blowing out instead of sucking in). 2) auditory bombardment-read lists of sh or ch words everyday. Use slight amplification (a paper towel roller makes a good one) and slightly stress the sound. Thank you! We have tried a few games of blowing the cotton ball through the straw, which he thought was hilarious, but b/c of his age it quickly became a game of straw hockey with the cotton ball as the an essay on marriage living together, puck! He is blowing out introduction conclusion, when he makes the sh ch sounds, but he involves the essay about industrialisation, cheeks instead of isolating the tongue more.

I#39;m hoping he grows out of it (I know he#39;s very young for me to be worried) but would love game ideas to practice better sounds. He#39;s on to me, and stubborn, so I can#39;t obviously teach the sound to thesis conclusion, him! Thanks for your response! I will try more bubbles and blowing games and hope the rest comes around. Do you guys have any suggestions for helping a child with a lateral sh and ch? I#39;ve tried the s-j sound, but it is not working. The updated link for Pam Marshalla#39;s post is: http://www.pammarshalla.com/blog/2008/08/teaching-sh/ --- we get several error redirects from your post to our website each month -- I advise that you update the link!

Thank you. I have a child who frequently substitutes /ch/ for /sh/ in phrases, sentences and at the conversational level. Any tips on how to help him understand the difference? We#39;ve been working on it for art visual essay over a year now.

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component essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into art visual essay, Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of thesis conclusion conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An Essay. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of thesis introduction conclusion change in human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in behn essays earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the thesis body solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is descriptive first flight not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the introduction body conclusion important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the integrity identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the introduction class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. About. Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem.

I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to thesis, play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is essay about a member of introduction conclusion this class. Aphra Essays. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the thesis body conclusion evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the essay about industrialisation privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe.

What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for introduction body, the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is the crucible essay not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the thesis conclusion immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for essay first flight, two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one.

It is not mathematically possible to thesis conclusion, maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by essay on my first von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in introduction body conclusion the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is behn utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for conclusion, what we call work in common speech; they are also required for behn essays, all forms of thesis introduction body enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to aphra behn essays, playing music and thesis introduction body conclusion writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is body language essay obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible.

No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown. Introduction Body. [4] The arithmetic signs in an essay on marriage living together the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. The difficulty of on marriage versus defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem.

Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for body conclusion, hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable.

Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in organizational real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the thesis introduction body incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the language values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the body hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an essay acceptable theory of weighting.

Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the body conclusion intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is essay on my first no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of thesis introduction body conclusion zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and essay remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is introduction body below its optimum. However, by about industrialisation any reasonable standards, the introduction most rapidly growing populations on descriptive first, earth today are (in general) the most miserable.

This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of thesis introduction Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by on marriage an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of thesis conclusion his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the aphra behn essays best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. Thesis Introduction Body. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). [6] We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of persuasive dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness.

It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. For it is only by them that the descriptive on my flight futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to introduction conclusion, be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. The Crucible. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the body commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain.

Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the an essay on marriage utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is an essay on marriage versus together a function of the additional overgrazing created by body conclusion one more animal. Since, however, the effects of body art visual essay overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision­making herdsman is only a fraction of - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd.

And another. Body Conclusion. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is industrialisation limited. Ruin is the body destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude.

Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of aphra behn essays psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an conclusion individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in essay integrity Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the thesis introduction knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an integrity increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of the commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate.

But it is thesis conclusion understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an flight ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the thesis conclusion world continue to suffer from the essay survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to body, the shibboleth of the descriptive essay flight freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction. Body. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the persuasive essay structure tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. Introduction Conclusion. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to the crucible essay, grow without limit.

The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to thesis introduction body, treat the parks as commons or they will be of body essay no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. Introduction Conclusion. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the versus right to enter them. The allocation might be on thesis body conclusion, the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on the basis of merit, as defined by some agreed­upon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. Descriptive First. These, I think, are all objectionable.

But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in thesis body problems of essay about industrialisation pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out thesis introduction conclusion of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into persuasive structure, the line of sight. The calculations of body utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them.

Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into aphra behn, a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to introduction body conclusion, treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to the crucible essay, muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and introduction fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the the crucible integrity commons. The pollution problem is introduction conclusion a consequence of population. Art Visual Language. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste.

Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an thesis introduction body conclusion act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed. [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the art visual same behavior in a metropolis is thesis body conclusion unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the aphra behn essays tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the thesis introduction morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears.

One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the aphra essays photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in introduction body words. That morality is an essay versus living together system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past. Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in thesis body the back yard or to persuasive essay structure, run an automobile without smog­control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus.

The result is thesis introduction administrative law, which is aphra behn rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the thesis introduction body conclusion watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the body essay morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to introduction, corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to essay about, enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law.

We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of thesis administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the essay about industrialisation corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. Body Conclusion. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is essay about involved in population problems in another way.

In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of thesis body conclusion birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to organizational structure, death; if thus, over thesis introduction breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in persuasive essay structure controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to introduction body, secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the concept of freedom to art visual essay, breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of thesis introduction body action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the essay about family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to have to deny categorically the thesis introduction body validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the versus reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the introduction body conclusion archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is persuasive essay suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.

If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the thesis body conclusion Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is behn promoted by the United Nations. Conclusion. We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in on marriage living together attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the introduction body conclusion publication of his grandfather's great book.

The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to organizational structure, limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to thesis body conclusion, the plea more than others. Essay. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. Thesis Conclusion. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in aphra behn essays this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. [16] The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is thesis conclusion hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of essay about education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by means of thesis conclusion his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race.

Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the body art visual essay nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commons. Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of thesis introduction body conclusion schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is essay a kind of thesis conclusion illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to on marriage versus together, extend his control beyond the legal limits.

Leaders at the highest level succumb to body, this temptation. Aphra. Has any president during the thesis body past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to the crucible integrity, steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on introduction conclusion, such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in descriptive first flight this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. Thesis Body Conclusion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to the crucible essay integrity, their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.

Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of introduction body conclusion policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word conscience?

When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against language essay, his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro body conclusion quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to aphra essays, be used at all, I suggest that it be in thesis introduction conclusion the sense Charles Frankel uses it. Aphra Behn Essays. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the thesis introduction body conclusion product of definite social arrangements. Descriptive First Flight. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. Thesis Body Conclusion. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the first bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons.

That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of thesis bank robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of the crucible integrity this activity. We are willing to body, say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by essay coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to body conclusion, park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. Descriptive Essay Flight. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the thesis introduction body conclusion institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Behn. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in introduction conclusion our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact.

We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is on my first flight unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is introduction body conclusion preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and essay structure the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the body status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and essay about industrialisation no action; if the introduction body proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal.

But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. Versus Living. It also produces evils. Introduction Body. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the essay proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. Thesis Introduction Conclusion. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of art visual essay this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in body conclusion one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and essay organizational fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to thesis body, be abandoned.

Restrictions on the disposal of behn essays domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on thesis body conclusion, the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out essay billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for conclusion, every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. The Crucible Essay. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the thesis body view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the essays commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the thesis introduction conclusion infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into an essay versus, the logic of the commons are free only to bring on thesis introduction body conclusion, universal ruin; once they see the necessity of industrialisation mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all.

At the moment, to body conclusion, avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and body language essay more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and thesis conclusion that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the versus together role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to thesis introduction body, breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and essay industrialisation H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. J. Body. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.

4. J. Language. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on introduction conclusion, the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Descriptive On My. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No.

8), 13 (1966). 10. J. Conclusion. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Aphra Behn. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13.

G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. Thesis Introduction Body Conclusion. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of about Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17.

G. Thesis Body Conclusion. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Behn Essays. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967).

20. C. Frankel, The Case for thesis introduction body conclusion, Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5.

There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions. There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is structure that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the conclusion critical problems that threaten the very existence of industrialisation contemporary man. Thesis Introduction Body. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY.

In passing the on marriage living together technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render the thesis conclusion incommensurables . Art Visual Language. . Introduction Body Conclusion. . Body. commensurable . . . Introduction Body. ' in aphra real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and thesis introduction conclusion that the essays application of coercion to effect a solution to problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from further desecration. Thesis Introduction. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the industrialisation great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is thesis introduction conclusion emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of versus 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the thesis conclusion American civilization. Persuasive Organizational. [p. 56]

Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to introduction conclusion, suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of industrialisation other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests. Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by introduction body conclusion sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.

Thus we have arrived not at descriptive essay on my flight, an age of accommodation but one of confrontation. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. 59]

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essay on sepulchres n his novella Heart of Darkness (1899), Joseph Conrad through his principal narrator, Marlow, reflects upon the evils of the thesis introduction conclusion human condition as he has experienced it in essay first Africa and thesis introduction body, Europe. Seen from the perspective of Conrad's nameless, objective persona, the evils that Marlow encountered on the expedition to the heart of darkness, Kurtz's Inner Station on persuasive essay structure the banks of the snake-like Congo River, fall into two categories: the thesis petty misdemeanors and trivial lies that are common- place, and an essay living, the greater evils the grotesque acts society attributes to thesis body madmen. That the first class of the crucible essay integrity, malefaction is connected to the second is illustrated in thesis the downfall of the story's secondary protagonist, the tragically deluded and integrity, hubristic Mr. Kurtz. The European idealist, believing the lies of his Company and of the economic imperialism that supports it, is unprepared for thesis body conclusion the test of character that the Congo imposes, and succumbs to the potential for the diabolical latent within every human consciousness. Although numerous critics (including Johanna M. Behn! Smith, Peter Hyland, Herbert Klein, and Garrett Stewart) have drawn attention to how Marlow's lie to the Intended informs the introduction conclusion whole preceding text and how that culminating scene with the Intended is connected to Marlow's initial impression of Brussels as a whited sepulchre (how appropriate in light of Belgian King Leopold II's hypocritical defense of his private company's rapacious exploitation of the industrialisation ludicrously- named Congo Free State!), few have until recently focussed on how the lie affects the reader's reaction to Marlow as the protagonist and narrator of Conrad's Congo tale.

Answering questions which the dead man's Intended poses him regarding the remarkable Mr. Kurtz, Marlow does what he most despises. To protect both the integrity of Kurtz's visions and the Intended's guileless love for the quondam humanitarian Marlow acquiesces in her statements of faith (his goodness shone in every act [Murfin ed. 92]), prevaricates with double meaning (His end . . . Introduction! was in every way worthy of his life [93]), and ultimately lies. There is body, a taint of introduction conclusion, death, the death of moral integrity, a flavour of mortality in lies which is the crucible essay, exactly what I hate and introduction conclusion, detest in on marriage versus living together the world what I want to conclusion forget (41). Marlow has returned to Brussels hoping to essay integrity surrender to her the thesis body conclusion memory of Kurtz. She instead maneuvers him into telling her a lie: that Kurtz's last words were not 'The horror,' but her name (Moser 79). Ironically, Marlow finishes his story of African adventure at the crucible essay integrity the point where Kurtz's career in crimes against humanity in all likelihood began, with a rationalization, a justified lie. In fact, it is the lie that renders this another of Charlie Marlow's inconclusive experiences (21). What if the Company's real objective were wealth derived from a trade in bones? the fragile veneer of western civilisation, the great white lie of the White Man's Burden with its implicit, pseudo-altruism, must be accepted if the thesis body natives of the dark continent are to be improved, enlightened, and transformed into white people with black skins.

Such a parcel of lies, exposed in their naked contumely through the course of the narrative, Marlow has found appalling, yet he now countenances his own untruth to the Intended on similar grounds, to preserve an ideal image that should be revealed as hollow. To tell Kurtz's fiancée the truth would have opened the bleakness of his heart to her view; and she would have known the depths to which he had sunk (Dowden 82). The countenancing of the greater evil, the lies like rainbow colours on about the Company's map veiling the real motives of European imperialism in Africa, is behind both the thoughtless misbehaviour of body, those jolly pioneers of progress (24) and emissaries of light, the ironically-dubbed pilgrims, and the calculated reign of essay organizational, terror that Kurtz directs against thesis introduction conclusion, the neighbouring tribes. An Essay Versus Living Together! Enthralled by their own money-lust (which, as Lionel Trilling observes of late nineteenth-century American society, is the thesis introduction body conclusion father of ultimate illusion and an essay versus living together, lies [110]), the Europeans disregard both the natives' interests and thesis introduction conclusion, their own moral well-being as they monopolize the ivory trade. The very air seems to sigh ivory, and the only earthly reason Europeans in the Congo can give for being out there is To make money, of course (35). However, it is not corporate profits but the welfare of the about industrialisation natives that Kurtz's Company has used back in Europe to justify its presence and activities in thesis introduction body conclusion central Africa. Before he came face to face with his own base passions and atavistic drives there, Kurtz the journalist espoused those same altruistic ideals (which Marlow satirizes as the noble cause [23] and the cause of progress [24]) that his employers have mouthed in order to mitigate enslaving the natives to about facilitate their obsessive quest for gain. As in Conrad's An Outpost of Progress (1896) the manager's lofty intentions for his work at the jungle station were quickly perverted by the Darwinian ethos of the unfamiliar climate and environment, which shattered Kurtz's shallow European principles, leaving him the mere hollow shell of a civilized, rational being. In the wilderness Kurtz's integrity collapses; only the extremes of appetite and thesis conclusion, intellect, of together, savagery and idealism survive (Lynn 22).

Conrad makes plain the moral bankruptcy of the thesis introduction body system for which Kurtz stands by connecting him with Brussels, the city of the essay about dead (25) that in Marlow's reminiscence epitomizes European civilisation: a city that always makes me think of a whited sepulchre (24). In the above description Conrad alludes to Christ's characterization of his opponents, the New Testament's Pharisees, as whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful (i. e., “virtuous,” in Christ's context) outwardly, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness (Matthew 23: 27) spiritually. What the Saviour found so objectionable in his sectarian adversaries is thesis introduction body conclusion, what Marlow finds so repulsive in industrialisation the Belgian company: sheer hypocrisy. Just as the Pharisees maintained that they were solely concerned with the spiritual health of the body people of Israel but acted out of self-interest, so the Company hides its appetite for wealth and power behind empty platitudes about advancing the light of European civilisation through the darkness of the African jungle, and 'weaning those ignorant millions from their horrid ways' (26). When Marlow describes his city of departure . . . , white is immediately problematized for the reader. The color acquires not only sepulchral connotations but also moral dubiousness, Marlow's description recalling the Biblical phrase for the hypocrite, the essay man of inner darkness whitewashed by outer manner and conventional deed (Rosmarin 161). If Brussels seems a whited sepulchre and the Company presents an enlightened faade, the interior reality is thesis, Mr. Aphra! Kurtz, behind whom lurk death and desolation.

The marble fireplace of the Intended's parlour possesses a cold and thesis introduction, monumental whiteness (90), connecting this particular European interior with the general exterior of the society. The white of the middle-eastern tomb's exterior is the white of the African ivory, superficially attractive (in fact, the tombs were white-washed in order to be highly visible so that orthodox Jews might avoid ritual defilement by unwittingly coming too close): the inner truth is the stench of bones. Given over to the powers of darkness, Kurtz cannot restrain himself from misusing the tools afforded him by his race's superior technology the thunderbolts of that pitiful Jupiter (75) and assuming godhead. He becomes a savage better only in fire-power than those with whom he is in league. His sociopathic tendencies being given full play, Kurtz mercilessly murders and pillages to provide his firm with his quota of tusks most of it, significantly, disinterred fossil. The savagery behind the whole European commercial endeavour in Africa is symbolized by structure, the whitened skulls which ornament the introduction body conclusion pilings of his stockade like nobs on newel posts in respectable European homes.

The closing scene of The Heart of Darkness , Marlow's interview with the behn essays dead man's white Intended (a pale figure of delusion juxtaposed against the black Athena who had usurped her place for Kurtz at the Inner Station), leaves the reader with ambivalent feelings about Conrad's chief narrator. To his male auditors aboard the ‘Nellie' Marlow denies that his trifle (94), his gift of unspotted memory of her beloved, was of any significance. Although he is trying to spare her further anguish, he is simultaneously denying that the evils which Kurtz, the Company, and the pilgrims committed in thesis body conclusion the heart of darkness are still taking place. In fact, even after the follies the merry dance of death and trade (28) he has witnessed in Africa, Marlow values European colonialism as stabilizing There was a vast amount of red good to see at any time, because one knows that some real work is body language essay, done in there (24). Although he admits the debilitating effects of civilisation on the Congolese (even the muscles of his cannibal crew are gradually deteriorating under its influence), Marlow sees the system as setting positive constraints (a butcher round one corner, a policeman round another [63]) to introduction body conclusion individual conduct. Even in the sepulchral city (87) which he loathes, Marlow sees the descriptive first virtue of a system that permits people going about thesis body conclusion, their business in the assurance of perfect safety (87). He justifies his personal commitment to the former, unreal, idealistic and idealized Kurtz by essay on my, describing his impending lie as resulting from an impulse of thesis introduction conclusion, unconscious loyalty, or the fulfilment of one of those ironic necessities that lurk in the facts of human existence (89). Versus Living! One must wonder if the sort of lie that Marlow tells Kurtz's Intended was the same first step that Kurtz took on the path to self-destruction at the Inner Station.

Like Willa Cather's protagonist in her psychological study Paul's Case, Kurtz and thesis body, Marlow have looked into that dark place in the human psyche and know what lies there. Buddha-like, Marlow has come back from near death on essay integrity the Stygian shore to tell the world (in his mind, apparently a male construct), but feels an almost boyish reticence about revealing the horror of the thesis body conclusion darkness to the woman. Does he, as Moser has suggested, allow himself to be maneuvered into lying out of an outmoded, chivalric regard for the lady's sensibility, or does he feel that she is unworthy of (or incapable of understanding) the truth as it revealed itself to him through Kurtz at the heart of darkness? Or does he believe that someone must have his or her innocence maintained in order to sustain a worthwhile ideal that animates a workable system? If he had told the girl the simple facts, asserts Walter F. Wright, he would have acknowledged that the pilgrims in their cynicism had the language truth, that goodness and faith were the unrealities (159). Or is the lie an affirmation of Marlow's fellowship and solidarity with Kurtz, whom Marlow feels that he has no right to condemn?

The answers to Marlow's motivation are to be discovered in the nature of the lie itself and in the nature of the liar. Lies, of course, have proven indispensable to fabulists ever since Cain lied to body God in Genesis and Odysseus slipped out of industrialisation, one disguise into another in thesis introduction The Odyssey . But Marlow's lie is neither as wicked as Cain's (especially since it acknowledges his need to be the keeper of his spiritual brother's memory) nor as self-serving but justifiable as Odysseus's. At first glance there is the crucible integrity, neither gain to introduction body conclusion be achieved nor pain to language essay be avoided in Marlow's lying to the Intended. Marlow's lie is thesis body conclusion, neither the cowardly evasion of Cain, whose conduct evokes the reader's scorn, nor the cunning imposture of essay about, Odysseus, whose studied impersonations and self-control call forth the reader's admiration. Marlow's lie we judge as neither premeditated nor wilful. Rather, readers never doubt for introduction body conclusion a moment that, in Marlow's place, they would likewise have spared the Intended's feelings and made her a present of Kurtz's final words. And that is precisely the effect for which Conrad is striving: we would do just what Marlow did, even though, as moral, decent people, we too abhor lying and deceit. And yet we would be wrong, for in shielding her from the truth about persuasive essay structure, her fiancé Marlow is also insulating her from the Darwinian reality behind not only the African jungle, but also behind Brussels' impassive faade. Thesis Body! If Kurtz's Intended represents bourgeois European society, then Marlow has just joined those devious political and commercial interests who are keeping the essay on my flight middle-class consciousness from thesis conclusion, apprehending the European exploitation of Africa for what it is: a cultural, economic, and essay industrialisation, geographical rape. The Intended [and, by implication, European society as a whole] remains as unknowing of the truth as she always has, and remains a part of the foreboding darkness with which the story ends (Montag 97).

As a gentleman, Marlow feels that women are to be protected and insulated from any unpleasantness; as a closet misogynist, he states that the women are out of introduction body conclusion, touch with truth (27), that they are an intellectually inferior, impractical species incapable of dealing with any reality, let alone the brutal reality of the Belgian fiasco in Africa. Through keeping Kurtz's Intended from the truth of his death Marlow reinforces his own chivalric image of himself: he would rather be chivalrous and lie than be cruel and tell the truth, recognizing how sustaining for body her will be the illusion of a noble, sane, humane Kurtz. While Homer's epic voyager never has to lie to himself, even though he lies out of self-defense many times to others, Conrad's reflective mariner has trapped himself into doing and conclusion, being what he detests, and, in doing so, has also lied to himself about the crucible essay, his motives. It seems an body conclusion innocent, benignly-motivated deception, a mere 'white lie', but, as Rosmarin points out, in Heart of Darkness white is the the most explicit confusion (161) for the reader, since it is an off-color, the hue of ivory (upon which the whole European economic venture rests) and of Kurtz's complexion, a muddied, sullied white that, again to aphra quote Rosmarin, bespeaks contamination, a mutual transference between the spheres of morality and vision, between the self one is and the self one seems to be (162). As the story unfolds, Marlow reverses the normal symbology of the black-white dichotomy, so that gradually darkness comes to mean truth, whiteness falsehood. Ugly and harsh black as the body undisguised version of Kurtz's death would have been for her, without facing the horror of the art visual language darkness the Intended will never be free of her illusions about the man to whose memory she has consecrated with nun-like devotion (as suggested by her mourning dress over a year after his death) the rest of her life. Conrad's subtle insistence on introduction the whiteness of her forehead suggests that Marlow subconsciously now sees whiteness as a symbol of all those who suffer self-deception as well as a symbol of all those who practice self-deception (Brady 25). The implications for the complacent, white, middle-class, and emphatically male readers of Conrad's Congo tale in the patriarchal journal Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine are obvious.

We are brought to the realization that the pathways of the African jungle and the streets of Brussels, jungles and buildings, heat and cold, mysteries and commercial enterprise, are, as W. F. Wright remarks, mere symbols of the larger darkness, which is in the heart of man (160), a darkness in which lies the potential for evil and for good. Brady, Marion B. Conrad's Whited Sepulcher. College English 24, 1 (October, 1962): 24- 28. Conrad's Heart of Darkness and the Critics , ed. Bruce Harkness. Belmont, Cal.: Wadsworth, 1965. Dowden, Wilfred S. I Start with Definite Images. Joseph Conrad: The Imagined Style . Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1970.

Pp. Essay About Industrialisation! 39- 102. Hyland, Peter, The Little Woman in the Heart of Darkness . Thesis Body Conclusion! Conradiana 20, 1 (1988): 3-12. Joseph Conrad: Heart of essay, Darkness, A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism , ed. Ross C. Murfin. Introduction Body Conclusion! New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. Klein, Herbert G. Charting the Unknown: Conrad, Marlow, and the World of Women.

Conradiana 20, 2 (1988): 147-158. Lynn, David H. Heart of Darkness : Marlow's Heroic Cry. The Hero's Tale. Narrators in the Early Modern Novel . London: Macmillan, 1989. Pp. An Essay Versus! 1-27.

Montag, George E. Marlow Tells the Truth: The Nature of introduction body, Evil in Heart of Darkness . Conradiana 3, 2 (1971-72): 93-97. Moser, Thomas C. The Uncongenial Subject. Essay Flight! Joseph Conrad: Achievement and Decline. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957. Pp.

50-130. Rosmarin, Adena. Darkening the Reader: Reader- Response Criticism and Heart of Darkness . Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness: A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism , ed. Ross C. Introduction! Murfin. Body Art Visual Language! New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

Pp. 148-171. Smith, Johanna M. Smith. 'Too Beautiful Altogether': Patriarchal Ideology in Heart of Darkness . Joseph Conrad, Heart of thesis conclusion, Darkness: A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism , ed. Ross C. Murfin. New York: St.

Martin's Press, 1989. Pp. 179-198. Stewart, Garrett. Lying as Dying in Heart of language, Darkness . PMLA 95 (1980): 319- 331. Trilling, Lionel. Huckleberry Finn . The Liberal Imagination: Essays on Literature and Society . New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1950. Thesis Body Conclusion! Pp.

100-113. Wright, Walter F. Ingress to The Heart of Darkness . Romance and essay, Tragedy in Joseph Conrad . New York: Russell and Russell, 1966. Pp. 143-160.